College of William and Mary

Displaying 1-29 of 29 results

  • White Papers // Sep 2012

    Quantitative Estimation of the Performance Delay with Propagation Effects in Disk Power Savings

    The biggest power consumer in data centers is the storage system. Coupled with the fact that disk drives are lowly utilized, disks offer great opportunities for power savings, but any power saving action should be transparent to user traffic. Estimating correctly the performance impact of power saving becomes crucial for...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Fine-Grained Treatment to Synchronizations in GPU-to-CPU Translation

    GPU-to-CPU translation may extend Graphics Processing Units (GPU) programs executions to multi-/many-core CPUs, and hence enable cross-device task migration and promote whole-system synergy. This paper describes some of the authors' findings in treatment to GPU synchronizations during the translation process. They show that careful dependence analysis may allow a ne-grained...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Enhancing Data Locality for Dynamic Simulations Through Asynchronous Data Transformations and Adaptive Control

    Many dynamic simulation programs contain complex, irregular memory reference patterns, and require runtime optimizations to enhance data locality. Current approaches periodically stop the execution of an application to reorder the computation or data based on the current program state to improve the data locality for the next period of execution....

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Correctly Treating Synchronizations in Compiling Fine-Grained SPMD-Threaded Programs for CPU

    Automatic compilation for multiple types of devices is important, especially given the current trends towards heterogeneous computing. This paper concentrates on some issues in compiling fine-grained SPMD-threaded code (e.g., GPU CUDA code) for multicore CPUs. It points out some correctness pitfalls in existing techniques, particularly in their treatment to implicit...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Copy Rate Synchronization with Performance Guarantees for Work Consolidation in Storage Clusters

    As storage in data centers is increasing rapidly, it has become critical to find ways to operate efficiently this important component of a data center. Often, it has been proposed to consolidate the storage workload into a subset of storage devices and shutdown the unused ones with the purpose of...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Toward Automating Work Consolidation With Performance Guarantees in Storage Clusters

    With most of today's systems being highly distributed, from data centers to cloud and storage clusters, there is a prevalent need for robust methodologies for work consolidation to improve load balancing but also to optimize non-traditional performance measures. In this paper, the authors present a methodology for distributed work consolidation...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Significance of CMP Cache Sharing on Contemporary Multithreaded Applications

    Cache sharing on modern Chip Multi-Processors (CMP) reduces communication latency among co-running threads, but also causes inter-thread cache contention. Most previous studies on the influence of cache sharing have concentrated on the design or management of shared cache. The observed influence is often constrained by the reliance on simulators, the...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    BodyT2: Throughput and Time Delay Performance Assurance for Heterogeneous BSNs

    Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) have been developed for a set of performance-critical applications, including smart healthcare, assisted living, emergency response, athletic performance evaluation, and interactive controls. Many of these applications require stringent performance assurance in terms of communication throughput and bounded time delay. While solutions exist in literature for providing...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Design and Analysis Of Wave Sensing Scheduling Protocols for Object-Tracking Applications

    Many sensor network applications demand tightly-bounded object detection quality. To meet such stringent requirements, the authors develop three sensing scheduling protocols to guarantee worst-case detection quality in a sensor network while reducing sensing power consumption. The protocols emulate a line sweeping through all points in the sensing field periodically. Nodes...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    LU Decomposition On Cell Broadband Engine: An Empirical Study to Exploit Heterogeneous Chip Multiprocessors

    To meet the needs of high performance computing, the Cell Broadband Engine owns many features that differ from traditional processors, such as the large number of synergistic processor elements, large register files, the ability to hide main-storage latency with concurrent computation and DMA transfers. The exploitation of those features requires...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    An Effective Feedback-Driven Approach for Energy Saving in Battery Powered Systems

    Energy efficiency is essential to Battery-Powered (BP) mobile systems. However, existing energy efficiency techniques suffer from imbalance between system performance and power consumption. This paper presents a Feedback QoS based Model, called FQM, to successfully achieve power reduction without performance degradation. By observing system behavior via control variables, FQM applies...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Privacy Protection for RFID-Based Tracking Systems

    RFID technology is increasingly being deployed in ubiquitous computing environments for object tracking and localization. Existing tracking architecture usually assumes the use of a trusted server which is invulnerable to compromise by internal and external adversaries. However, maintaining such a trusted server is unlikely in the real world. In this...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Is Reuse Distance Applicable to Data Locality Analysis on Chip Multiprocessors?

    On Chip Multi-Processors (CMP), it is common that multiple cores share certain levels of cache. The sharing increases the contention in cache and memory-to-chip bandwidth, further highlighting the importance of data locality analysis. As a rigorous and hardware-independent locality-metric, reuse distance has served for a variety of locality analysis, program...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    BogusBiter: A Transparent Protection Against Phishing Attacks

    Many anti-phishing mechanisms currently focus on helping users verify whether a web site is genuine. However, usability studies have demonstrated that prevention-based approaches alone fail to effectively suppress phishing attacks and protect Internet users from revealing their credentials to phishing sites. In this paper, instead of preventing human users from...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    A Collaboration-Based Autonomous Reputation System for Email Services

    This paper presents CARE, an autonomous email reputation system based on inter-domain collaboration. Within the framework of CARE, each domain independently builds its reputation database based on both the local email history and the information exchanged with other collaborating domains. CARE examines the trustworthiness of the email histories obtained from...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    On Related-Secret Pseudorandomness

    Related-key attacks are attacks against constructions which use a secret key (such as a blockcipher) in which an attacker attempts to exploit known or chosen relationships among keys to circumvent security properties. Security against related-key attacks has been a subject of study in numerous recent cryptographic papers. However, most of...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Combining Locality Analysis With Online Proactive Job Co-Scheduling in Chip Multiprocessors

    The shared-cache contention on Chip Multiprocessors causes performance degradation to applications and hurts system fairness. Many previously proposed solutions schedule programs according to runtime sampled cache performance to reduce cache contention. The strong dependence on runtime sampling inherently limits the scalability and effectiveness of those techniques. This paper explores the...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Speculation with Little Wasting: Saving Cost in Software Speculation through Transparent Learning

    Software speculation has shown promise in parallelizing programs with coarse-grained dynamic parallelism. However, most speculation systems use offline profiling for the selection of speculative regions. The mismatch with the input-sensitivity of dynamic parallelism may result in large numbers of speculation failures in many applications. Although with certain protection, the failed...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Secure Passwords Through Enhanced Hashing

    Passwords play a critical role in online authentication. Unfortunately, passwords suffer from two seemingly intractable problems: password cracking and password theft. In this paper, the authors propose PasswordAgent, a new password hashing mechanism that utilizes both a salt repository and a browser plug-in to secure web logins with strong passwords....

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Malware Detection and Analysis Via Layered Annotative Execution

    Malicious software (i.e., malware) has become a severe threat to interconnected computer systems for decades and has caused billions of dollars damages each year. A large volume of new malware samples are discovered daily. Even worse, malware is rapidly evolving to be more sophisticated and evasive to strike against current...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    RCB: A Simple and Practical Framework for Real-time Collaborative Browsing

    Existing co-browsing solutions must use either a specific collaborative platform, a modified web server, or a dedicated proxy to coordinate the browsing activities between web users. In addition, these solutions usually require co-browsing participants to install special software on their computers. These requirements heavily impede the wide use of collaborative...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    A Cross-Input Adaptive Framework for GPU Program Optimizations

    Recent years have seen a trend in using Graphic Processing Units (GPU) as accelerators for general-purpose computing. The inexpensive, single-chip, massively parallel architecture of GPU has evidentially brought factors of speedup to many numerical applications. However, the development of a high-quality GPU application is challenging, due to the large optimization...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Characterizing Insecure JavaScript Practices on the Web

    JavaScript is an interpreted programming language most often used for enhancing webpage interactivity and functionality. It has powerful capabilities to interact with webpage documents and browser windows, however, it has also opened the door for many browser-based security attacks. Insecure engineering practices of using JavaScript may not directly lead to...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Cross-Input Learning and Discriminative Prediction in Evolvable Virtual Machines

    Modern languages like Java and C# rely on dynamic optimizations in virtual machines for better performance. Current dynamic optimizations are reactive. Their performance is constrained by the dependence on runtime sampling and the partial knowledge of the execution. This paper tackles the problems by developing a set of techniques that...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Anti-Phishing in Offense and Defense

    Many anti-phishing mechanisms currently focus on helping users verify whether a web site is genuine. However, usability studies have demonstrated that prevention-based approaches alone fail to effectively suppress phishing attacks and protect Internet users from revealing their credentials to phishing sites. This paper, instead of preventing human users from "Biting...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Scalable Implementation of Efficient Locality Approximation

    As memory hierarchy becomes deeper and shared by more processors, locality increasingly determines system performance. As a rigorous and precise locality model, reuse distance has been used in program optimizations, performance prediction, memory disambiguation, and locality phase prediction. However, the high cost of measurement has been severely impeding its uses...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Public Investment And Budgetary Consolidation In Portugal

    In this paper, the authors find that public investment in durable goods has a positive effect on long-term economic performance in Portugal. They also find that these positive effects are not strong enough for public investment to pay for itself in the form of future tax revenues. Therefore, cuts in...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Adaptive Software Speculation for Enhancing the Cost-Efficiency of Behavior-Oriented Parallelization

    Recently, software speculation has shown promising results in parallelizing complex sequential programs by exploiting dynamic high-level parallelism. The speculation however is cost-inefficient. Failed speculations may cause unnecessary shared resource contention, power consumption, and interference to co-running applications. In this paper, the authors propose adaptive speculation and design two algorithms to...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // May 2008

    Exploration of the Influence of Program Inputs on CMP Co-Scheduling

    Recent studies have showed the effectiveness of job co-scheduling in alleviating shared-cache contention on Chip Multiprocessors. Although program inputs affect cache usage and thus cache contention significantly, their influence on co-scheduling remains unexplored. In this paper, the authors measure that influence and show that the ability to adapt to program...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Enhancing Data Locality for Dynamic Simulations Through Asynchronous Data Transformations and Adaptive Control

    Many dynamic simulation programs contain complex, irregular memory reference patterns, and require runtime optimizations to enhance data locality. Current approaches periodically stop the execution of an application to reorder the computation or data based on the current program state to improve the data locality for the next period of execution....

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Sep 2012

    Quantitative Estimation of the Performance Delay with Propagation Effects in Disk Power Savings

    The biggest power consumer in data centers is the storage system. Coupled with the fact that disk drives are lowly utilized, disks offer great opportunities for power savings, but any power saving action should be transparent to user traffic. Estimating correctly the performance impact of power saving becomes crucial for...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Toward Automating Work Consolidation With Performance Guarantees in Storage Clusters

    With most of today's systems being highly distributed, from data centers to cloud and storage clusters, there is a prevalent need for robust methodologies for work consolidation to improve load balancing but also to optimize non-traditional performance measures. In this paper, the authors present a methodology for distributed work consolidation...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Copy Rate Synchronization with Performance Guarantees for Work Consolidation in Storage Clusters

    As storage in data centers is increasing rapidly, it has become critical to find ways to operate efficiently this important component of a data center. Often, it has been proposed to consolidate the storage workload into a subset of storage devices and shutdown the unused ones with the purpose of...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    RCB: A Simple and Practical Framework for Real-time Collaborative Browsing

    Existing co-browsing solutions must use either a specific collaborative platform, a modified web server, or a dedicated proxy to coordinate the browsing activities between web users. In addition, these solutions usually require co-browsing participants to install special software on their computers. These requirements heavily impede the wide use of collaborative...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    On Related-Secret Pseudorandomness

    Related-key attacks are attacks against constructions which use a secret key (such as a blockcipher) in which an attacker attempts to exploit known or chosen relationships among keys to circumvent security properties. Security against related-key attacks has been a subject of study in numerous recent cryptographic papers. However, most of...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Anti-Phishing in Offense and Defense

    Many anti-phishing mechanisms currently focus on helping users verify whether a web site is genuine. However, usability studies have demonstrated that prevention-based approaches alone fail to effectively suppress phishing attacks and protect Internet users from revealing their credentials to phishing sites. This paper, instead of preventing human users from "Biting...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Malware Detection and Analysis Via Layered Annotative Execution

    Malicious software (i.e., malware) has become a severe threat to interconnected computer systems for decades and has caused billions of dollars damages each year. A large volume of new malware samples are discovered daily. Even worse, malware is rapidly evolving to be more sophisticated and evasive to strike against current...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    BogusBiter: A Transparent Protection Against Phishing Attacks

    Many anti-phishing mechanisms currently focus on helping users verify whether a web site is genuine. However, usability studies have demonstrated that prevention-based approaches alone fail to effectively suppress phishing attacks and protect Internet users from revealing their credentials to phishing sites. In this paper, instead of preventing human users from...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Privacy Protection for RFID-Based Tracking Systems

    RFID technology is increasingly being deployed in ubiquitous computing environments for object tracking and localization. Existing tracking architecture usually assumes the use of a trusted server which is invulnerable to compromise by internal and external adversaries. However, maintaining such a trusted server is unlikely in the real world. In this...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Characterizing Insecure JavaScript Practices on the Web

    JavaScript is an interpreted programming language most often used for enhancing webpage interactivity and functionality. It has powerful capabilities to interact with webpage documents and browser windows, however, it has also opened the door for many browser-based security attacks. Insecure engineering practices of using JavaScript may not directly lead to...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Design and Analysis Of Wave Sensing Scheduling Protocols for Object-Tracking Applications

    Many sensor network applications demand tightly-bounded object detection quality. To meet such stringent requirements, the authors develop three sensing scheduling protocols to guarantee worst-case detection quality in a sensor network while reducing sensing power consumption. The protocols emulate a line sweeping through all points in the sensing field periodically. Nodes...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Secure Passwords Through Enhanced Hashing

    Passwords play a critical role in online authentication. Unfortunately, passwords suffer from two seemingly intractable problems: password cracking and password theft. In this paper, the authors propose PasswordAgent, a new password hashing mechanism that utilizes both a salt repository and a browser plug-in to secure web logins with strong passwords....

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    An Effective Feedback-Driven Approach for Energy Saving in Battery Powered Systems

    Energy efficiency is essential to Battery-Powered (BP) mobile systems. However, existing energy efficiency techniques suffer from imbalance between system performance and power consumption. This paper presents a Feedback QoS based Model, called FQM, to successfully achieve power reduction without performance degradation. By observing system behavior via control variables, FQM applies...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    A Collaboration-Based Autonomous Reputation System for Email Services

    This paper presents CARE, an autonomous email reputation system based on inter-domain collaboration. Within the framework of CARE, each domain independently builds its reputation database based on both the local email history and the information exchanged with other collaborating domains. CARE examines the trustworthiness of the email histories obtained from...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Public Investment And Budgetary Consolidation In Portugal

    In this paper, the authors find that public investment in durable goods has a positive effect on long-term economic performance in Portugal. They also find that these positive effects are not strong enough for public investment to pay for itself in the form of future tax revenues. Therefore, cuts in...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    BodyT2: Throughput and Time Delay Performance Assurance for Heterogeneous BSNs

    Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) have been developed for a set of performance-critical applications, including smart healthcare, assisted living, emergency response, athletic performance evaluation, and interactive controls. Many of these applications require stringent performance assurance in terms of communication throughput and bounded time delay. While solutions exist in literature for providing...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Significance of CMP Cache Sharing on Contemporary Multithreaded Applications

    Cache sharing on modern Chip Multi-Processors (CMP) reduces communication latency among co-running threads, but also causes inter-thread cache contention. Most previous studies on the influence of cache sharing have concentrated on the design or management of shared cache. The observed influence is often constrained by the reliance on simulators, the...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Is Reuse Distance Applicable to Data Locality Analysis on Chip Multiprocessors?

    On Chip Multi-Processors (CMP), it is common that multiple cores share certain levels of cache. The sharing increases the contention in cache and memory-to-chip bandwidth, further highlighting the importance of data locality analysis. As a rigorous and hardware-independent locality-metric, reuse distance has served for a variety of locality analysis, program...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Combining Locality Analysis With Online Proactive Job Co-Scheduling in Chip Multiprocessors

    The shared-cache contention on Chip Multiprocessors causes performance degradation to applications and hurts system fairness. Many previously proposed solutions schedule programs according to runtime sampled cache performance to reduce cache contention. The strong dependence on runtime sampling inherently limits the scalability and effectiveness of those techniques. This paper explores the...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    LU Decomposition On Cell Broadband Engine: An Empirical Study to Exploit Heterogeneous Chip Multiprocessors

    To meet the needs of high performance computing, the Cell Broadband Engine owns many features that differ from traditional processors, such as the large number of synergistic processor elements, large register files, the ability to hide main-storage latency with concurrent computation and DMA transfers. The exploitation of those features requires...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    A Cross-Input Adaptive Framework for GPU Program Optimizations

    Recent years have seen a trend in using Graphic Processing Units (GPU) as accelerators for general-purpose computing. The inexpensive, single-chip, massively parallel architecture of GPU has evidentially brought factors of speedup to many numerical applications. However, the development of a high-quality GPU application is challenging, due to the large optimization...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Cross-Input Learning and Discriminative Prediction in Evolvable Virtual Machines

    Modern languages like Java and C# rely on dynamic optimizations in virtual machines for better performance. Current dynamic optimizations are reactive. Their performance is constrained by the dependence on runtime sampling and the partial knowledge of the execution. This paper tackles the problems by developing a set of techniques that...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Speculation with Little Wasting: Saving Cost in Software Speculation through Transparent Learning

    Software speculation has shown promise in parallelizing programs with coarse-grained dynamic parallelism. However, most speculation systems use offline profiling for the selection of speculative regions. The mismatch with the input-sensitivity of dynamic parallelism may result in large numbers of speculation failures in many applications. Although with certain protection, the failed...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Adaptive Software Speculation for Enhancing the Cost-Efficiency of Behavior-Oriented Parallelization

    Recently, software speculation has shown promising results in parallelizing complex sequential programs by exploiting dynamic high-level parallelism. The speculation however is cost-inefficient. Failed speculations may cause unnecessary shared resource contention, power consumption, and interference to co-running applications. In this paper, the authors propose adaptive speculation and design two algorithms to...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // May 2008

    Exploration of the Influence of Program Inputs on CMP Co-Scheduling

    Recent studies have showed the effectiveness of job co-scheduling in alleviating shared-cache contention on Chip Multiprocessors. Although program inputs affect cache usage and thus cache contention significantly, their influence on co-scheduling remains unexplored. In this paper, the authors measure that influence and show that the ability to adapt to program...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Scalable Implementation of Efficient Locality Approximation

    As memory hierarchy becomes deeper and shared by more processors, locality increasingly determines system performance. As a rigorous and precise locality model, reuse distance has been used in program optimizations, performance prediction, memory disambiguation, and locality phase prediction. However, the high cost of measurement has been severely impeding its uses...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Fine-Grained Treatment to Synchronizations in GPU-to-CPU Translation

    GPU-to-CPU translation may extend Graphics Processing Units (GPU) programs executions to multi-/many-core CPUs, and hence enable cross-device task migration and promote whole-system synergy. This paper describes some of the authors' findings in treatment to GPU synchronizations during the translation process. They show that careful dependence analysis may allow a ne-grained...

    Provided By College of William and Mary

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Correctly Treating Synchronizations in Compiling Fine-Grained SPMD-Threaded Programs for CPU

    Automatic compilation for multiple types of devices is important, especially given the current trends towards heterogeneous computing. This paper concentrates on some issues in compiling fine-grained SPMD-threaded code (e.g., GPU CUDA code) for multicore CPUs. It points out some correctness pitfalls in existing techniques, particularly in their treatment to implicit...

    Provided By College of William and Mary