Answer for:

How is it that I am?

Message 79 of 93

View entire thread
0 Votes

Of having learned finnish.
Now, finnish doesn't use different markings for automatives, reflectives and passives, but the learner at some point will have to face the differences in meaning, if they get that far.

Automative covers the meaning of the formally active verb "come" in the example "water kept coming through the hole in the hull". There's no placement of blame, for one, no intent on the part of the water.

Reflexive covers both "run"-type meanings ("See jack run") and "itself"-types ("the deadly ouroborous serpent buries itself in the loose sand"). There is intent on the part of the one taking action.

Passives of the finnish type don't usually exist in english as independent verbs - instead, they're the intransitive subset of an otherwise transitive verb's usages.
Like "broke", in "he was about to tell me whom he suspected, when the connection broke".
This is different from the normal english passive "the connection was broken" which (in this case) implies a background intentional activity (someone broke it).
An unnamed perpetrator is not always the case, as in "He was killed in an car-accident" which differs from "He was killed in a knife-fight" which differs from "He was killed by his wife"... the difference is in terms of accusation.