Collaboration optimize

Can you really complain about your workload?

Here's why some people don't see anything wrong with surfing the net for personal reasons while at work.

A letter from a Career Management reader:

I have a coworker who, at least once a day, IMs me with a complaint about how much work she had to do. This same person sends me links to articles that aren't work related or tells me something she's found out on some TV fan site.

The irony of complaining about a workload and then using work time to do personal surfing is lost on her. I think on some level she believes that since all her work happens online that being online for any reason is within her rights and that the whole shebang counts in the workday. How can she expect to get any sympathy for working too much when she does so much nonwork-related stuff?

I've seen some of this myself. In her defense, here are a couple of reasons that she feels this way. First of all, studies have shown that women are better at multitasking than men. In other words, if she can do four different things at one time then she doesn't feel that her surfing is taking away from her work time.

In addition, I learned that this particular person is a millennium (born between roughly 1982 and 2002). This is a group of ever-connected people who have grown up with computers. Their brains don't differentiate between the things they're doing online. They can IM a friend about lunch while they're writing some tech documentation. To this woman, checking Facebook is as normal (and as part of the workday) as her 50-year-old boss checking his watch.

Now having defended her reasoning a bit, I have to say that she also has to make a conscious effort about how others perceive her. She has to understand how her sending a funny YouTube video to her boss while also complaining about a workload could come across, especially if that boss is the 50-year-old watch checker. He, or a coworker, might think that she is clueless or that she has a sense of entitlement. If she wants to spot-check her Facebook page 30 times a day or spend some time over on LOLCats, she should keep it to herself, especially if she is complaining of being overworked.

About

Toni Bowers is Managing Editor of TechRepublic and is the award-winning blogger of the Career Management blog. She has edited newsletters, books, and web sites pertaining to software, IT career, and IT management issues.

125 comments
Gh0stMaker
Gh0stMaker

Were they multitasking when they signed the I.T. company procedures that states you can and will be fired if found surfing non business web sites?

mhysnm1964
mhysnm1964

Interesting article. Sorry, regardless of when someone is born. They should have good work ethics. This means they should be spending the time doing the tasks they are employed for, not reviewing personal information. New studies shows that no one does multi-tasking. Therefore, saying women does multi-task is in correct. What occurs is that we take about 2 seconds to switch between the tasks we do. Women might appear to do this better then men. But they are not multi-tasking.

Rymech99
Rymech99

Sometimes Multi-tasking is not the point...as any student of the Theory of Constraints can tell you, sometimes waiting for the next task *is* the best use of your time. If a critical task is headed your way, you may be better off *not* starting another less-critical task, because you will need 100% focus the second the top task arrives (assuming any "setup" time is taken care of). And yes, it works for Accounting or Drafting just like it does for manufacturing. Additionally, while I'm not condoning "goofing off," sending irrelevant YouTube videos around, or not bearing your share of the load, sometimes outside observers do not know the extent of the other individuals' job requirements. My tech job involves a lot of general research, lots of which are supplier videos, hosted (you guessed it) on YouTube. There are competitive teardown videos or reviews of products or new technologies there as well. Playing games or having conversations with coworkers is also a relevant experience, or Google, Apple, Facebook & Microsoft wouldn't have foosball or air-hockey tables on site...they serve to "reset the mind" or let ideas incubate. Their workers also tend to log 75+ hour work weeks, so a 45 minute game of foosball isn't "stealing from the company" that technically is contracting for a 45-50 hour/week job (even less in the EU). My employer also both "expects" and allows that I do work from home, over weekends, early mornings, late evenings, while on planes, in airports, make allowances for working with different US and global timezones, answer blackberry messages, etc. So yes, I believe that checking my personal email or purchsing a book on Amazon between 9a-5p EST is acceptable, and you can still be legitimately overburdened with/by work at the same time. Lastly, visiting forums such as this help inform me on tangential information that helps me be a better resource for my employer than if I just kept my head down & appeared to shuffle paper. Now back to my daily multi-tasking... :-) PS- There are probably typos & grammar errors in this post & english is my first (and sadly, only) fluent language, but I believe any errors do not detract from the content of my post...so there.

cfbandit
cfbandit

Why doesn't the writer talk to her and ask her what she finds is so demanding in her workload? Perhaps the real problem is that she has a boss that demands 10 minutes of time ASAP and then doesn't give her anything else. I've been in that situation before - you spend most of your time diddling around until they need something, and then it looks like you're only do 10% work and 90% other, when its really like you're doing 100% of what's asked but you still have 90% of your time leftover. Personally, I would talk to my supervisor and explain that I don't approve of getting these stupid Youtube and joke emails and such, so that my supervisor and the other person's supervisor can have a conversation. That way the other supervisor can talk to the person and find out if its really she's just surfing the net all day and barely working, or if her workload needs re-organizing. In my case, I spend a lot of time online because I don't have enough of a workload. I try my best, in fact, I go seeking problems to solve often. But there's a certain point where you hit the wall and there's nothing else to do. At least when I'm typing I look busy!

LocoLobo
LocoLobo

Is it just simple planning and organization? Allocating resources including blocks of time? I'm more interested in this than getting in between a boss who feels he has lost control and an employee who feels she's overworked.

JuliaX111
JuliaX111

Around me every day I watch people who have trouble doing 2 things at once. Some even have trouble walking and breathing at the same time. Lucky for me I'm a volunteer so if I want to spend an hour goofing off and just roaming things which may or may not be relevant thats up to me. Usually I'm reading something which does mean something to me or to work, though to an outside observer the connection may be very remote.

AnsuGisalas
AnsuGisalas

I think the complaints about how much work she has to do are really meant to be a statement that "I work hard". That person is also underestimating their managers' ability to put two and two together.

Ninja1507
Ninja1507

2 big thumbs up, I can;t agree more, plus for some people, you get stumped on a project your working on, you take a surf break while you think it over and go back to it. Usually my best solutions have come while reading news or watching some random youtube video.

binaryme
binaryme

Just a silly little test: +1 this post if you are currently "multitasking" by reading or replying to this thread on the boss's time.

kasbb86
kasbb86

I'm sorry, but I don't buy the multi-tasking argument/excuse. I'm a Tech Manager and Engineer of 30 years, and I manage boomers, millenials, Xgen, Ygen and offshore workers. You have to have a uniform standard for all employees. Frankly put, tending to personal business on company time is theft. While I've never measured the two activities, a glance at a watch is not remotely the same as updating your facebook status to "Tiffany is overworked at the office".

MikeGall
MikeGall

I find when I'm doing creative things like designing a program that I'm working on that I need to switch focus every once and a while. When I get stuck I find that sitting around thinking in circles doesn't work I need to have another task to switch over to for 20 min or so and then come back at the problem. I think the context switch actually helps me in this case because I don't remember exactly what I was thinking when I was last working on the problem and accidentally attack the problem from a new angle (which often stops me from going in circles again). Also a huge amount of peoples work day is spent waiting on things. Yeah you got to get that PO out but your waiting on the vendor to give you a call back with a quote. So you start something else and aren't sure what is needed so you email your boss. Back to the PO nope nothing yet. So while you have two things to work on neither of which you can do anything about until someone else's dependent task is complete. Are you sure this might not be the case with your co-worker? As an aside: I find the expectation of continual communication forces people to do personal things during the workday now. I get calls all the time saying: "call us back during work hours" and such. For things I have to do like set up deliveries of stuff to my house, get an appointment for a contractor etc. But also personal things family emails you at night and goes crazy if it takes a full 24hrs for you to reply back because you've gone to bed and aren't going to check your personal email until you get home from work the next day. It is just assumed that you're never more than 2 hours between emails.

premiertechnologist
premiertechnologist

James Patrick Kelly in his column, On the Net, in the article, New Brains for Old, in "Asimov's Science Fiction" of March 2011, writes about the studies which have been done which demonstrate that the visual capabilities of television, video games and the Internet have a cost: lost deep processing -- mindful knowledge acquisition, inductive analysis, critical thinking, imagination and reflection. People are becoming increasingly distracted and assume they are getting better at "multitasking" when it is absolutely not so and proved to be wrong in the studies. There is a lack of concentration, difficulty in concentration, tendency to skip and skim and a struggle to read and comprehend entire books. The Internet is transforming us into "multitaskers" and "heavy media multitaskers" who have performed worse on a test of task-switching ability -- due to reduced ability to filter out interference from the irrelevant task set. So the truth is that there is an impression of being able to multitask -- but it is mere psychotic illusion, and the objective critical tests and experiments demonstrate that the self-assessment of the person who believes they are capable of multitasking is so much bull and self-deception. Employers have to ask themselves the question of whether or not they prefer the attractive young smarmy socially networked incompetents who have the attention span of a CEO or Congressman, or whether they really want someone who can concentrate and does a fine job through intense concentration -- the handful of people who can still read a book of more than 400 pages with no pictures with concentration all the way through. Can these fly-brained triumphs of image over substance be trusted to draw a salary when something life critical is involved: It would be wise to check their work. Twice. Carefully. I think we all know the answer to which employers prefer today, and it's reflected in the failure of many businesses to remain solvent without bailouts.

minstrelmike
minstrelmike

Most people coming out of college today OR 30 years ago weren't that great. MOST PEOPLE. Nothing's changed. Instead of surfing today, they hung out at the water cooler and complained about how busy they were. If her output is worth the money, live with it. If not, don't. The rest of it is just plain old human nature and got nothing to do with millennials or the web. I'll bet the sailor's on the Pequod exhibited exactly the same kind of behavior. Complaining isn't the same as working but it certainly provides a good appearance of working.

navyhatch
navyhatch

..to read all the Posts following the article...but I will comment on one aspect...This site obviously has a world wide audience...and sometimes we can't "see" where someone is from by their username. So I as an arrogant USA citizen will apologize to those who may have been hammered by the insensitivity of some posters who complain that "your" spelling and grammar lack something....as I say - sometimes things are lost in the translation - figuratively and literally. We are beginning to embrace (for the last 40 years at least, though no one will admit to it) a World Economy!!! It might behoove some of us to get down off our High Horse and start acting like adults.... Oh and I raise my hand as reading at work....

NWHikerOR
NWHikerOR

Raise your hand if you are reading this article at work (raises hand). :D edit: Oh geez, someone beat me to it!!

srini_soma
srini_soma

We have to verify how work is assigned, work tracked and helped to complete work. We really can't track each and every person whether they are working or browsing. Simple way is to assign work and verify whether task is completed or not. This helps reviewing work than policing their work.

erik.vanasch@pearson.com
erik.vanasch@pearson.com

In no particular order. . . Layer #1: You have those that can effectively parallel task = juggle attention and activity of two or more activities at once. You have those that can effectively serial task = can immediately stop action on one activity, switch entire attention to another, then stop and return to the first or even start a 3rd activity. Always knowing exactly where they left off with the previous tasks. Now there are people who are effective at both or NOT effective at either. Layer #2: Then you have people who can't prioritize their way out of a brown paper bag. They haven't even started to attempt to parallel task or serial task, but look at the things they need to do and don't know what needs to get their attention first. This inability to prioritize is compounded the minute they begin to parallel / serial task. Layer #3: Decisiveness (different than prioritization) plays a part in this as I've been in or heard of meetings where the group spends 2+ hrs just to decide a font type to use. This demonstration of one's lack of decisiveness probably permeates their day-to-day tasks and without a quorum to help them get things decided they become grossly ineffective in whittling down their to-do list One area I've seen all three layers demonstrated is on the Helpdesk. You have agents who can collect information with the customer, document while speaking with the customer and begin opening browser windows to start the troubleshooting process. These are the highest achievers. Then you have those that can't and they are always at the bottom of the achievement pool for that particular job. It doesn't make them bad people or even bad employees, just not a great fit for a position that is better suited to someone who can function in all 3-layers. In the end, all these layers may contribute to someone's to-do list growing and their panicked sense that they are overworked. Their perception becomes skewed because they don't know how to self assess and make changes to their daily modus operendi in the three layers listed above. Effective self-assessment now becomes Layer #4.

XDotNet
XDotNet

You take the same boring support call, lets say walking a user through changing a printer cartrige, 5 times a day for 5 years. Takes 20 minutes of time and zero thought for the support tech. But he's got to sit there on the phone and babysit the process (not his decision). Whats wrong with reading about your favorite sports team, movie or Darth Vader vs Dumbledore fan fiction? Are people afraid the tech might be slightly happier in their job or that the tech, whom you have spent years training might stick around? Does every little aspet of work have to be without joy?

tech
tech

Working in IT, I multitask all the time, but they are always low level tasks, not programming, or writing a budget or... Sure I could do it, but my code would not be as good, my budget might leave out something important. But I will update 4 servers at once, and take a help desk call. More importantly though, the company you work for PAYS for YOUR TIME. You are cheating the company if you are splitting your time between yourself and the company. If you are multi-tasking on three work related jobs, that is one thing if you are multitasking on one work related task and two personal tasks that is another thing entirely!

jose.montenegro
jose.montenegro

If one person delivers in due time the job she has to do with the correct results, where is the problem on she doing something else during this time? On the other hand if the job is poorly done or consistently released late, then it has to be pointed to this person and if required go for more drastic decisions. In case the colleagues, bosses or other coworkers are annoyed by being spamed with jokes, emails or youtube videos, they can tell it to the person annoying them. I don't think we need to make general cases of this, just treat them following the pure results. If you allocate job positions for something that can be done in less time that a company is paying for, it means this task is not being properly managed. I do agree that some young persons mix the mastering of technology with the familiarity of usage. Once again assigning properly tasks to them and evaluating them at the right moment will put them back on track. Believe me it works, I experienced it myself in previous positions.

jdm12
jdm12

Very interesting discussion, and not one psychologist in the bunch. A couple of years ago, a psychologist friend of mine (Ph.D., researcher) laughingly told me that "this multi-tasking thing is all a myth." She said quite simply a person cannot truly multi-task. Nevertheless, the debate rages on. I think the book is still open on the subject, but what I find most interesting is that the notion has become part of the lexicon with the advent of the digitized work place and women entering that same work place in record numbers. Women have always been thought of as multi-taskers: taking care of the baby while fixing a meal and carrying on a conversation. But men certainly multi-task as well, as any number have proven when driving a manual transmission car. How well one performs, however, and exactly what one owes his/her employer are different questions. Many employers still operate under the notion that they should only pay employees enough to keep them from quitting because employees inevitably only work hard enough to keep from being fired.

jlcrowe
jlcrowe

I know you need "filler" articles occasionally but this wasnt worth the time it took write it. Toni Bowers, the award-winning writer and Head Blogs Editor for TechRepublic would have made better use of her time surfing the internet. Pick up the pace TechRepublic and dont send me filler crap just so you have a newsletter to push to my email box.

delphi9_1971
delphi9_1971

If humans could really multitask, why then does auto accident research show that texting and driving is as bad as driving drunk? I would argue that if people could really multitask then these statistics would show a different result. That said, I think the ultimate problem with the millennials are that they were born out of a culture where you get a trophy for just showing up to the sporting events. Where every Boy/Girl Scout gets an achievement badge. This mentality does not teach these younger workers how to deal with adversity or failure. Rather it teaches that they should be rewarded for just showing up. The work part then becomes an annoyance and interferes with their own personal agenda. We've taught a generation of young folks that you don't need to work hard, you just need to show up and that is what is really wrong with this country and why we're falling behind in the world.

brad
brad

I can sleep and snore at the same time (according to my wife), but I cannot sleep and drive at the same time (according to the police). I suspect that the most proficient mult-tasker cannot do some things well at the same time.

markp24
markp24

If you hire a person to do job X and you see them doing job X but also Y and Z. Wouldn't that upset you that you are basically paying them and with multi tasking there is the chance that Job X will now take longer since it is time sharing with other tasks? I have found my self making more errors and putting out a lower quality of work when multitasking. I find if i work on one item (and that one item may be multi tasked but is all related to the same task, So yes multitasking has it place) my work is better. But if i multitask across unrelated items, then i find my self backtracking a bit to find where i left off between the tasks.(And Yes I am handed multiple tasks from different groups, all expected to be done simultaneously) I hope that makes sense.

floydbr
floydbr

I agree it would be nice if one could finish one task before starting another, but many of us do not have jobs that allow that. We must answer inquiries, answer the phone, or handle whatever urgent item comes up. "Multitasking" is not optional for many of us. It is required.

James.Heiney
James.Heiney

While people can mutli-task, it is always quicker to do separate tasks one at a time. The focus that is given to individual tasks allows them to be accomplished more quickly. Many so-called "excellent multi-taskers" claim that this isn't true, but that is because the end result of their multi-tasking is that their work is of lower quality than it would be if they devoted time to the tasks individually. The demands that are placed on most of us at work these days don't always allow the luxury of not having to deal with incoming calls or urgent emails while working on something else, so it is good to try to develop some sense of being able to juggle multiple tasks at once. Just don't ever fool yourself into thinking that the end result is of the same quality or that you are accomplishing your tasks more quickly. A little distraction at work, ala facebook or surfing the web, while subtracting from actual work hours completed, can be beneficial since it provides a mental break than can allow us to return to a task somewhat refreshed. It shouldn't be confused with multi-tasking though.

LonePalm58
LonePalm58

My blood pressure elevates when I hear that term---yet one more contribution to the modern lexicon via computers that is absolute nonsense when it's applied to non-digital humans. It is physically impossible to do two seperate physical tasks at once. In the example cited, you might be using an IM client whilst a document is open, but there is no possibilty of using I'M *and* writing a document simultaneously. If you mean the ability of some persons to juggle multiple assignments, that's a different story. But then some wag will ask if I have the bandwidth to time-share, and I'll have to start practising my relaxation techniques, so I won't bring that up.

Jacqinabox
Jacqinabox

Women are not better at multi-tasking than men. What women are very good at is time-slicing and quickly assessing compatible work practices that lead to time efficiency. This is a skill learned by mothers. Someone should study this and also see if the effect is the same on single or main carer fathers. Please prove/disprove my hypothesis that this skill is learned rather than inherent to a gender. It doesn't apply to checking social media etc. Even work email is a distraction to tasks that require concentration. I can listen to music, even sing along, while driving. I cannot listen to language tapes (I tried and nearly ran into the back of someone). So unless the millenium person can treat facebook etc with the same disengagement as singing along while driving, then they are slacking.

kevinm
kevinm

Do you honestly think that many, if any, people would be reading your articles if they were not viewing these in company time...

nick
nick

I do a very technical support job. Sometimes I goof off for a minute or two and check a website. I do something mindless. While that is happening my subconscious is still working on the problem or issue or task at hand. I come back to the task refreshed and often with more input or insight. I can't remember when i last worked a 38 hour week, which is what I get paid for, total hours at work and taking problems home is much more than that. So I goof off in company time, but I think that overall they are the winner.

WanderMouse
WanderMouse

Before I retired, my work pace could vary from day to day, and even within the day. There were times when there wasn't enough time to do the work available, and I would feel compelled to stay over 1 to 1 1/2 hours to complete the day's caseload. During slow times of the year, and at certain work loacations, there were blocks of time with no work-related activity on the docket. I felt that taking time to check e-mail during those times was NOT taking time away from work. If I wanted to rationalize, I could even say that this compensated me for the extra time I put in during the busier times, at no extra pay, but I don't want to go there. That was part of my job, as contracted for. But I did not feel as if I was short-changing the employer if there was time where I truly had no work to do, and I chose to catch up on e-mail rather than sitting around and doing nothing.

canubial
canubial

The fact that women, or anyone, can multi task is an urban legend that continues to persist. Research shows that about 1 in 40 can multi, or "super" task, and the rest of us are not able to do it well. Man, woman, makes no difference. So though some posters might have anecdotal evidence that it can be done, it is likely not true in general.

VirtualPro
VirtualPro

I (male) consistently have multiple activities going on and they all should be work related. (Our company actually monitors for excessive surfing activity; especially streaming.) Take two people who multi-task equally; one is all work and the 2nd person half work and half other stuff. The first should be twice as productive. However, there is a need to periodically tear away from work and clear the mind. It could be argued surfing a few fun sites accomplishes this (e.g. providing commentary to TechRepublic). Perception is a big factor so I would suggest some discrete and limited surfing or get up and take a walk to the water cooler... wait that would be perceived as a person always hanging around and BS'ing with people. Never mind just get back to work.

tjohareiii
tjohareiii

Time to raise your game Toni. Zhahai's comment was better than the original article! (although I liked that too)

coloracer2003
coloracer2003

Comparing her surfing the net to the boss checking his watch? Does it take the boss an hour out of his day to see the time? In my neck of the woods we call that lady something called LAZY. Your job is not to surf the Internet and if she's too stupid to differentiate between work and personal time, she should not be in a technical role in the first place!!! I'd write her up and eventually she'd be fired.

chris-bullock
chris-bullock

The question I have is does she finish her job every day? If she does then there is nothing wrong with it and she could just bored. Those of us born in the age of computers get bored if we are not working filling in the entire day and companies have to realize that

ewi3020
ewi3020

How many of you are reading this & other Tech Republic stuff while at work? Oh right, since you work in IT, that makes it 'work' not personal. Just a friendly jab...I do it too!

tech
tech

Everyone multi-tasks on a certain level. For instance, your breath, swallow, ... without thinking about it. At a higher level you drive a car, which is in fact multitasking, you plan your path, you watch for potential obstructions to that path, steer the vehicle, adjust its speed, choose a radio station, hold a conversation with one or more passengers, hold a phone conversation, and text or eat or apply makeup while driving. So yes everyone multi-tasks and some are better than others at it. However, the more you multi-task, the more prone to error you are. For things that require a high degree of focus multi tasking is not an option. Using the car analogy, I can successfully do all the things I stated above when the traffic is low and road conditions are good (well except for the makeup), and there is not a problem. However, in high traffic, or on an icy road, I must stop all that multi-tasking and concentrate on the most important things, which means I get off the phone, stop talking to passengers, don't change the radio, i.e. I focus on the important tasks of watching traffic and road conditions, keeping my vehicle under control... So to your point, people can very rapidly switch between tasks that they do often, but with every task performed in parallel, the error rate goes up. Hence the term distracted driving. When you are being paid to do a task, your aren't being paid to give that task 1/3 of your attention, you are being paid to give that task all of your attention. It is most certainly theft to accept pay to do a job, then spend 1/3 or more of that time doing your own personal tasks.

AnsuGisalas
AnsuGisalas

Especially having multiple concurrent plans (not actions), with intermittent switching - and not mixing them up, and not suffering disproportionate amounts of stress over it. I do think my wife is better at that than I am. I tend to feel more stressed by a load of concurrent tasks than the sum of the stress of the tasks themselves. I think this is because my faculty for keeping these multiple threads alive is inefficient and takes up excessive resources.

Rymech99
Rymech99

Mr. Hand, since I'm here & you're here, isn't it "our" time?

JamesRL
JamesRL

Check the output. If they put out good quality work at a good pace, then don't fret about some personal surfing. If they underpeform, then talk to them about the underperformance issue. We did actually have underachievers before we had internet access at work. They drank coffee, read magazines, gossipped with their coworkers.

tech
tech

There is always room for joy, I guess different people have different views, but if it were me, I would be going through other tickets that could be handled via email, or remoting in or... I save the 'fun stuff' for my time, and always try to give all my time the employer is paying for to things that benefit them. Perhaps that is why I am normally hated by fellow employees and the first to get a raises / promotions. I am certain that some have been taken advantage of (I probably have been too), but I have found that overall I am happier, my career has moved forward faster by always giving my employer 100%. Funny thing when you do that the company tends to value you more than when you don't, and normally a company will compensate you for your efforts, if not, probably time to move on.

AnsuGisalas
AnsuGisalas

The conscious mind can't drive a manual transmission car safely. Driving a car in general only starts to be safe as it turns into a subconscious process. See, the subconscious mind most certainly can multitask, think of it, the brain has no purely serial components, every neuron track has parallels to it. The subconscious mind might in fact be as unable at singlemindedness as the conscious mind is unable to do more than one thing at a time. I think the consciousness evolved as a response to the rise of complex linear tasks that can't be "paused". It certainly didn't evolve to handle complex parallel tasks, because it's absolutely no good at those.

KeithAlan
KeithAlan

Your filler crap reply wasted more of my time with worthless info then her whole article. If you didn't want to read it then you should have just passed it by but it must have been important enough to complain about it that you took the time to write this LOL!!! Oh how I love people :P

David A. Pimentel
David A. Pimentel

Please provide references for those of us who are interested. Thanks.

BobManGM
BobManGM

Many, NOT ALL, of TR's articles are valid for work...especially if you are a mid-level manager.

coloracer2003
coloracer2003

I still have 30 mins b4 I jump in the car. I dont check my personal email at work anymore...will admit that I used to though.

jlcrowe
jlcrowe

and above all, dang it, you hurt my feelings :(

Frank-JH
Frank-JH

Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, study done by J. Watson and D. Strayer psychologists at the University of Utah. Key Dismukes Chief Scientist for Aerospace Human Factors in the Human Systems Integration Division at NASA. Loukia Loukopoulos "The Multitasking Myth"