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How does a web page consume resources?

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IE, and all browsers, download the contents of a webpage, all images, videos, everything to your hard drive, and then display them from there.
When you reload a page (not using refresh, but by navigating to it normally) the browser checks the version of the file on the server. Depending on the result, it downloads or reloads the old files. I think it bases it on date and time.
Sometimes, the cache files get overwritten, if on the same site, you download two different index.htm files, the first one is replaced. IE does separate these by website.

When you start reaching the defined maximum cache size, the oldest files are deleted to make room for new ones.

So as you click through TR, the images, and other common elements are saved and reused.

I hope that answers how the cache works.

You can try browsing only by your cache by setting your browser to offline mode. I don't know how to do that in firefox, in IE its under that gear, then the file menu (or it was last time I used IE)