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***************Windows*************** ***************2008*************** ***************R2*************** ***************Server***************- ***************active*************** ***************directory*************** ***************users**************

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If DNS is not working, that's the problem.

First check the TCP/IP settings of the network adapter. There are fields for DNS server which should show the IP address of the DNS server.

Can you Ping the IP of that DNS server?

Is this a clustered server? Is there only one network adapter in the server?

Look at the event logs of the server to see if there are any entries that occurred about when things stopped working.

Has this server been used at all for web browsing? If so, I would suspect a malware/virus issue. If this were a workstation the fastest fix would be to do a system restore back to a working state.

Things to try:

Clear DNS Cache

Using a command line
Open Command Prompt.
Type the following command and then press ENTER:
Dnscmd ServerName /clearcache

Also try restarting the DNS service on the server.
http://technet DOT microsoft DOT com/en-us/library/cc754743.aspx

Any recent changes to the network?

A misconfiguration or duplicate IP address could cause issues.