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how do i repair the bad sectors on my Hard drive?

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Walter Bishop

"Repair bad sectors" is a misnomer,
as they don't get repaired, just "reallocated / replaced"
but if windows finds bad sectors,
it only marks them as bad at the file system level in the MFT / FAT and ignores them after that

to see this in action, take a disk with bad sectors that chkdsk /r or format has marked as bad
and delete the partition, create a new partition and format it with full format
you'll hear the disk go clickety click click click on sectors that were previously marked bad on the old partition
if you repeat the process over and over it will do it until the cows come home,
or SMART does something about it

There are 2 implementations of SMART
Self Monitoring And Reporting Technology
and
Self Monitoring And Repair Technology

the first just whines about problems and does nothing

the second type has more than one course of action which may be available
including repeated attempts to get the data out of the bad sector
if you hear a disk go clicketly click click for an extended period of time
it's either completely gone, (as in disks which have been dropped will do this and never recover)
or it's trying to move the data in the sector to a replacement / spare sector so it can mark the bad one in the disk's firmware as "replaced / reallocated"

the Mfg. utilities work on the firmware level with whatever SMART implementation they have used
eg.
Seatools for Seagate / Maxtor disks
does read scans and marks & reallocates any sectors it finds bad

Seatools also has some limited functionality with other disks but may report false data
eg. WD uses a different measurement for Temp. and Seatools reports all WD disks as overtemp

copied from the CMD Screen

C:\>chkdsk /?
Checks a disk and displays a status report.

CHKDSK volume path filename /F /V /R /X /I /C /L :size
...(snipped)
/R Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information (implies /F).
...(snipped)