Linux

10 Linux desktops you shouldn't overlook

Even if you're happy with the Linux desktop you currently use, you might want to check out some alternatives to see what you could be missing. Jack Wallen highlights 10 of the best desktops here and explains what makes them stand out.

Even if you're happy with the Linux desktop you currently use, you might want to check out some alternatives to see what you could be missing. Jack Wallen highlights 10 of the best desktops and explains what makes them stand out.


If you know Linux, you know there are tons of options on every level. To some, this might seem overwhelming at first. To others, it's all about possibility. The desktop is certainly not without options. In fact, the Linux desktop might very well be the area where there are the most options. But for a lot of users, desktop selection doesn't usually go beyond KDE or GNOME. With this article, I hope to help the average Linux user get beyond the standard fare.

Note: This information is also available as a PDF download.

#1: Enlightenment

I have to confess I put this at the top of the list because it is my favorite Linux desktop. This desktop is all about being full of eye candy, while at the same time being lightweight and fast. Enlightenment was created by Carston Haitzler (Raster) in 1996. He created Enlightenment to be a lightweight window manager that didn't lack style. He succeeded (and then some).

Currently, Enlightenment is enjoying two releases: E16 and DR17. E16 is the current stable release and DR17 is the development release. The two releases are very different from one another. DR16 takes a far more minimalist approach to the desktop than DR17 does. Without Panels and Icons, the DR16 desktop is made up of three mouse menus (one for each button), an Iconbox (where windows are Iconified -- or minimized), a Pager (to switch between desktops), and  the Dragbar (which allows you to have desktops layered on top of one another.)

The DR17 release removes the Iconbox and the Pager and adds Shelves, which are Panels that house application launchers, pagers, clocks, etc. Even with the creation of a more standard desktop, DR17 retains its uniqueness as well as its speed. If you're looking to give DR16 a try, you can install it via the standard Linux installation methods. Your best bet for DR17 is to give the gOS Rocket or the EliveCD distributions a try. And you should... it's that cool.

#2: AfterStep

This is another of my favorite Linux desktops. Or at least it was back in early days of Linux. This desktop attracted me because it was one of the first (back around 1998) to use transparency. AfterStep was actually a fork of FVWM rebuilt to resemble the NeXTSTEP desktop. Like FVWM, AfterStep is light, quick, and can be as minimalist (or not) as you like. The main features of AfterStep are a mouse menu, Pager, Wharf (a dock-like applet), and the Winlist (a panel showing active applications). AfterStep is highly configurable via flat text files (so configuration requires getting to know the layout of configuration files.)

Currently AfterStep is enjoying the 2.2.8 release and is headed up by Sasha Vasko. One of the best aspects of AfterStep is the ability to granularly configure the look and feel. From timing of auto-raising windows to placement of titlebars (titlebars can be placed along a horizontal or vertical plane), AfterStep can be configured to a much higher level than most other window managers. You can install AfterStep your usual way. For example, in Mandriva, run the command urpmi AfterStep to install.

#3: Fluxbox

Fluxbox is probably one of the lightest of the lightweight window managers for Linux. It's lightening fast and incredibly stable. Fluxbox shines in bringing new life to old hardware. And Fluxbox is a gift for those who prefer a minimalist approach to the desktop. Fluxbox is a fork of the Blackbox window manager and was created out of a need to add more features to Blackbox.

The Fluxbox desktop contains a mouse menu, a toolbar, and the Slit. The Slit is a small dock where self-contained applets reside. All basic configurations are handled via flat text configuration files. This manual configuration includes everything from the theme to the menu. To give you an idea of the size of the Fluxbox window manager, the rpm installation file is 1,196 KB. To put this into perspective, the KDE 4 install base is 644.2 MB.

Installing Fluxbox is simple. You can either search for Fluxbox in your graphical installation application (such as Synaptic or Yumex) or you can install via command line (for example: urpmi fluxbox in Mandriva.) If you're not into installing on your own, you can try the Ubuntu-based distribution, dedicated to Fluxbox, aptly named Fluxbuntu.

#4: XFCE

XFCE is quietly gaining ground on the Linux desktop with help from Zonbu, Mythbuntu, Slackware, and Gentoo. It's another lightweight desktop that has a more traditional desktop approach, with icons, panels, start menus, and system trays. The XFCE desktop is far less configurable than many of its peers. XFCE was created to be very modular so you can install as much or as little as you want. XFCE is also separated into applications: XFWM (the XFCE window manager), Xfmedia (the XFCE media player), Orage (the XFCE calendaring application), and Thunar (the file management tool). It is interesting to note that Thunar is also now the file manager for Enlightenment DR17.

Installing XFCE is as simple as running urpmi xfce (in Mandriva) or opening up your graphical installation tool and searching for XFCE. If installing isn't for you, you can download a number of distributions (Gentoo and Slackware for example.) The Mythbuntu Media Center distribution also relies on XFCE for a desktop.

#5: Compiz/Compiz Fusion

When you talk Compiz, you're talking full-blown, eye-popping 3D desktop goodness. Compiz/Compiz Fusion (they are actually two different projects) is the one desktop to install when 1) you have the hardware for it and 2) you REALLY want to impress your friends and family. Compiz is the original 3D Linux desktop. Compiz Fusion is a merging of Compiz and the now-defunct Beryl Project. Both of these projects mimic some of the features of Apple's OS X but take them to new places.

One of the most amazing features of Compiz and Compiz Fusion is the Cube. The Cube takes the flat Linux pager metaphor (the ability to have multiple desktops) and folds the desktops into a three dimensional cube. With a click of the middle mouse button the desktop cube zooms out and you can rotate the cube to the cube face you want to work on. Add to this the ability to make the cube (and everything on the desktop) translucent and you have a very impressive desktop.

Installing Compiz isn't for the faint of heart. It requires a number of pieces to be put together, a video card that supports AIGLX, and some patience. But the time and effort are very much rewarded with one of the coolest desktops to date. If you don't want to take the time to install, you can give the latest Mandriva or the latest OpenSuSE a go. With the right hardware, you should have a working 3D desktop upon installation.

#6: IceWM

The developers of IceWM are proud of the fact that this lightweight window manager shares absolutely no code with any other window manager (written completely in C++). IceWM can be made compliant with GNOME and can use Imlib for graphics support. IceWM is a fairly straightforward window manager with few frills. The desktop is a panel, a start menu, a system tray, and a pager, and that's it. IceWM is as configurable as any standard window manager but doesn't boast the eye candy that Enlightenment or AfterStep does. But unlike Enlightenment DR16, IceWM does have a graphical control center for configurations. IceWM is easily installed via the command like (for example yum install icewm in Fedora).

#7: Windowmaker

Another NeXT-based window manager, Windowmaker took what NeXT did right and did not add FVWM on top. Windowmaker is yet another lightweight, super-fast, highly stable Linux window manager. It takes a minimalist approach but does support most image formats, and it has sliding application menus that can be torn off and pinned. (You can break off a submenu and anchor it to the desktop, leaving it open until you manually close it.) All configuration changes happen in real time. Windowmaker does have a dock where applications can be launched, but it's not the shadowed, animated dock found in OS X. Windowmaker can be installed via command line, as in urpmi windowmaker in Mandriva, or it can be found in the package administration tools, such as Synaptic.

#8: Metacity

For one brief period, Metacity was the window manager used in the GNOME desktop. Eventually, Metacity broke out on its own. Created by Havoc Pennington (of Red Hat), Metacity uses the GTK+2 toolkit. Pennington has described Metacity as "intentionally boring" even without a logo. Metacity does not include numerous features. Instead, it glaringly boasts "good defaults." One would describe Metacity as a typical old school UNIX-like window manager. In fact, it's clean to the point of being almost sterile. But that doesn't mean it is without merit.

Metacity is lightweight and fast. It is also very much a *NIX window manager, in that it can be installed in nearly all *NIX operating systems. Many distributions (such as Mandriva) install Metacity by default. If Metacity is not installed by default, it can be installed by command (such as yum install metacity) or it can be found in the package administration tool.

#9: FVWM

FVWM was, at one time, the dominant window manager for the Linux operating system. In fact, my first exposure to Linux was the FVWM window manager, and I distinctly remember how like Windows 98 it was -- though not as "clean." FVWM has an interesting history. Robert Nation was the creator back in 1993. He was tired of the limitations of one of the only UNIX window managers, TWM, during his work with the DoD. Nation had already created the rxvt terminal emulator and decided to bundle FVWM with a release of rxvt. He handed FVWM over to another developer a year after its release.

The current version of FVWM is 2.4.20, but interestingly enough, Nation's last release, 1.24r, will still compile and run on modern Linux distributions. FVWM has a number of derivatives, including AfterStep, Enlightenment, and Windowmaker. To install FVWM, just run apt-get install fvwm and accept the dependencies.

#10: CDE

CDE isn't really a Linux desktop, but it deserves mention because it heavily influenced so many Linux desktops. CDE (Common Desktop Environment) was created by a collaboration between Sunsoft, HP, IBM, and USL (a collaboration called The Open Group) in 1993. This new desktop was based on HP Visual User Environment and was derived from the Motif Window Manager. For a long period, CDE was the standard UNIX desktop environment. But in 2001, it was briefly phased out in favor of GNOME (until GNOME's instability caused the return of CDE).

CDE is a fairly standard desktop consisting of a panel and start menu. Its biggest downfall is its antiquated UNIX-like look, lack of anti-alias font support, and confusing configuration. CDE is primarily a Solaris desktop but will install on AIX and HP-UX.

A world of options

And there you have it: 10 Linux desktops (well, nine, really, plus one UNIX) that are all very different, very usable, and very available. You may be happy with your current desktop, but if you really are a fan of Linux, you owe it to yourself to try out one or more of the ones described here. There are plenty more Linux desktops; but these are the best alternatives. Give them a try and report back here to let us know your favorite.

About

Jack Wallen is an award-winning writer for TechRepublic and Linux.com. He’s an avid promoter of open source and the voice of The Android Expert. For more news about Jack Wallen, visit his website getjackd.net.

18 comments
tthurman
tthurman

"For one brief period, Metacity was the window manager used in the GNOME desktop." Um, it still is.

CharlieSpencer
CharlieSpencer

As you know, we Windows users pretty much get two choices: the XP or Vista default, depending on which we run, or the "Classic" mode (Microsoftese for the W2K GUI.) We can load themes and other minor adaptations, but completely replacing the desktop isn't an option. As such, it's difficult for some of us to evaluate to what makes a 'good' or 'bad' desktop. What criteria do you use when considering whether you like or dislike a new GUI?

lefty.crupps
lefty.crupps

An article on Desktops without screenshots? A lot of these are actually window managers, not 'desktops' -- Metacity, Enlightenment, Compiz, and (i think some of the) others can be used with KDE or Gnome to manage the windows on your screen rather than replacing KDE or Gnome.

jsprat42
jsprat42

Doesn't Xubuntu also use xfce?

techirv
techirv

Even my 67 old mother only took 10 minutes to be talked through Compiz install what is the default desktop enviroment on ubuntu?

Neon Samurai
Neon Samurai

interface clutter - is it just a blank desktop with menu off a button click (very nice to work with actually) - is it only a warf across the bottom or are there more than just the "start menu" bar along an edge of the screen? (Gnome's top and bottom bars as an example). - GNOME allows some manipulation but if your a settings slut, KDE can be used as is or easily explored. Flexability - can I only modify the background and basic colours or can I go all out if I want too? Desktop, window frame themes, windowed program surfaces; all seporately themable. Native software - KDE is QT based where GNOME is GTK based so if you run more GTK based applications GNOME is probably a better choice. I like my K3B and other QT based apps so KDE is a more native environment though I also have GTK based applications with the minimal GNOME libraries installed to support them. - lineage also. I came from Afterstep moving to Enlightenment and on the KDE. Enlightenment had a "KDE compatibility" setting which basically make it work with QT apps better and I got used to it. Between that and the different default apearances; KDE was my preference. UI differences - does it offer multiple desktops and if so, how or are there similar functions not available too you before? - does it fit your hardware resources or are you willing to live with slow performance? (fluxbox and XFCE are so much lighter on the hardware than KDE and GNOME). With Afterstep, it was because it was more pleasent to look at than WM and because the configuration was a single and easily understandable config file. Enlightenment was because of the graphic flexability in theming and first time I'd seen holes in a window decoration. I don't mean a transparency but clicking on the space effected the window behind the forground since I was clicking through a hole in the it's bordering. KDE, because it was more native to the distribution install, supported the apps I like and presented a layout I liked and has all those lovely settings to tinker with if I don't like something. Now, on my N810, the window manager is a GTK based relation to GNOME and with that device, it works great. I could install Debian with KDE or Android but I'm happy with the native Maemo distribution designed for the hardware. In the Windows world, I stick with IE as a window manager. I don't spend enough time or have the motivation to theme Windows desktops these days and when I did back in the day, I could never find a window manager replacement that wasn't broken somehow. I'd love to see true multiple desktops that IE can deal with but currently it's an addon function and one that's yet to be done cleanly.

bruceslog
bruceslog

just try it, and see if it works for you... if you like it, keep it, and then you've satisfied the criteria of knowing which is the best one. if you don't like it, uninstall it and try another. It's all offered to you for free so you can try them all and find the one that works best for you.

jlwallen
jlwallen

basically a window manager is in charge of drawing windows and menus. a desktop has a window manager and other tools that turn it into an integrated environment. a window manager can be run on its own like Enlightenment, Afterstep, Fluxbox, etc. but sometimes suffer from a lack of integration with applications like OpenOffice, Firefox, etc. of course window managers can be MADE to integrate. AND some window managers are evolving into desktops. Enlightenment E17 is a perfect example of this.

Dumphrey
Dumphrey

of a Desktop environment. The manger handles menus and open/close/move/positioning windows. The DE adds extra themes and applications and provides a unified "look" for applications so skin-able.

nicholas.mathew31
nicholas.mathew31

GNOME is the default desktop for Ubuntu. It can also be installed with the ubuntu-desktop package. To learn more about Ubuntu, Ubuntu Desktop Edition With Ubuntu Desktop Edition you can surf the web, read email, create documents and spreadsheets, edit images and much more. Ubuntu has a fast and easy graphical installer right on the Desktop CD. On a typical computer the installation should take you less than 25 minutes. Mathew

lastchip
lastchip

Default is Gnome. Kubuntu is KDE and Xubuntu is Xfce :-)

DoubleJava
DoubleJava

If you want "clean" multiple desktops on Windows then check out the relatively new (Aug 2008) "Desktops v1.0" from the Sysinternals guys. Not everyone will like it (e.g. it is really like multiple desktops rather than just one big virtual desktop), but it is solid and fast. Here is the link: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/cc817881.aspx Cheers.

CharlieSpencer
CharlieSpencer

I think this ties in with the discussion about Windows themes. I realized I don't really do anything to a desktop other than slap up some wallpaper. I don't change icons or fonts. I assume if I was running Linux on a more regular basis I'd just use whatever the default desktop is, although I dislike multiple bars as a waste of screen space. I haven't heard the terms QT or GTK before and don't understand what you mean by an app being based in one or the other.

Neon Samurai
Neon Samurai

With VMs these days, you can easily install a test system then add in as many window managers as your interested in: echo "Enlightenment" > ~/.xinitrc startx echo "kde" > ~/.xinitrc startx echo "xfce" > ~/.xinitrc startx I believe you can also specify the window manager as a command switch too startx if you prefer to avoid the .xinitrc setting. Heck, as you point out, install a bunch on the physical machine and uninstall what you don't like. Install a few you like for different work sessions even. There are some really interesting managers out there beyond GNOME, KDE, WindowManager, fvm, xfce, Enlightenment and Afterstep.

CharlieSpencer
CharlieSpencer

We've got a couple of discussions going here about multiple desktop tools. I recommend either VirtuaWin or dexpot. Both have smaller footprints, more options, and allow more desktops than the Sysinternals application.

Neon Samurai
Neon Samurai

I opened a browser on one desktop then open a second browser window on another and it had a fit. I'm ok with a new url being sent on over to an existing browser on another desktop but a new window should open where it is requested.

Neon Samurai
Neon Samurai

GTK = GIMP Tool Kit which is the widgets and other libraries that GNOME and GTK based programs use. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gtk QT = (no idea of the long form) is the widgets and libraries used by KDE and other QT based programs like K3B (what nero burning rom wants to grow up to be), Korganizer and such. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qt_(toolkit) Ncurses is a good library to use providing various functions within a GUI X environment or text only terminal. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ncurses In the same way, Windows is based on win32 and win64 libraries though win16 libraries could also be chosen I guess. I believe the QT base is also compiled to run on the Windows platform. I know GTK is. Both QT and GTK applications are readily available for install or as portable apps anyhow. I personally tend to prefer the look and feel of QT applications over GTK but I suspect that's more to do with themes and the specific application designs than the underlying libraries. (edit): That QT link is broken, you'll have to copy it over manually including the "(toolkit)" at the end.