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PPM's application of Radio Frequencies (RF) over fiber technology was done to resolve issues in transporting Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Glonass and Galileo signals through what are known as tunnel networks and subterranean locations. This case study suggests that GPS signals have become pervasive in everyday technology because they offer high accuracy of location, otherwise known as timing data. These signals enable tracking systems and cellular networks to function effectively across geographic areas. The paper cites the example of cellular networks which require accurate timing information in order to ensure successful handover of connections between cell sites. The paper specifically studies the case of the ViaLite Metro Global Positioning System product that is used in building distribution. It also delves on the case of a European rail operator that required a GPS through tunnel networks. It discusses challenges faced by the GPS systems such as a base station not having direct sight of the GPA satellite, re-radiation in subterranean locations, and solutions developed by PPM. This paper discusses the principle of GPS transmission over fiber. It also discusses a number of applications that make use of this system, including the European rail network which requires GPS distribution as they function under tunnels. Network synchronization has been discussed in detail that often uses GPS signals, but can be faced with significant issues.
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