It's called Phase Locked Loop, or PLL.
Another possibility is standing wave with phase shifts taken into account.
This probably (and hopefully) won't help speeding up von Neumann arcitecture much. Having clock synchronized throughout processor chip doesn't help, if other signals travel slower than light. It could, however alleviate some multicore synchronization problems.
If I understand that quantum teleportation thingy the TR was writing about the other day correctly, this could also be the possibility. True, information can't be transmitted faster than light, but clock carries no information, so... It's a long shot, but at a first glance, it looks feasible.
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