In my experience, which is thankfully with only one boss I've had who was truly grim, the best thing you can do is to make sure that you get everything in writing, and keep your own house in impeccable order. When the boss tries to drop you in the mire then you'll have the evidence to back up your position. It's also really entertaining in meetings. When bad-boss starts floundering, you can pick him up. At least he can walk away from the meeting not looking like a complete moron, and the more they get used to you having the answers, the more they'll appreciate the fact and defer to you anyway. That's not something that will be lost on his peers either. If the bosses peers are switched on they'll twig what's going on pretty quickly. It's not positive reinforcement as such, but it works. After a few months the crap-on-you factor diminished considerably.
I would certainly try to use positive reinforcement on peers and subordinates, but it's not something I would even consider for a boss. What does work is showing him/her that you are organised, you are on the ball, and you won't put up with their ********.
I've got enough politics in the office with subordinates, who are my responsibility to nurture. A bad boss can take the hint and pull their own socks up.
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