Carnegie Mellon University

Displaying 361-400 of 480 results

  • White Papers // May 2010

    SplitScreen: Enabling Efficient, Distributed Malware Detection

    The authors present the design and implementation of a novel anti-malware system called SplitScreen. SplitScreen performs an additional screening step prior to the signature matching phase found in existing approaches. The screening step filters out most non-infected files (90%) and also identifies malware signatures that are not of interest (99%)....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    On Sparse Nonparametric Conditional Covariance Selection

    The authors develop a penalized kernel smoothing method for the problem of selecting nonzero elements of the conditional precision matrix, known as conditional covariance selection. This problem has a key role in many modern applications such as finance and computational biology. However, it has not been properly addressed. The estimator...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Critical Vulnerability in Browser Security Metrics

    Every time a browser vendor releases a patch for a critical vulnerability, the popular news media publishes a slew of negative press paper detailing the security holes that have been announced in the product. Users who read these papers often decide to switch to a "Safer" browser. The negative press...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The Path Forward: Specialized Computing in the Datacenter

    Popular belief holds that the cores on chip will grow at an exponential rate, following Moore's Law, with a commensurate increase in performance. However, by exploring the design space of multicore chips across technologies under a large array of design parameters, the authors observe that physical constraints in power and...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Intra-Car Wireless Sensor Networks

    Modern vehicles incorporate tens of sensors to provide vital sensor information such as temperature, air quality, tire pressure, distances to nearby objects, etc., for the Electronic Control Units (ECUs). The ECUs in vehicles then utilize the sensor information for various control functions and applications. In the current architecture, the sensors...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Reusing Migration to Simply and Efficiently Implement Multi-Server Operations in Transparently Scalable Storage Systems

    Distributed file systems that scale by partitioning files and directories among a collection of servers inevitably encounter multi-server operations. A common example is a RENAME that moves a file from a directory managed by one server to a directory managed by another. Transparently scalable systems (those that provide the same...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Locally Distributed Predicates: A Technique for Distributed Programming

    New research in wireless networks, sensor networks, and modular robotics has spurred renewed interest in distributed programming techniques. Distributed programming is inherently more difficult than its single-threaded equivalent, due to the need for an executing thread of a distributed program located at one computation node to access state located at...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    File System Virtual Appliances

    Implementing and maintaining file systems is painful. OS functionality is notoriously difficult to develop and debug, and file systems are more so than most because of their size and interactions with other OS components. In-kernel file systems must adhere to a large number of internal OS interfaces. Though difficult during...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • Webcasts // May 2010

    Engineering Improvement in Software Assurance: A Landscape Framework

    Many organizations are associated with producing, using, or funding technologies, practices, and policies purported to address assurance a justified level of confidence that systems (and systems of systems) will function as intended within their operational environment. Understanding the value these solutions provide to assurance is often indirect and unclear.

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Java Concurrency Guidelines

    An essential element of secure coding in the Java programming language is well-documented and enforceable coding standards. Coding standards encourage programmers to follow a uniform set of guidelines determined by the requirements of the project and organization, rather than by the programmer's familiarity or preference. Once established, these standards can...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Energy Harvesting From Electromagnetic Energy Radiating From AC Power Lines

    There has been considerable interest in energy harvesting for wireless sensor networks. Energy harvesting from thermal sources such as body heat and mechanical sources such as human motion have been proposed. There are also sensor network systems that harvest energy from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, ambient...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Dissecting One Click Frauds

    One Click Fraud is an online confidence scam that has been plaguing an increasing number of Japanese Internet users, in spite of new laws and the mobilization of police task forces. In this scam, the victim clicks on a link presented to them, only to be informed that they just...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Distributed Parallel Inference on Large Factor Graphs

    A computer cluster is a large collection of processors connected by a fast reliable communication network and configured to achieve a common task. Here, the authors define a processor as a single processing element with a unique instruction counter. Cluster computing confers both the obvious increase in computational throughput and...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Requirements for an Integrity-Protected Hypervisor on the X86 Hardware Virtualized Architecture

    Virtualization has been purported to be a panacea for many security problems. The authors analyze the feasibility of constructing an integrity-protected hypervisor on contemporary x86 hardware that includes virtualization support, observing that without the fundamental property of hypervisor integrity, no secrecy properties can be achieved. Unfortunately, they find that significant...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Hermes: a Context-Aware Application Development Framework for the Mobile Environment

    This paper describes a next generation software toolkit which provides a framework, including security and intelligibility support, for developing more powerful context-aware applications for the modern mobile environment. Modern mobile computing environments, with reasonable connectivity, processing power and sensing capabilities on portable devices provide a means of achieving truly ubiquitous...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    A Hierarchical Adaptive Probabilistic Approach for Zero Hour Phish Detection

    Phishing attacks are a significant threat to users of the internet, causing tremendous economic loss every year. In combating phish, industry relies heavily on manual verification to achieve a low false positive rate, which, however, tends to be slow in responding to the huge volume of unique phishing URLs created...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Insights From the Inside: A View of Botnet Management From Infiltration

    Recent work has leveraged botnet infiltration techniques to track the activities of bots over time, particularly with regard to spam campaigns. Building the authors' previous success in reverse-engineering C&C protocols, they have conducted a 4-month infiltration of the MegaD botnet, beginning in October 2009. Their infiltration provides one with constant...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    File System Virtual Appliances: Portable File System Implementations

    File System Virtual Appliances (FSVAs) address the portability headaches that plague File System (FS) developers. By packaging their FS implementation in a VM, separate from the VM that runs user applications, they can avoid the need to port the file system to each OS and OS version. A small FS-agnostic...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Simulation of Network Attacks on SCADA Systems

    Network security is a major issue affecting SCADA systems designed and deployed in the last decade. Simulation of network attacks on a SCADA system presents certain challenges, since even a simple SCADA system is composed of models in several domains and simulation environments. Here the authors demonstrate the use of...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    ATLAS: A Scalable and High-Performance Scheduling Algorithm for Multiple Memory Controllers

    Modern Chip MultiProcessor (CMP) systems employ multiple memory controllers to control access to main memory. The scheduling algorithm employed by these memory controllers has a significant effect on system throughput, so choosing an efficient scheduling algorithm is important. The scheduling algorithm also needs to be scalable - as the number...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Understanding Route Aggregation

    Route aggregation, the method to supersede a set of routes by a single, more general route, is a universal mechanism that is either explicitly included in a routing protocol specification or added by router vendors as a configuration option. Widely deployed for both intra-domain and inter-domain routing purposes, Route Aggregation...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Energy-Efficient Cluster Computing With FAWN: Workloads and Implications

    This paper presents the architecture and motivation for a cluster-based, many-core computing architecture for energy-efficient, data-intensive computing. FAWN, a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes, consists of a large number of slower but efficient nodes coupled with low-power storage. The authors present the computing trends that motivate a FAWN-like approach, for...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Round-Efficient Broadcast Authentication Protocols for Fixed Topology Classes

    The authors consider resource-constrained broadcast authentication for n receivers in a static, known network topology. There are only two known broadcast authentication protocols that do not use asymmetric cryptography, one-time signatures, multi-receiver MACs, or time synchronization,. Both these protocols require three passes of a message front traversing the network. They...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    TrustVisor: Efficient TCB Reduction and Attestation

    An important security challenge is to protect the execution of security-sensitive code on legacy systems from malware that may infect the OS, applications, or system devices. Prior work experienced a tradeoff between the level of security achieved and efficiency. In this paper, the authors leverage the features of modern processors...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Kahuna: Problem Diagnosis for MapReduce-Based Cloud Computing Environments

    The authors present Kahuna, an approach that aims to diagnose performance problems in Map Reduce systems. Central to Kahuna's approach is the insight on peer-similarity, that nodes behave alike in the absence of performance problems, and that a node that behaves differently is the likely culprit of a performance problem....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    All You Ever Wanted to Know About Dynamic Taint Analysis and Forward Symbolic Execution (but Might Have Been Afraid to Ask)

    Dynamic taint analysis and forward symbolic execution are quickly becoming staple techniques in security analysis. Example applications of dynamic taint analysis and forward symbolic execution include malware analysis, input filter generation, test case generation, and vulnerability discovery. Despite the widespread usage of these two techniques, there has been little effort...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Research Agenda for Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA): Maintenance and Evolution of Service-Oriented Systems

    Despite recent reports that it has failed, the reality is that Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) remains the best option available for systems integration and leverage of legacy systems. The technologies to implement SOA will certainly evolve to address emerging needs, but its concepts will remain. To address those needs and concerns...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Pocket ISR: Virtual Machines Anywhere

    The Internet Suspend/Resume system provides access to a user's computing state anytime and anywhere - so long as there's an ISR client handy. The authors introduce Pocket ISR, a Linux distribution which can be installed on a USB key and booted on any borrowed PC to quickly provide a complete...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Energy-Efficient Dynamic Capacity Provisioning in Server Farms

    A central question in designing server farms today is how to efficiently provision the number of servers to handle unpredictable demand patterns, so as to extract the best performance while not wasting energy. While one would like to turn servers off when they become idle to save energy, the large...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • Webcasts // Mar 2010

    Emerging Technologies for Software-Reliant Systems

    Software-reliant Systems of Systems (SoS) now tend to be highly distributed software systems, formed from constituent software systems that are operated and managed by different organizations. These SoS are moving from a directed management structure (in which constituent systems are integrated and built for a specific purpose) to a virtual...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Concurrent Autonomous Self-Test for Uncore Components in System-on-Chips

    Concurrent autonomous self-test, or online self-test, allows a system to test itself, concurrently during normal operation, with no system downtime visible to the end-user. Online self-test is important for overcoming major reliability challenges such as early-life failures and circuit aging in future System-on-Chips (SoCs). To ensure required levels of overall...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Neighbor Discovery in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Mobile sensor nodes can be used for a wide variety of applications such as social networks and location tracking. An important requirement for all such applications is that the mobile nodes need to actively discover their neighbors with minimal energy and latency. Nodes in mobile networks are not necessarily synchronized...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Securing Their Future? Entry and Survival in the Information Security Industry

    Studies of industry evolution conclude that established firms tend to outperform startups. A variety of possible sources of advantage have been identified. Established firms are larger, endowed with complementary assets like distribution and marketing networks, better management capabilities, and even perhaps superior technology. The relative importance of these factors in...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Diagnosing Performance Problems by Visualizing and Comparing System Behaviours

    Spectroscope is a new toolset aimed at assisting developers with the long-standing challenge of performance debugging in distributed systems. To do so, it mines end-to-end traces of request processing within and across components. Using Spectroscope, developers can visualize and compare system behaviours between two periods or system versions, identifying and...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Black-Box Problem Diagnosis in Parallel File Systems

    The authors focus on automatically diagnosing different performance problems in parallel file systems by identifying, gathering and analyzing OS-level, black-box performance metrics on every node in the cluster. The peer-comparison diagnosis approach compares the statistical attributes of these metrics across I/O servers, to identify the faulty node. The authors develop...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Location-Sharing Technologies: Privacy Risks and Controls

    "Due to the ability of cell phone providers to use cell phone towers to pinpoint users' locations, federal E911 requirements, the increasing popularity of GPS-capabilities in cellular phones, and the rise of cellular phones for Internet use, a plethora of new applications have been developed that share users' real-time location...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    A Multilingual Screen Reader In Indian Languages

    Screen reader is a form of assistive technology to help visually impaired people to use or access the computer and Internet. So far, it has remained expensive and within the domain of English (and some foreign) language computing. For Indian languages this development is limited by: availability of Text-To-Speech (TTS)...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Measurement and Analysis of Link Quality in Wireless Networks: An Application Perspective

    Estimating the quality of wireless link is vital to optimize several protocols and applications in wireless networks. In realistic wireless networks, link quality is generally predicted by measuring received signal strength and error rates. Understanding the temporal properties of these parameters is essential for the measured values to be representative,...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    BASIL: Automated IO Load Balancing Across Storage Devices

    Live migration of virtual hard disks between storage arrays has long been possible. However, there is a dearth of online tools to perform automated virtual disk placement and IO load balancing across multiple storage arrays. This problem is quite challenging because the performance of IO workloads depends heavily on their...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Database Servers on Chip Multiprocessors: Limitations and Opportunities

    Database management systems are a multibillion dollar industry with high-end database servers employing state-of-the-art processors to maximize performance. Recent studies show that processors are far from realizing their maximum performance. Research also indicates that adverse memory access patterns in database workloads result in poor cache locality and overall performance. Database...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    A Picture IsWorth a ThousandWords: Improving Usability and Robustness of Online Recommendation Systems

    Recent statistics show that the number of online shoppers are increasing where the majority of them use online recommendation systems for product/service reviews. Although online reviews are becoming increasingly important, consumers face two major challenges of usability and robustness when they make purchase decisions based on the available reviews. More...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    XTRec: Secure Real-Time Execution Trace Recording on Commodity Platforms

    The authors propose XTRec, a primitive that can record the instruction-level execution trace of a commodity computing system. Their primitive is resilient to compromise to provide integrity of the recorded execution trace. They implement XTRec on the AMD platform running the Windows OS. The only software component that is trusted...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Challenges in Access Right Assignment for Secure Home Networks

    The proliferation of advanced technologies has been altering the peoples lifestyle and social interactions - the next frontier is the digital home. Although the future of smart homes is promising, many technical challenges must be addressed to achieve convenience and security. In this paper, the authors delineate the unique combination...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    More is Less: Denial-of-Service Attacks and Solutions in Many-Core On-Chip Networks

    A many-core system is expected to outperform a traditional single-core system by enabling multiple applications to be executed on separate cores in parallel, given the generous assumption that the execution of an application on one core does not interfere with an application on other cores. Regrettably, this optimistic belief about...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Round-Efficient Broadcast Authentication Protocols for Fixed Topology Classes

    The authors consider resource-constrained broadcast authentication for n receivers in a static, known network topology. There are only two known broadcast authentication protocols that do not use asymmetric cryptography, one-time signatures, multi-receiver MACs, or time synchronization,. Both these protocols require three passes of a message front traversing the network. They...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    TrustVisor: Efficient TCB Reduction and Attestation

    An important security challenge is to protect the execution of security-sensitive code on legacy systems from malware that may infect the OS, applications, or system devices. Prior work experienced a tradeoff between the level of security achieved and efficiency. In this paper, the authors leverage the features of modern processors...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Bootstrapping Trust in Commodity Computers

    Trusting a computer for a security-sensitive task (such as checking email or banking online) requires the user to know something about the computer's state. The authors examine research on securely capturing a computer's state, and consider the utility of this information both for improving security on the local computer (e.g.,...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Privacy-Preserving Relationship Path Discovery in Social Networks

    As social networks sites continue to proliferate and are being used for an increasing variety of purposes, the privacy risks raised by the full access of social networking sites over user data become uncomfortable. A decentralized social network would help alleviate this problem, but offering the functionalities of social networking...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Study of User-Friendly Hash Comparison Schemes

    Several security protocols require a human to compare two hash values to ensure successful completion. When the hash values are represented as long sequences of numbers, humans may make a mistake or require significant time and patience to accurately compare the hash values. To improve usability during comparison, a number...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    An Empirical Analysis of Phishing Blacklists

    In this paper, the authors study the effectiveness of phishing black-lists. They used 191 fresh phish that were less than 30 minutes old to conduct two tests on eight anti-phishing tool-bars. They found that 63% of the phishing campaigns in their data-set lasted less than two hours. Blacklists were ineffective...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Formalizing Domains, Ultrametric Spaces and Semantics of Programming Languages

    The use of proof assistants in formalizing language meta-theory and implementing certified tools has grown enormously over the last decade, and is now a major trend in programming language research. Most current work on mechanizing language definitions and safety proofs, certified compilation, proof carrying code, and so on uses fairly...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Efcient Mechanisms to Provide Convoy Member and Vehicle Sequence Authentication in VANETs

    Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are on the verge of deployment. In the near future, wireless vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication will enable numerous safety, convenience, and business applications. Security is a necessary pre-requisite for adoption of these technologies. As the authors demonstrate in this paper, VANETs require two new security...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Critical Vulnerability in Browser Security Metrics

    Every time a browser vendor releases a patch for a critical vulnerability, the popular news media publishes a slew of negative press paper detailing the security holes that have been announced in the product. Users who read these papers often decide to switch to a "Safer" browser. The negative press...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    RT @IWantPrivacy:Widespread Violation of Privacy Settings in the Twitter Social Network

    Twitter is a social network that focuses on creating and sharing short 140 character messages know as tweets. Twitter's sole privacy policy is a binary option that either allows every message a user creates to be publicly available, or allows only a user's followers to see posted messages. As the...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    DTA++: Dynamic Taint Analysis With Targeted Control-Flow Propagation

    Dynamic Taint Analysis (DTA) is a powerful technique for, among other things, tracking the flow of sensitive information. However, it is vulnerable to false negative errors caused by implicit flows, situations in which tainted data values affect control flow, which in turn affects other data. The authors propose DTA++, an...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Insights From the Inside: A View of Botnet Management From Infiltration

    Recent work has leveraged botnet infiltration techniques to track the activities of bots over time, particularly with regard to spam campaigns. Building the authors' previous success in reverse-engineering C&C protocols, they have conducted a 4-month infiltration of the MegaD botnet, beginning in October 2009. Their infiltration provides one with constant...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Binary Code Extraction and Interface Identification for Security Applications

    Binary code reuse is the process of automatically identifying the interface and extracting the instructions and data dependencies of a code fragment from an executable program, so that it is self-contained and can be reused by external code. Binary code reuse is useful for a number of security applications, including...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Curbing Android Permission Creep

    The Android platform has about 130 application level permissions that govern access to resources. The determination of which permissions to request is left solely to the application developer. Users are prompted to approve all application permissions at install time, and permissions are silently enforced at execution time. Although many applications...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Talking to Yourself for Fun and Profit

    Browsers limit how web sites can access the network. Historically, the web platform has limited web sites to HTTP, but HTTP is inefficient for a number of applications - including chat and multiplayer games - for which raw socket access is more appropriate. Java, Flash Player, and HTML5 provide socket...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Language for Large Ensembles of Independently Executing Nodes

    The authors address how to write programs for distributed computing systems in which the network topology can change dynamically. Examples of such systems, which they call ensembles, include programmable sensor networks (where the network topology can change due to failures in the nodes or links) and modular robotics systems (whose...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Higher-Order Representation of Substructural Logics

    The authors present a technique for higher-order representation of sub-structural logics such as linear or modal logic. They show that such logics can be encoded in the (ordinary) Logical Framework, without any linear or modal extensions. Using this encoding, meta-theoretic proofs about such logics can easily be developed in the...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Case for VOS: The Vector Operating System

    Operating systems research for many-core systems has recently focused its efforts on supporting the scalability of OS-intensive applications running on increasingly parallel hardware. Lost amidst the march towards this parallel future is efficiency: perfectly parallel software may saturate the parallel capabilities of the host system, but in doing so can...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Computing With FAWN

    This paper presents the architecture and motivation for a cluster-based, many-core computing architecture for energy-efficient, data-intensive computing. FAWN, a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes, consists of a large number of slower but efficient nodes coupled with low-power storage. The authors present the computing trends that motivate a FAWN-like approach, for...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Exact Pattern Matching With Feed-Forward Bloom Filters

    This paper presents a new, memory efficient and cache-optimized algorithm for simultaneously searching for a large number of patterns in a very large corpus. This algorithm builds upon the Rabin-Karp string search algorithm and incorporates a new type of Bloom filter that the authors call a feed-forward Bloom filter. While...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Efficient Similarity Estimation for Systems Exploiting Data Redundancy

    Many modern systems exploit data redundancy to improve efficiency. These systems split data into chunks, generate identifiers for each of them, and compare the identifiers among other data items to identify duplicate chunks. As a result, chunk size becomes a critical parameter for the efficiency of these systems: it trades...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    SCION: Scalability, Control, and Isolation on Next-Generation Networks

    The authors present the first Internet architecture designed to provide route control, failure isolation, and explicit trust information for end-to-end communications. SCION separates ASes into groups of independent routing sub-planes, called trust domains, which then interconnect to form complete routes. Trust domains provide natural isolation of routing failures and human...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Predicting Handoffs in 3G Networks

    Cellular data networks have recently seen an explosion in their usage due to the widespread deployment of 3G technologies and the rapid proliferation of smartphones. People are increasingly using their smartphones on the go and expect always-on, high quality connectivity at all times. A key network primitive that enables continuous...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Disks Are Like Snowflakes: No Two Are Alike

    Gone are the days of homogeneous sets of disks. Even disks of a given batch, of the same make and model, will have significantly different bandwidths. This paper describes the disk technology trends responsible for the now-inherent heterogeneity of multi-disk systems and disk-based clusters, provides measurements quantifying it, and discusses...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Applying Simple Performance Models to Understand Inefficiencies in Data-Intensive Computing

    New programming frameworks for scale-out parallel analysis, such as MapReduce and Hadoop, have become a cornerstone for exploiting large datasets. However, there has been little analysis of how these systems perform relative to the capabilities of the hardware on which they run. This paper describes a simple analytical model that...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Principles of Operation for Shingled Disk Devices

    A leading strategy for driving the areal density of magnetic disk drives through 1 - 10 terabit/inch (the coming decade) is to shingle (partially overlap) adjacent tracks, imposing significant restrictions on where data can be written without incurring multi-track read-modify-write penalties. These restrictions and penalties can be fully hidden from...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Improving Cache Performance Using Victim Tag Stores

    With increasing pressure on memory bandwidth, there have been a number of proposals that improve the cache replacement policy. These mechanisms monitor the cache blocks while they are in the cache and evict blocks that are deemed to have low temporal locality. However, a majority of these mechanisms are agnostic...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Row Buffer Locality-Aware Data Placement in Hybrid Memories

    Phase Change Memory (PCM) is a promising alternative to DRAM, though its high latency and energy costs prohibit its adoption as a drop-in DRAM replacement. Hybrid memory systems comprising DRAM and PCM attempt to achieve the low access latencies of DRAM at the large capacities of PCM. However, known solutions...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Traffic Information Systems: Efficient Message Dissemination Via Adaptive Beaconing

    Traffic Information Systems (TIS) are one of the key non-safety application areas of Vehicular Ad Hoc NETworks (VANETs). As such, TIS are much less delay sensitive compared to safety applications, which have recently attracted a lot of attention in VANET research. The authors propose a new message dissemination protocol, Adaptive...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    A Toolbox to Explore the Interaction of Adaptive Jamming and Anti-Jamming

    Jamming has long been a problem in wireless communications. Recently, adaptive jamming and anti-jamming techniques have been proposed which aim to use feedback to better perform their task. For an anti-jamming receiver this means detecting jamming and adapting its protocol appropriately. For a jammer this means using feedback from the...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Jamming-Resistant Distributed Path Selection on Wireless Mesh Networks

    Wireless mesh network is an emerging network architecture which have been actively standardized for the last few years. Because of its flexible network architecture, wireless mesh network can provide alternative paths even when some of wireless links are broken by node failures or intended attacks. Among various types of mesh...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Mitigation of Periodic Jamming in a Spread Spectrum System by Adaptive Filter Selection

    Jamming has long been a problem in wireless communication systems. Traditionally, defense techniques have looked to raise the cost of mounting an equally effective jamming attack. One technique to raise the cost of jamming is Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) which spreads data over a wider bandwidth and has built-in...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Survivable Smart Grid Communication: Smart-Meters Meshes to the Rescue

    Smart grids are critical cyber-physical infrastructures in the world now. Since these infrastructures are prone to large scale outages due to disasters or faults, a resilient and survivable communication architecture is desired. In this paper, the authors propose a resilient and survivable hierarchical communication architecture for the smart grid that...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Segment Based Inter-Networking to Accommodate Diversity at the Edge

    In this paper, the authors introduce Tapa, a network architecture that accommodates diversity at the network edge: different access networks, heterogeneous edge devices, and rich applications and network services. The core idea underlying Tapa is to use network segments, rather than IP links, as the basis on top of which...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    XIA: Efficient Support for Evolvable Internetworking

    Motivated by limitations in today's host-centric IP network, recent studies have proposed clean-slate network architectures centered around alternate first-class principals, such as content, services, or users. However, much like the host-centric IP design, elevating one principal type above others hinders communication between other principals and inhibits the network's capability to...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    RPT: Re-Architecting Loss Protection for Content-Aware Networks

    The authors revisit the design of redundancy-based loss protection schemes in light of recent advances in content-aware networking. Content-aware networks minimizes the overhead of redundancy, if the redundancy is introduced in a way that the network can understand. With this insight, they propose a new loss protection scheme called Redundant...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University