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Deadly Ernest

I gather you understand the subnet size and number of hosts id decided by the bit position you mark the subnet at ie 000/xxxxx as against 00000/xxx etc. Well once you do that, what's actually available is shy two host numbers as the very first and last are stolen by the network for administration purposes like broadcasting etc. this happens in ALL networks and sub-networks, the more sub-nets the more admin hosts numbers that are used up.

Thus a subnet of 0000/xxxx is technically 16 hosts from .000 to .015 in decimal usage, but .000 and .015 are lost to administration and you get hosts .001 to .014 for actual usage.

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