Brown University

Displaying 1-40 of 68 results

  • White Papers // Aug 2013

    Participatory Networking: An API for Application Control of SDNs

    The authors present the design, implementation, and evaluation of an API for applications to control a Software-Defined Network (SDN). Their API is implemented by an OpenFlow controller that delegates read and write authority from the network's administrators to end users, or applications and devices acting on their behalf. Their API...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2013

    On Verifying the Consistency of Remote Untrusted Services

    A group of mutually trusting clients outsources a computation service to a remote server, which they do not fully trust and that may be subject to attacks. The clients do not communicate with each other and would like to verify the correctness of the remote computation and the consistency of...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    Practical Yet Universally Composable Two-Server Password-Authenticated Secret Sharing

    Password-Authenticated Secret Sharing (PASS) schemes, first introduced by Bagherzandi et al. at CCS 2011, allow users to distribute data among several servers so that the data can be recovered using a single human-memorizable password, but no single server (or collusion of servers up to a certain size) can mount an...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // May 2012

    Tamper and Leakage Resilience in the Split-State Model

    It is notoriously difficult to create hardware that is immune from side channel and tampering attacks. A lot of recent literature, therefore, has instead considered algorithmic defenses from such attacks. In this paper, the authors show how to algorithmically secure any cryptographic functionality from continual split-state leakage and tampering attacks....

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    PARMA: A Parallel Randomized Algorithm for Approximate Association Rules Mining in MapReduce

    The authors present a novel randomized parallel technique for mining frequent itemsets and association rules. Their mining algorithm, PARMA, achieves near-linear speedup while avoiding costly replication of data. PARMA does this by creating multiple small random samples of the transactional dataset and running a mining algorithm on the samples independently...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    On The Security of One-Witness Blind Signature Schemes

    Blind signatures have proved an essential building block for applications that protect privacy while ensuring unforgeability, i.e., electronic cash and electronic voting. One of the oldest, and most efficient blind signature schemes is the one due to Schnorr that is based on his famous identification scheme. Although it was proposed...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Malleable Proof Systems and Applications

    Malleability for cryptography is not necessarily an opportunity for attack, but in many cases a potentially useful feature that can be exploited. In this paper, the authors examine notions of malleability for Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge (NIZK) proofs. They start by defining a malleable proof system, and then consider ways to meaningfully...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Compression Aware Physical Database Design

    Modern RDBMSs support the ability to compress data using methods such as null suppression and dictionary encoding. Data compression offers the promise of significantly reducing storage requirements and improving I/O performance for decision support queries. However, compression can also slow down update and query performance due to the CPU costs...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Learning-Based Query Performance Modeling and Prediction

    Accurate Query Performance Prediction (QPP) is central to effective resource management, query optimization and query scheduling. Analytical cost models, used in current generation of query optimizers, have been successful in comparing the costs of alternative query plans, but they are poor predictors of execution latency. As a more promising approach...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    ADsafety: Type-Based Verification of JavaScript Sandboxing

    Web sites routinely incorporate JavaScript programs from several sources into a single page. These sources must be protected from one another, which require robust sandboxing. The many entry-points of sandboxes and the subtleties of JavaScript demand robust verification of the actual sandbox source. The authors use a novel type system...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    ADsafety Type-Based Verification of JavaScript Sandboxing

    Web sites routinely incorporate JavaScript programs from several sources into a single page. These sources must be protected from one another, which requires robust sandboxing. The many entry-points of sandboxes and the subtleties of JavaScript demand robust verification of the actual sandbox source. The authors use a novel type system...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Xheal: Localized Self-Healing Using Expanders

    The authors consider the problem of self-healing in reconfigurable networks (e.g. peer-to-peer and wireless mesh networks) that are under repeated attack by an omniscient adversary and propose a fully distributed algorithm, Xheal that maintains good expansion and spectral properties of the network, also keeping the network connected. Moreover, Xheal, does...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Cryptography for Efficiency: Authenticated Data Structures Based on Lattices and Parallel Online Memory Checking

    In this paper, the authors initially design a new authenticated data structure for a dynamic table with n entries. They present the first dynamic authenticated table that is update-optimal, using a lattice-based construction. In particular, the update complexity is O(1), improving in this way the "A priori" O(log n) update...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Tight Bounds on Information Dissemination in Sparse Mobile Networks

    The emergence of mobile computing devices has added a new intriguing component, mobility, to the study of distributed systems. In fully mobile systems, such as wireless Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs), information is generated, transmitted and consumed within the mobile nodes, and communication is carried out without the support of static...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Self-Organization For Collective Action: An Experimental Study Of Voting On Formal, Informal, And No Sanction Regimes

    One of the most fundamental puzzles of economic life is how people can cooperate given the preeminence of self-interest. In some domains, the problem is minimized because cooperation can take the form of mutually beneficial exchange. However, despite having such exchanges as its core feature, the modern market economy functions...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    State Or Nature? Formal Vs. Informal Sanctioning In The Voluntary Provision Of Public Goods

    The sanctioning of norm-violating behavior by an effective formal authority is an efficient solution for social dilemmas. It is in the self-interest of voters and is often favorably contrasted with letting citizens take punishment into their own hands. Allowing informal sanctions, by contrast, not only comes with a danger that...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    The Case for Predictive Database Systems: Opportunities and Challenges

    This paper argues that next generation database management systems should incorporate a predictive model management component to effectively support both inward-facing applications, such as self management, and user-facing applications such as data-driven predictive analytics. The authors draw an analogy between model management and data management functionality and discuss how model...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Bilateral And Community Enforcement In A Networked Market With Simple Strategies

    In many markets, successful execution of mutually beneficial economic transactions relies on informal contracts that are enforced by social pressure and reputation. Informal enforcement mechanisms include personal and community enforcement mechanisms. It is by now widely recognized that when transactions between two parties are sufficiently frequent, personal enforcement is highly...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Botticelli: A Supply Chain Management Agent

    The paper describes the architecture of Brown University's agent, Botticelli, a finalist in the 2003 Trading Agent Competition in Supply Chain Management (TAC SCM). In TAC SCM, a simulated computer manufacturing scenario, Botticelli competes with other agents to win customer orders and negotiates with suppliers to procure the components necessary...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Entropy And The Value Of Information For Investors

    Consider any investor who fears ruin facing any set of investments that satisfy no-arbitrage. Before investing, he can purchase information about the state of nature in the form of an information structure. Given his prior, information structure ? is more informative than information structure ? if whenever he rejects ?...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Margrave Tool for Firewall Analysis

    Writing and maintaining firewall configurations can be challenging, even for experienced system administrators. Tools that uncover the consequences of configurations and edits to them can help sysadmins prevent subtle yet serious errors. The tool, Margrave, offers powerful features for firewall analysis, including enumerating consequences of configuration edits, detecting overlaps and...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Rational Secret Sharing With Side Information in Point-to-Point Networks Via Time-Delayed Encryption

    In this paper, the authors give the first construction of a rational secret sharing protocol that is strict Nash (or Nash with respect to trembles) in the computational sense, works in a standard point-to-point network with loose synchronization (i.e. does not rely on the availability of a broadcast channel), and...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Measuring Economic Growth From Outer Space

    This paper focuses on measurement of real GDP growth over time within a country, which besides measuring nominal GDP requires the construction of reliable domestic price indices, again a problem for many developing countries. The author focuses exclusively on real GDP growth within countries. If, in addition, they wanted to...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Social Networks And Unraveling In Labor Markets

    This paper studies the phenomenon of early hiring in entry-level labor markets in the presence of social networks. The authors offer a two-stage model in which workers in training institutions reveal information on their own ability over time. In the early stage, workers receive a noisy signal about their own...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Community Structure And Market Outcomes: A Repeated Games In Networks Approach

    Consider a large market with asymmetric information, in which sellers choose whether to cooperate or deviate and 'Cheat' their buyers, and buyers decide whether to re-purchase from different sellers. The authors model active trade relationships as links in a buyer-seller network and suggest a framework for studying repeated games in...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Human Capital Investment And The Gender Division Of Labor In A Brawn-Based Economy

    The authors use a model of human capital investment and activity choice to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments. These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Demographic Transition: Causes And Consequences

    This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Attacks on the AKACP Protocol

    In the recent paper by Mohammad et al. it was shown that the protocols for authenticated key agreement proposed by Elkamchuchi and Eldefrawy in and are vulnerable against Key Compromise Impersonation (KCI) and man-in-the-middle attacks. Mohammad et al. in proposed an alternative two-pass and corresponding one-pass protocols (referred to as...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    ZKPDL: A Language-Based System for Efficient Zero-Knowledge Proofs and Electronic Cash

    In recent years, many advances have been made in cryptography, as well as in the performance of communication networks and processors. As a result, many advanced cryptographic protocols are now efficient enough to be considered practical, yet research in the area remains largely theoretical and little work has been done...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Please Continue to Hold: An Empirical Study on User Tolerance of Security Delays

    The authors present the results of an experiment examining the extent to which individuals will tolerate delays when told that such delays are for security purposes. In the experiment, they asked 800 Amazon Mechanical Turk users to count the total number of times a certain term was repeated in a...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Certification and Authentication of Data Structures

    The authors study the design of secure protocols for efficiently verifying the results of queries on data structures that are outsourced to untrusted servers, where answers are processed over relational databases in the RAM model of computation. They introduce a new authentication framework that, by design and through the new...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Experiences With Tracing Causality in Networked Services

    Unlike device-centric monitoring, task-centric tracing enables an operator to causally trace the complete execution of a networked system across the boundaries of applications, protocols, and administrative domains. In this paper, the authors argue that causal, end-to-end tracing should be an integral part of network services. Moreover, it is not fundamentally...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Egalitarianism Under Incomplete Information

    The present paper discusses possible extensions of the egalitarian principle to environments with asymmetric information. The approach will be primarily axiomatic, focusing on the characteristic property of monotonicity, which is as straightforward under asymmetric information as it is under complete information: no member of the society should be worse off...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    The Essence of JavaScript

    The authors reduce JavaScript to a core calculus structured as a small-step operational semantics. They present several peculiarities of the language and show that the calculus models them. They explicate the desugaring process that turns JavaScript programs into ones in the core. They demonstrate faithfulness to JavaScript using real-world test...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Public Goods And Voting On Formal Sanction Schemes: An Experiment

    An important insight from the last decade of research on the provision of public goods is that the problem of voluntary cooperation can be partially resolved by allowing individuals to engage in informal sanctions, i.e. in costly punishment of other group members after learning of their contributions (Fehr and G?chter,...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Evaluating The Conditions For Robust Mechanism Design

    The authors assess the strength of the different conditions identified in the literature of robust mechanism design. They focus on three conditions: ex post incentive compatibility, robust monotonicity, and robust measurability. Ex post incentive compatibility has been shown to be necessary for any concept of robust implementation, while robust monotonicity...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Strategic Planning for Disaster Recovery With Stochastic Last Mile Distribution

    This paper considers the Single Commodity Allocation Problem (SCAP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. SCAPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse routing, and parallel fleet routing. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight runtime constraints to be practical in...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Egalitarian Equivalence Under Asymmetric Information

    The authors propose a definition of egalitarian equivalence that extends Pazner and Schmeidler's (1978) concept to environments with incomplete information. If every feasible allocation rule can be implemented by an incentive compatible mechanism (as, for instance, in the case of non-exclusive information), then interim egalitarian equivalence and interim incentive efficiency...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    A Generic Auto-Provisioning Framework for Cloud Databases

    This paper discusses the problem of resource provisioning for database management systems operating on top of an Infrastructure-As-A-Service (IaaS) cloud. To solve this problem, this paper describes an extensible framework that, given a target query workload, continually optimizes the system's operational cost, estimated based on the IaaS provider's pricing model,...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Hidden Markov Support Vector Machines

    This paper presents a novel discriminative learning technique for label sequences based on a combination of the two most successful learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines and Hidden Markov Models which one calls Hidden Markov Support Vector Machine. The proposed architecture handles dependencies between neighboring labels using Viterbi decoding. In contrast...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Multiplicity Of Mixed Equilibria In Mechanisms: A Unified Approach To Exact And Approximate Implementation

    The authors characterize full implementation of social choice sets in mixed-strategy Bayesian equilibrium. The results concern both exact and virtual mixed implementation. For exact implementation, the authors identify a strengthening of Bayesian monotonicity, which they refer to as mixed Bayesian monotonicity. It is shown that, in economic environments with at...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Comparative Economic Development: Insights From Unified Growth Theory

    This paper explores the implications of Unified Growth Theory for the origins of existing differences in income per capita across countries. The theory sheds light on three fundamental layers of comparative development. It identifies the factors that have governed the pace of the transition from stagnation to growth and have...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Isolation And Development

    This paper exploits cross-country variation in the degree of geographical isolation, prior to the advent of sea-faring and airborne transportation technologies, to examine its impact on the course of economic development across the globe. The empirical investigation establishes that prehistoric geographical isolation has generated a persistent benefecial effect on the...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Measuring Economic Growth From Outer Space

    This paper focuses on measurement of real GDP growth over time within a country, which besides measuring nominal GDP requires the construction of reliable domestic price indices, again a problem for many developing countries. The author focuses exclusively on real GDP growth within countries. If, in addition, they wanted to...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Pet Overpopulation: An Economic Analysis

    This paper considers the problem of pet overpopulation. It develops a tractable dynamic model whose positive predictions square well with key features of the current U.S. market for pets. The model is used to understand, from a welfare economic perspective, the sense in which there is overpopulation of pets and...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Axiomatic Bargaining On Economic Environments With Lotteries

    Most contributions in axiomatic bargaining are phrased in the space of utilities. This comes in sharp contrast with standards in most other branches of economic theory. The present paper shows how Nash's original axiomatic system can be rephrased in a natural class of economic environments with lotteries, and how his...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Reason-Based Choice: A Bargaining Rationale For The Attraction And Compromise Effects

    Many of the decision problems we face are complicated by the fact that there is no single dimension or criterion for evaluating the available alternatives. For example, when searching for an apartment or a house, the ranking of the available options may be very different depending on whether the criterion...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Inequality And Economic Development: An Overview

    Conventional wisdom about the relationship between income distribution and economic development has been subjected to dramatic transformation in the past century. While the Classical economists advanced the hypothesis that inequality is beneficial for economic development, the neoclassical paradigm, which subsequently dominated the field of macroeconomics, dismissed the Classical hypothesis and...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Post-1500 Population Flows And The Long Run Determinants Of Economic Growth And Inequality

    The authors construct a matrix showing the share of the year 2000 population in every country that is descended from people in different source countries in the year 1500. Using this matrix, the authors analyze how post-1500 migration has influenced the level of GDP per capita and within-country income inequality...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Preferences For Redistribution and Perception of Fairness: An Experimental Study. Revised July

    We study the importance of fairness preferences, risk aversion, and self-interest in determining support for redistribution by conducting a laboratory experiment that includes both elements not previously found together and novel features. The design permits within-subject comparisons of the effects of earned vs. unearned sources of pre-tax-and-transfer inequality, within subject...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Human Capital Investment And The Gender Division Of Labor In A Brawn-Based Economy

    The authors use a model of human capital investment and activity choice to explain facts describing gender differentials in the levels and returns to human capital investments. These include the higher return to and level of schooling, the small effect of healthiness on wages, and the large effect of healthiness...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Requirements for Science Data Bases and SciDB

    For the past year, the authors have been assembling requirements from a collection of scientific data base users from astronomy, particle physics, fusion, remote sensing, oceanography, and biology. The intent has been to specify a common set of requirements for a new science data base system, which they call SciDB....

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    ZKPDL: A Language-Based System for Efficient Zero-Knowledge Proofs and Electronic Cash

    In recent years, many advances have been made in cryptography, as well as in the performance of communication networks and processors. As a result, many advanced cryptographic protocols are now efficient enough to be considered practical, yet research in the area remains largely theoretical and little work has been done...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Towards an Operational Semantics for Alloy

    The Alloy modeling language has a mathematically rigorous denotational semantics based on relational algebra. Alloy specifications often represent operations on a state, suggesting transition-system semantics. Because Alloy does not intrinsically provide a notion of state, however, this interpretation is only implicit in the relational-algebra semantics underlying the Alloy Analyzer. In...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Trusted Multiplexing of Cryptographic Protocols

    The authors present an analysis that determines when it is possible to multiplex a pair of cryptographic protocols. They present a transformation that improves the coverage of this analysis on common protocol formulations. They discuss the gap between the merely possible and the pragmatic through an optimization that informs a...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Please Continue to Hold: An Empirical Study on User Tolerance of Security Delays

    The authors present the results of an experiment examining the extent to which individuals will tolerate delays when told that such delays are for security purposes. In the experiment, they asked 800 Amazon Mechanical Turk users to count the total number of times a certain term was repeated in a...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Margrave Tool for Firewall Analysis

    Writing and maintaining firewall configurations can be challenging, even for experienced system administrators. Tools that uncover the consequences of configurations and edits to them can help sysadmins prevent subtle yet serious errors. The tool, Margrave, offers powerful features for firewall analysis, including enumerating consequences of configuration edits, detecting overlaps and...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    The Essence of JavaScript

    The authors reduce JavaScript to a core calculus structured as a small-step operational semantics. They present several peculiarities of the language and show that the calculus models them. They explicate the desugaring process that turns JavaScript programs into ones in the core. They demonstrate faithfulness to JavaScript using real-world test...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    Practical Yet Universally Composable Two-Server Password-Authenticated Secret Sharing

    Password-Authenticated Secret Sharing (PASS) schemes, first introduced by Bagherzandi et al. at CCS 2011, allow users to distribute data among several servers so that the data can be recovered using a single human-memorizable password, but no single server (or collusion of servers up to a certain size) can mount an...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // May 2012

    Tamper and Leakage Resilience in the Split-State Model

    It is notoriously difficult to create hardware that is immune from side channel and tampering attacks. A lot of recent literature, therefore, has instead considered algorithmic defenses from such attacks. In this paper, the authors show how to algorithmically secure any cryptographic functionality from continual split-state leakage and tampering attacks....

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    On The Security of One-Witness Blind Signature Schemes

    Blind signatures have proved an essential building block for applications that protect privacy while ensuring unforgeability, i.e., electronic cash and electronic voting. One of the oldest, and most efficient blind signature schemes is the one due to Schnorr that is based on his famous identification scheme. Although it was proposed...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2013

    On Verifying the Consistency of Remote Untrusted Services

    A group of mutually trusting clients outsources a computation service to a remote server, which they do not fully trust and that may be subject to attacks. The clients do not communicate with each other and would like to verify the correctness of the remote computation and the consistency of...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Aug 2013

    Participatory Networking: An API for Application Control of SDNs

    The authors present the design, implementation, and evaluation of an API for applications to control a Software-Defined Network (SDN). Their API is implemented by an OpenFlow controller that delegates read and write authority from the network's administrators to end users, or applications and devices acting on their behalf. Their API...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Hidden Markov Support Vector Machines

    This paper presents a novel discriminative learning technique for label sequences based on a combination of the two most successful learning algorithms, Support Vector Machines and Hidden Markov Models which one calls Hidden Markov Support Vector Machine. The proposed architecture handles dependencies between neighboring labels using Viterbi decoding. In contrast...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Strategic Planning for Disaster Recovery With Stochastic Last Mile Distribution

    This paper considers the Single Commodity Allocation Problem (SCAP) for disaster recovery, a fundamental problem faced by all populated areas. SCAPs are complex stochastic optimization problems that combine resource allocation, warehouse routing, and parallel fleet routing. Moreover, these problems must be solved under tight runtime constraints to be practical in...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Safe at Any Speed: Fast, Safe Parallelism in Servers

    Many applications take advantage of parallelism to increase performance. Servers are a particularly common case as they must multiplex resources across many simultaneous users. Unfortunately, writing concurrent applications is difficult and prone to subtle and non-deterministic bugs that are difficult to reproduce. This paper advocate an approach to developing concurrent...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    A Generic Auto-Provisioning Framework for Cloud Databases

    This paper discusses the problem of resource provisioning for database management systems operating on top of an Infrastructure-As-A-Service (IaaS) cloud. To solve this problem, this paper describes an extensible framework that, given a target query workload, continually optimizes the system's operational cost, estimated based on the IaaS provider's pricing model,...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Exergaming: Video Games As A Form Of Exercise

    Video Games have always been a source of entertainment for adults and children. Over the years, people have worked at making these games more than just a form of recreation. One such effort was targeted at making video games exercise oriented. Exergaming incorporates exercise into video games. Traditional interaction techniques,...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Self-Organization For Collective Action: An Experimental Study Of Voting On Formal, Informal, And No Sanction Regimes

    One of the most fundamental puzzles of economic life is how people can cooperate given the preeminence of self-interest. In some domains, the problem is minimized because cooperation can take the form of mutually beneficial exchange. However, despite having such exchanges as its core feature, the modern market economy functions...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    State Or Nature? Formal Vs. Informal Sanctioning In The Voluntary Provision Of Public Goods

    The sanctioning of norm-violating behavior by an effective formal authority is an efficient solution for social dilemmas. It is in the self-interest of voters and is often favorably contrasted with letting citizens take punishment into their own hands. Allowing informal sanctions, by contrast, not only comes with a danger that...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Bilateral And Community Enforcement In A Networked Market With Simple Strategies

    In many markets, successful execution of mutually beneficial economic transactions relies on informal contracts that are enforced by social pressure and reputation. Informal enforcement mechanisms include personal and community enforcement mechanisms. It is by now widely recognized that when transactions between two parties are sufficiently frequent, personal enforcement is highly...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Entropy And The Value Of Information For Investors

    Consider any investor who fears ruin facing any set of investments that satisfy no-arbitrage. Before investing, he can purchase information about the state of nature in the form of an information structure. Given his prior, information structure ? is more informative than information structure ? if whenever he rejects ?...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Social Networks And Unraveling In Labor Markets

    This paper studies the phenomenon of early hiring in entry-level labor markets in the presence of social networks. The authors offer a two-stage model in which workers in training institutions reveal information on their own ability over time. In the early stage, workers receive a noisy signal about their own...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Community Structure And Market Outcomes: A Repeated Games In Networks Approach

    Consider a large market with asymmetric information, in which sellers choose whether to cooperate or deviate and 'Cheat' their buyers, and buyers decide whether to re-purchase from different sellers. The authors model active trade relationships as links in a buyer-seller network and suggest a framework for studying repeated games in...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Demographic Transition: Causes And Consequences

    This paper develops the theoretical foundations and the testable implications of the various mechanisms that have been proposed as possible triggers for the demographic transition. Moreover, it examines the empirical validity of each of the theories and their significance for the understanding of the transition from stagnation to growth. The...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Evaluating The Conditions For Robust Mechanism Design

    The authors assess the strength of the different conditions identified in the literature of robust mechanism design. They focus on three conditions: ex post incentive compatibility, robust monotonicity, and robust measurability. Ex post incentive compatibility has been shown to be necessary for any concept of robust implementation, while robust monotonicity...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Egalitarian Equivalence Under Asymmetric Information

    The authors propose a definition of egalitarian equivalence that extends Pazner and Schmeidler's (1978) concept to environments with incomplete information. If every feasible allocation rule can be implemented by an incentive compatible mechanism (as, for instance, in the case of non-exclusive information), then interim egalitarian equivalence and interim incentive efficiency...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Egalitarianism Under Incomplete Information

    The present paper discusses possible extensions of the egalitarian principle to environments with asymmetric information. The approach will be primarily axiomatic, focusing on the characteristic property of monotonicity, which is as straightforward under asymmetric information as it is under complete information: no member of the society should be worse off...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    A New Necessary Condition for Implementation in Iteratively Undominated Strategies

    Implementation in iteratively undominated strategies relies on permissive conditions. However, for the sufficiency results available, authors have relied on assumptions that amount to quasilinear preferences on a numeraire. The authors uncover a new necessary condition that implies that such assumptions cannot be dispensed with. The authors term the condition "Restricted...

    Provided By Brown University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Public Goods And Voting On Formal Sanction Schemes: An Experiment

    An important insight from the last decade of research on the provision of public goods is that the problem of voluntary cooperation can be partially resolved by allowing individuals to engage in informal sanctions, i.e. in costly punishment of other group members after learning of their contributions (Fehr and G?chter,...

    Provided By Brown University