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Internet goes down across an organization. What do you do to troubleshoot?

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...would continue to function. I would remain calm and focused due to having planned for this contingency when I designed (or redesigned when I took over for the previously ousted Network Manager/Admin) and implemented the network infrastructure to include redundant failover paths to the internet. My customers (company's employees and management) would not be aware of a failure until I announced it. I would know of the failure from the 24/7/365 monitoring and notification subsystems in place for this purpose.

Assuming a basic go/no go monitoring with notification subsystem and that the local network is still functioning, I would do as lucvdv@ suggested. To get a quick, assessment of the scope of the failure and where the potential failure point is I would perform a traceroute to multiple internet destinations. The results will quickly tell me if the problem is with my local premises equipment, between the LAN and the ISP or with the ISP premises equipment. Once the scope of the problem is determined, if the problem is with local premises equipment I follow a reiterative "divide and conquer" process using traceroute, ping, netstat, nslookup, etc., to test for DNS and routing issues ultimately continuing through until the problem is fully isolated.