Carnegie Mellon University

Displaying 41-80 of 530 results

  • White Papers // May 2013

    MeshJam: Intelligent Jamming Attack and Defense in IEEE 802.11s Wireless Mesh Networks

    Wireless mesh networks represent an emerging network architecture which has been actively studied and standardized for the last several years. Because of their flexible network architecture, wireless mesh networks can provide alternative paths even when wireless links are broken by node failures or routing attacks. Among a variety of mesh...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Stochastic Optimization of Flow-Jamming Attacks in Multichannel Wireless Networks

    An attacker can launch an efficient jamming attack to deny service to flows in wireless networks by using cross-layer knowledge of the target network. For example, flow-jamming defined in existing work incorporates network layer information into the conventional jamming attack to maximize its attack efficiency. In this paper, the authors...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    ASIA: Accelerated Secure In-network Aggregation in Vehicular Sensing Networks

    Vehicular Ad-Hoc NETworks (VANETs) can potentially become a sensing platform. In-network aggregation, a fundamental primitive for querying sensory data, has been shown to reduce overall communication overhead at large. To secure data aggregation in VANETs, existing schemes mainly rely on digital signatures. However, generating and verifying such signatures can cause...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    How to Jam Without Getting Caught: Analysis and Empirical Study of Stealthy Periodic Jamming

    Despite the widespread commercial use of spread spectrum technology, advanced algorithms and modern hardware capabilities still allows efficient denial-of-service attacks against wireless communication systems using jamming. Much of the recent work on jamming mitigation has focused on how to adjust the transmitter-receiver system once a jamming attack has been detected....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Network Self-Organization in the Internet of Things

    The Internet of Things is a paradigm that allows the interaction of ubiquitous devices through a network to achieve common goals. This paradigm like any man-made infrastructure is subject to disasters, outages and other adversarial conditions. Under these situations provisioned communications fail, rendering this paradigm with little or no use....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    UnLocIn: Unauthorized Location Inference on Smartphones without Being Caught

    Location privacy has become one of the critical issues in the Smartphone era. Since users carry their phones everywhere and all the time, leaking users' location information can have dangerous implications. In this paper, the authors leverage the idea that Wi-Fi parameters not considered to be \"Sensitive\" in the Android...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Resistance is Not Futile: Detecting DDoS Attacks without Packet Inspection

    Packets in anonymous networks are fully protected. Therefore, traditional methods relying on packet header and higher layer information do not work to detect Distributed-Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks in anonymous networks. In this paper, the authors propose to use observable statistics at routers that need no packet inspection to infer the presence...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Specialized Storage for Big Numeric Time Series

    Big Data analysis is being used today to yield extraordinary insights in a variety of fields, including cancer research, traffic congestion, and datacenter health. Numeric time series data has unique storage requirements and access patterns that can benefit from specialized support, given its importance in big data analyses. Popular frameworks...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Techniques for Data Mapping and Buffering to Exploit Asymmetry in Multi-Level Cell (Phase Change) Memory

    Phase Change Memory (PCM) is a promising alternative to DRAM to achieve high memory capacity at low cost per bit. Adding to its better projected scalability, PCM can also store multiple bits per cell (called Multi-Level Cell, MLC), offering higher bit density. However, MLC requires precise sensing and control of...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Decentralized Preemptive Scheduling Across Heterogeneous Multi-Core Grid Resources

    The recent advent of multi-core computing environments increases the heterogeneity of grid resources and the complexity of managing them, making efficient load balancing challenging. In an environment where jobs are submitted regularly into a grid which is already executing several jobs, it becomes important to provide low job turn-around times...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Geometry-Based Vehicle-to-Vehicle Channel Modeling for Large-Scale Simulation

    Large-scale Vehicular Ad Hoc NETwork (VANET) simulators by and large employ simple statistical channel models. By design, such models do not account for specific objects in the region of interest when estimating the channel. While computationally efficient, these models were shown to be unable to provide satisfactory accuracy on a...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Building a High-Performance Metadata Service by Reusing Scalable I/O Bandwidth

    Modern parallel and cluster file systems provide highly scalable I/O bandwidth by enabling highly parallel access to file data. Unfortunately metadata access does not benefit from parallel data transfer, so metadata performance scaling is less common. To support metadata-intensive workloads, the authors offer a middleware design that layers on top...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • Webcasts // Apr 2013

    Secure Coding - Avoiding Future Security Incidents

    In this webcast, the presenter going to explain about the secure coding. The presenter will give introduction about the software security the system which developed for and delivered to the DoD security flaws.

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    Tiered-Latency DRAM: A Low Latency and Low Cost DRAM Architecture

    The capacity and cost-per-bit of DRAM have historically scaled to satisfy the needs of increasingly large and complex computer systems. However, DRAM latency has remained almost constant, making memory latency the performance bottleneck in today's systems. The authors observe that the high access latency is not intrinsic to DRAM, but...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    When Cycles are Cheap, Some Tables Can Be Huge

    In this paper, the authors raise a new question: What changes in operating systems and networks if it were feasible to have a (type of) lookup table that supported billions, or hundreds of billions, of entries, using only a few bits per entry. The authors do so by showing that...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    Practical Batch-Updatable External Hashing with Sorting

    In this paper the authors present a practical external hashing scheme that supports fast lookup (7 microseconds) for large datasets (millions to billions of items) with a small memory footprint (2.5 bits/item) and fast index construction (151 K items/s for 1-KiB key-value pairs). Their scheme combines three key techniques: a...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    Asymmetry-Aware Execution Placement on Manycore Chips

    Network-on-chip based manycore systems with multiple memory controllers on a chip are gaining prevalence. Among other research considerations, placing an increasing number of cores on a chip creates a type of resource access asymmetries that didn't exist before. A common assumption of uniform or hierarchical memory controller access no longer...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    KISS: "Key It Simple and Secure" Corporate Key Management

    Deploying a corporate key management system faces fundamental challenges, such as fine-grained key usage control and secure system administration. None of the current commercial systems (either based on software or hardware security modules) or research proposals adequately address both challenges with small and simple Trusted Computing Base (TCB). This paper...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    Design, Implementation and Verification of an EXtensible and Modular Hypervisor Framework

    The authors present the design, implementation, and verification of XMHF - an eXtensible and Modular Hypervisor Framework. XMHF is designed to achieve three goals - modular extensibility, automated verification, and high performance. XMHF includes a core that provides functionality common to many hypervisor-based security architectures and supports extensions that augment...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    RowClone: Fast and Efficient In-DRAM Copy and Initialization of Bulk Data

    Many programs initialize or copy large amounts of memory data. Initialization and copying are forms of memory operations that do not require computation in order to derive their data-values - they either deals with known data-values or simply move data-values that already exist elsewhere in memory. Therefore, initialization/copying can potentially...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2013

    QRishing: The Susceptibility of Smartphone Users to QR Code Phishing Attacks

    The matrix barcodes known as Quick Response (QR) codes are rapidly becoming pervasive in urban environments around the world. QR codes are used to represent data, such as a web address, in a compact form that can be scanned readily and parsed by consumer mobile devices. They are popular with...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2013

    The Impact of Mobile Multimedia Applications on Data Center Consolidation

    The convergence of mobile computing and cloud computing enables new multimedia applications that are both resource-intensive and interaction-intensive. For these applications, end-to-end network bandwidth and latency matter greatly when cloud resources are used to augment the computational power and battery life of a mobile device. The authors first present quantitative...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2013

    Policy-Based Secure Deletion

    Securely deleting data from storage systems has become difficult today. Most storage space is provided as a virtual resource and traverses many layers between the user and the actual physical storage medium. Operations to properly erase data and wipe out all its traces are typically not foreseen. This paper introduces...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2013

    Evaluating STT-RAM as an Energy-Efficient Main Memory Alternative

    In this paper, the authors explore the possibility of using STT-RAM technology to completely replace DRAM in main memory. Their goal is to make STT-RAM performance comparable to DRAM while providing substantial power savings. Towards this goal, they first analyze the performance and energy of STTRAM, and then identify key...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    Modulation Coding for Flash Memories

    The aggressive scaling down of flash memories has threatened data reliability since the scaling down of cell sizes gives rise to more serious degradation mechanisms such as cell-to-cell interference and lateral charge spreading. The effect of these mechanisms has pattern dependency and some data patterns are more vulnerable than other...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    Parallel Markov Chain Monte Carlo for Nonparametric Mixture Models

    Nonparametric mixture models based on the Dirichlet process are an elegant alternative to finite models when the number of under-lying components is unknown, but inference in such models can be slow. Existing attempts to parallelize inference in such models have relied on introducing approximations, which can lead to inaccuracies in...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    MISE: Providing Performance Predictability and Improving Fairness in Shared Main Memory Systems

    Applications running concurrently on a multi-core system interfere with each other at the main memory. This interference can slow down different applications differently. Accurately estimating the slowdown of each application in such a system can enable mechanisms that can enforce quality-of-service. While much prior work has focused on mitigating the...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    Application-to-Core Mapping Policies to Reduce Memory System Interference in Multi-Core System

    Future many-core processors are likely to concurrently execute a large number of diverse applications. How these applications are mapped to cores largely determines the interference between these applications in critical shared hardware resources. This paper proposes new application-to-core mapping policies to improve system performance by reducing inter-application interference in the...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    Application-to-Core Mapping Policies to Reduce Memory System Interference in Multi-Core Systems

    Future manycore processors are likely to concurrently execute a large number of diverse applications. How these applications are mapped to cores largely determines the interference between these applications in critical shared hardware resources. This paper proposes new application-to-core mapping policies to improve system performance by reducing inter-application interference in the...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    TABLEFS: Enhancing Metadata Efficiency in the Local File System

    File systems that manage magnetic disks have long recognized the importance of sequential allocation and large transfer sizes for file data. Fast random access has dominated metadata lookup data structures with increasing use of B-trees on-disk. Yet the authors' experiments with workloads dominated by metadata and small file access indicate...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    Giga+TableFS on PanFS: Scaling Metadata Performance on Cluster File Systems

    Modern file systems provide scalable performance for large file data management. However, in case of metadata management the usual approach is to have single or few points of Meta-Data Service (MDS). In the current world, file systems are challenged by unique needs such as managing exponentially growing files, using file-system...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    Evaluating Row Buffer Locality in Future Non-Volatile Main Memories

    DRAM-based main memories have read operations that destroy the read data, and as a result, must buffer large amounts of data on each array access to keep chip costs low. Unfortunately, system-level trends such as increased memory contention in multi-core architectures and data mapping schemes that improve memory parallelism may...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    HiRD: A Low-Complexity, Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Ring Interconnect

    Energy consumption and design simplicity are paramount concerns in on-chip interconnects for Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs). Several proposed and a few implemented many-core on-chip interconnects are mesh or torus-based. These designs offer good scalability. However, most mainstream commercial Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs) use rings, in which each network node has relatively simpler...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    TVR - Tall Vehicle Relaying in Vehicular Networks

    Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication is a core technology for enabling safety and non-safety applications in next generation Intelligent Transportation Systems. Recently, several studies have shown that line of sight conditions have a direct influence on V2V link quality. Line of sight is influenced by both topographic features and vehicles located between...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    So Near, and Yet so Far: Managing "far-Away" Interferers in Dense Femto-Cell Networks

    The authors expect femto-cells to be massively and densely deployed in the future. Numerous existing works on femto-cell interference management assume that the local topology of interfering femto-cells can be sufficiently approximated through sensing, if not already known in advance. They show that this assumption results in poor throughput performance...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    Memory-Efficient GroupBy-Aggregate using Compressed Buffer Trees

    Memory is rapidly becoming a precious resource in many data processing environments. This paper introduces a new data structure called a Compressed Buffer Tree (CBT). Using a combination of buffering, compression, and lazy aggregation, CBTs can improve the memory efficiency of the GroupBy-aggregate abstraction which forms the basis of many...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    Theia: Visual Signatures for Problem Diagnosis in Large Hadoop Clusters

    Diagnosing performance problems in large distributed systems can be daunting as the copious volume of monitoring information available can obscure the root-cause of the problem. Automated diagnosis tools help narrow down the possible root-causes - however, these tools are not perfect thereby motivating the need for visualization tools that allow...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    A Case for Scaling HPC Metadata Performance Through De-Specialization

    Lack of a highly scalable and parallel metadata service is the Achilles heel for many cluster file system deployments in both the HPC world and the Internet services world. This is because most cluster file systems have focused on scaling the data path, i.e. providing high bandwidth parallel I/O to...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • Webcasts // Nov 2012

    Source Code Analysis Library (SCALe)

    The Source Code Analysis Laboratory (SCALe) is a proof-of-concept demonstration that software systems can be conformance tested against secure coding standard, such as The CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java. This secure coding standard provides secure coding rules for the Java SE 6 Platform including the Java programming language...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    MemC3: Compact and Concurrent MemCache with Dumber Caching and Smarter Hashing

    MemC3 is an in-memory key-value store that is designed to provide caching service for read-mostly workloads. It is built on carefully engineered algorithms and data structures with a set of architecture-aware and workload-ware optimizations to achieve high concurrency, space-efficiency and cache-locality. In particular, MemC3 uses a new hashing scheme -...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Study of User-Friendly Hash Comparison Schemes

    Several security protocols require a human to compare two hash values to ensure successful completion. When the hash values are represented as long sequences of numbers, humans may make a mistake or require significant time and patience to accurately compare the hash values. To improve usability during comparison, a number...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Centaur: A Hybrid Approach for Reliable Policy-Based Routing

    In this paper, the authors consider the design of a policy-based routing system and the role that link state might play. Looking at the problem from a link-state perspective, they propose Centaur, a hybrid routing protocol combining the benefits of both link state and path vector. Through analytical and experimental...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Efcient Mechanisms to Provide Convoy Member and Vehicle Sequence Authentication in VANETs

    Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are on the verge of deployment. In the near future, wireless vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication will enable numerous safety, convenience, and business applications. Security is a necessary pre-requisite for adoption of these technologies. As the authors demonstrate in this paper, VANETs require two new security...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Curbing Android Permission Creep

    The Android platform has about 130 application level permissions that govern access to resources. The determination of which permissions to request is left solely to the application developer. Users are prompted to approve all application permissions at install time, and permissions are silently enforced at execution time. Although many applications...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Talking to Yourself for Fun and Profit

    Browsers limit how web sites can access the network. Historically, the web platform has limited web sites to HTTP, but HTTP is inefficient for a number of applications - including chat and multiplayer games - for which raw socket access is more appropriate. Java, Flash Player, and HTML5 provide socket...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Critical Vulnerability in Browser Security Metrics

    Every time a browser vendor releases a patch for a critical vulnerability, the popular news media publishes a slew of negative press paper detailing the security holes that have been announced in the product. Users who read these papers often decide to switch to a "Safer" browser. The negative press...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    RT @IWantPrivacy:Widespread Violation of Privacy Settings in the Twitter Social Network

    Twitter is a social network that focuses on creating and sharing short 140 character messages know as tweets. Twitter's sole privacy policy is a binary option that either allows every message a user creates to be publicly available, or allows only a user's followers to see posted messages. As the...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    An Empirical Analysis of Phishing Blacklists

    In this paper, the authors study the effectiveness of phishing black-lists. They used 191 fresh phish that were less than 30 minutes old to conduct two tests on eight anti-phishing tool-bars. They found that 63% of the phishing campaigns in their data-set lasted less than two hours. Blacklists were ineffective...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    School of Phish: A Real-World Evaluation of Anti-Phishing Training

    PhishGuru is an embedded training system that teaches users to avoid falling for phishing attacks by delivering a training message when the user clicks on the URL in a simulated phishing email. In previous lab and real-world experiments, the authors validated the effectiveness of this approach. Here, they extend their...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Neighbor Discovery in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Mobile sensor nodes can be used for a wide variety of applications such as social networks and location tracking. An important requirement for all such applications is that the mobile nodes need to actively discover their neighbors with minimal energy and latency. Nodes in mobile networks are not necessarily synchronized...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Energy Harvesting From Electromagnetic Energy Radiating From AC Power Lines

    There has been considerable interest in energy harvesting for wireless sensor networks. Energy harvesting from thermal sources such as body heat and mechanical sources such as human motion have been proposed. There are also sensor network systems that harvest energy from the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. However, ambient...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Energy-Aware Partitioned Fixed-Priority Scheduling for Multi-Core Processors

    Energy management is becoming an increasingly important problem in application domains ranging from embedded devices to data centers. In many such systems, multi-core processors are projected as a promising technology to achieve improved performance with a lower power envelope. Managing the application power consumption under timing constraints poses significant challenges...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Cuckoo Directory: A Scalable Directory for Many-Core Systems

    Growing core counts have highlighted the need for scalable on-chip coherence mechanisms. The increase in the number of on-chip cores exposes the energy and area costs of scaling the directories. Duplicate-tag based directories require highly associative structures that grow with core count, precluding scalability due to prohibitive power consumption. Sparse...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    FPGA-Based Channel Simulator for a Wireless Network Emulator

    Wireless channel emulators are important tools for testing radio devices, especially in mobile environments. Wireless network emulators give the same accuracy and control for testing radio network systems that traditional channel emulators give to point to point radio links. Network emulators require many more independent channels than traditional channel emulators....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Experience With a Wireless Network Testbed Based on Signal Propagation Emulation

    The evaluation of wireless research is challenging because signals traveling through the ether are affected by the physical environment, including movement by people and objects. As a result, testbed experiments are hard to control and are non-repeatable. The authors have developed a wireless networking testbed based on digital signal propagation...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Row Buffer Locality-Aware Data Placement in Hybrid Memories

    Phase Change Memory (PCM) is a promising alternative to DRAM, though its high latency and energy costs prohibit its adoption as a drop-in DRAM replacement. Hybrid memory systems comprising DRAM and PCM attempt to achieve the low access latencies of DRAM at the large capacities of PCM. However, known solutions...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Improving Cache Performance Using Victim Tag Stores

    With increasing pressure on memory bandwidth, there have been a number of proposals that improve the cache replacement policy. These mechanisms monitor the cache blocks while they are in the cache and evict blocks that are deemed to have low temporal locality. However, a majority of these mechanisms are agnostic...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Principles of Operation for Shingled Disk Devices

    A leading strategy for driving the areal density of magnetic disk drives through 1 - 10 terabit/inch (the coming decade) is to shingle (partially overlap) adjacent tracks, imposing significant restrictions on where data can be written without incurring multi-track read-modify-write penalties. These restrictions and penalties can be fully hidden from...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Disks Are Like Snowflakes: No Two Are Alike

    Gone are the days of homogeneous sets of disks. Even disks of a given batch, of the same make and model, will have significantly different bandwidths. This paper describes the disk technology trends responsible for the now-inherent heterogeneity of multi-disk systems and disk-based clusters, provides measurements quantifying it, and discusses...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Applying Simple Performance Models to Understand Inefficiencies in Data-Intensive Computing

    New programming frameworks for scale-out parallel analysis, such as MapReduce and Hadoop, have become a cornerstone for exploiting large datasets. However, there has been little analysis of how these systems perform relative to the capabilities of the hardware on which they run. This paper describes a simple analytical model that...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Reclaiming the White Spaces: Spectrum Efficient Coexistence With Primary Users

    TV white spaces offer an exciting opportunity for increasing spectrum availability, but White Space Devices (WSDs) cannot interfere with primary users, including TV channels and wireless microphones (mics). Mics are particularly challenging because their use is dynamic and it is hard to avoid interference since mic receivers are receive-only devices....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Time Boxing Planning: Buffered Moscow Rules

    Time boxing is a management technique which prioritizes schedule over deliverables but time boxes which are merely a self, or an outside, imposed target without agreed partial outcomes and justified certainty are at best, an expression of good will on the part of the team. This paper proposes the use...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Needed Foundations for Assuring the Desirable Behavior of Software-Reliant Systems

    Future trends and current limitations presage a need for interdisciplinary foundations for designing, constructing, maintaining, adapting, and rapidly deploying software-reliant systems with assured system capabilities at all scales. In general, the ability to rapidly develop and field software-reliant capability is deficient. Part of this deficiency can be attributed to business...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    SAFER: System-Level Architecture for Failure Evasion in Real-Time Applications

    The authors propose a layer called SAFER (System-level Architecture for Failure Evasion in Real-time applications) to incorporate configurable task-level fault-tolerance features such as Hot Standby and Cold Standby in order to tolerate fail-stop processor and task failures for distributed embedded real-time systems. To detect such failures, SAFER monitors the health...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Rhythmic Tasks: A New Task Model With Continually Varying Periods for Cyber-Physical Systems

    Traditional mechanical subsystems in automobiles are being replaced by electronically controlled systems, often with no mechanical backup. This trend towards "Drive-by-wire" systems is becoming increasingly popular. In these cyber-physical systems, a critical task not meeting its timing deadline can lead to a safety violation and damage to life and/or property....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    PCOMPATS: Period-Compatible Task Allocation and Splitting on Multi-Core Processors

    Extensive research is underway to build chips with potentially hundreds of cores. In this paper, the authors consider the problem of scheduling periodic real-time tasks on multi-core processors. They develop a task partitioning algorithm called period-COMPatible-Allocation and Task-Splitting (pCOMPATS) for fixed-priority scheduling of preemptive hard real-time tasks where the utilization...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    DTA++: Dynamic Taint Analysis With Targeted Control-Flow Propagation

    Dynamic Taint Analysis (DTA) is a powerful technique for, among other things, tracking the flow of sensitive information. However, it is vulnerable to false negative errors caused by implicit flows, situations in which tainted data values affect control flow, which in turn affects other data. The authors propose DTA++, an...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Insights From the Inside: A View of Botnet Management From Infiltration

    Recent work has leveraged botnet infiltration techniques to track the activities of bots over time, particularly with regard to spam campaigns. Building the authors' previous success in reverse-engineering C&C protocols, they have conducted a 4-month infiltration of the MegaD botnet, beginning in October 2009. Their infiltration provides one with constant...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Binary Code Extraction and Interface Identification for Security Applications

    Binary code reuse is the process of automatically identifying the interface and extracting the instructions and data dependencies of a code fragment from an executable program, so that it is self-contained and can be reused by external code. Binary code reuse is useful for a number of security applications, including...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Towards Generating High Coverage Vulnerability-Based Signatures With Protocol-Level Constraint-Guided Exploration

    Signature-based input filtering is an important and widely deployed defense. But current signature generation methods have limited coverage and the generated signatures often can be easily evaded by an attacker with small variations of the exploit message. In this paper, the authors propose protocol-level constraint-guided exploration, a new approach towards...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    TIE: Principled Reverse Engineering of Types in Binary Programs

    A recurring problem in security is reverse engineering binary code to recover high-level language data abstractions and types. High-level programming languages have data abstractions such as buffers, structures, and local variables that all help programmers and program analyses reason about programs in a scalable manner. During compilation, these abstractions are...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Q: Exploit Hardening Made Easy

    Modern operating systems have since enabled address randomization (ASLR), which randomizes the location of libc, making these techniques unusable in practice. However, modern ASLR implementations leave smaller amounts of executable code unrandomized and it has been unclear whether an attacker can use these small code fragments to construct payloads in...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    SplitScreen: Enabling Efficient, Distributed Malware Detection

    The authors present the design and implementation of a novel anti-malware system called SplitScreen. SplitScreen performs an additional screening step prior to the signature matching phase found in existing approaches. The screening step filters out most non-infected files (90%) and also identifies malware signatures that are not of interest (99%)....

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    All You Ever Wanted to Know About Dynamic Taint Analysis and Forward Symbolic Execution (but Might Have Been Afraid to Ask)

    Dynamic taint analysis and forward symbolic execution are quickly becoming staple techniques in security analysis. Example applications of dynamic taint analysis and forward symbolic execution include malware analysis, input filter generation, test case generation, and vulnerability discovery. Despite the widespread usage of these two techniques, there has been little effort...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    A Contractual Anonymity System

    The authors propose, develop, and implement techniques for achieving contractual anonymity. In contractual anonymity, a user and service provider enter into an anonymity contract. The user is guaranteed anonymity and message unlinkability from the contractual anonymity system unless she breaks the contract. The service provider is guaranteed that it can...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Language for Large Ensembles of Independently Executing Nodes

    The authors address how to write programs for distributed computing systems in which the network topology can change dynamically. Examples of such systems, which they call ensembles, include programmable sensor networks (where the network topology can change due to failures in the nodes or links) and modular robotics systems (whose...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    On Configuring BGP Route Reflectors

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the standard protocol for exchanging routing information between border routers of Autonomous Systems (ASes) in today's Internet. Within an AS, border routers exchange externally-learned BGP route advertisements via Internal-BGP (I-BGP) peerings. Naive solutions for these I-BGP peering sessions (e.g., based on full-mesh topologies) simply...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Case for VOS: The Vector Operating System

    Operating systems research for many-core systems has recently focused its efforts on supporting the scalability of OS-intensive applications running on increasingly parallel hardware. Lost amidst the march towards this parallel future is efficiency: perfectly parallel software may saturate the parallel capabilities of the host system, but in doing so can...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Challenges and Opportunities for Efficient Computing With FAWN

    This paper presents the architecture and motivation for a cluster-based, many-core computing architecture for energy-efficient, data-intensive computing. FAWN, a Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes, consists of a large number of slower but efficient nodes coupled with low-power storage. The authors present the computing trends that motivate a FAWN-like approach, for...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Exact Pattern Matching With Feed-Forward Bloom Filters

    This paper presents a new, memory efficient and cache-optimized algorithm for simultaneously searching for a large number of patterns in a very large corpus. This algorithm builds upon the Rabin-Karp string search algorithm and incorporates a new type of Bloom filter that the authors call a feed-forward Bloom filter. While...

    Provided By Carnegie Mellon University