As you know, the Internet is rife with security threats, and one such threat is IP address spoofing. During a typical IP address spoofing attempt, the attacker simply fakes the source of packets in order to appear as part of an internal network. Let's discuss three ways you can protect your organization from this type of attack.
Block IP addresses
The first step in preventing spoofing is blocking IP addresses that pose a risk. While there can be a reason that an attacker might spoof any IP address, the most commonly spoofed IP addresses are private IP addresses (RFC 1918) and other types of shared/special IP addresses.
Here's a list of IP addresses—and their subnet masks—that I would block from coming into my network from the Internet:
All of the above are either private IP addresses that aren't routable on the Internet or used for other purposes and shouldn't be on the Internet at all. If traffic comes in with one of these IP addresses from the Internet, it must be fraudulent traffic.
In addition, other commonly spoofed IP addresses are whatever internal IP addresses your organization uses. If you're using all private IP addresses, your range should already fall into those listed above. However, if you're using your own range of public IP addresses, you need to add them to the list.
The easiest way to prevent spoofing is using an ingress filter on all Internet traffic. The filter drops any traffic with a source falling into the range of one of the IP networks listed above. In other words, create an access control list (ACL) to drop all inbound traffic with a source IP in the ranges above.
Here's a configuration example:
Router# conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)# ip access-list ext ingress-antispoof Router(config-ext-nacl)# deny ip 10.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 any Router(config-ext-nacl)# deny ip 172.16.0.0 0.15.255.255 any Router(config-ext-nacl)# deny ip 192.168.0.0 0.0.255.255 any Router(config-ext-nacl)# deny ip 127.0.0.0 0.255.255.255 any Router(config-ext-nacl)# deny ip 220.127.116.11 18.104.22.168 any Router(config-ext-nacl)# deny ip 169.254.0.0 0.0.255.255 any Router(config-ext-nacl)# permit ip any any Router(config-ext-nacl)# exit Router(config)#int s0/0 Router(config-if)#ip access-group ingress-antispoof in
Internet service providers (ISPs) must use filtering like this on their networks, as defined in RFC 2267. Notice how this ACL includes permit ip any any at the end. In the "real world," you would probably have a stateful firewall inside this router that protects your internal LAN.
Of course, you could take this to the extreme and filter all inbound traffic from other subnets in your internal network to make sure that someone isn't on one subnet and spoofing traffic to another network. You could also implement egress ACLs to prevent users on your network from spoofing IP addresses from other networks. Keep in mind that this should be just one part of your overall network security strategy.
Use reverse path forwarding (ip verify)
Another way to protect your network from IP address spoofing is reverse path forwarding (RPF)—or ip verify. In the Cisco IOS, the commands for reverse path forwarding begin with ip verify.
RPF works much like part of an anti-spam solution. That part receives inbound e-mail messages, takes the source e-mail address, and performs a recipient lookup on the sending server to determine if the sender really exists on the server the message came from. If the sender doesn't exist, the server drops the e-mail message because there's no way to reply to the message—and it's very likely spam.
RPF does something similar with packets. It takes the source IP address of a packet received from the Internet and looks up to see if the router has a route in its routing table to reply to that packet. If there's no route in the routing table for a response to return to the source IP, then someone likely spoofed the packet, and the router drops the packet.
Here's how to configure RPF on your router:
Router(config)# ip cef Router(config)# int serial0/0 Router(config-if)# ip verify unicast reverse-path
Note that this won't work on a multi-homed network.
It's important to protect your private network from attackers on the Internet. These three methods can go a long way toward protecting against IP address spoofing. For more information on IP address spoofing, read "IP Address Spoofing: An Introduction."
Is IP address spoofing a major concern for your organization? What steps have you taken to protect the company? Have you used RPF? Share your experiences in this article's discussion.
Miss a column?
Check out the Cisco Routers and Switches Archive, and catch up on David Davis' most recent columns.
Want to learn more about router and switch management? Automatically sign up for our free Cisco Routers and Switches newsletter, delivered each Friday!
David Davis has worked in the IT industry for 12 years and holds several certifications, including CCIE, MCSE+I, CISSP, CCNA, CCDA, and CCNP. He currently manages a group of systems/network administrators for a privately owned retail company and performs networking/systems consulting on a part-time basis.