COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

Displaying 1-26 of 26 results

  • White Papers // Nov 2013

    A Survey: Linear and Nonlinear PCA Based Face Recognition Techniques

    Face recognition is considered to be one of the most reliable biometric, when security issues are taken into concern. For this, feature extraction becomes a critical problem. Different methods are used for extraction of facial feature which are broadly classified into linear and nonlinear subspaces. Among the linear methods are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2013

    Implementation and Comparative Analysis of the Fault Attacks on AES

    Cryptography is concerned with protection of private and confidential information. Cryptographic techniques evolve constantly because of constant threats being posed against them. Different kinds of attacks are always discovered with the advancement of technology. The authors are particularly interested in fault attacks due to two reasons. First, these attacks are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2013

    Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2013

    Analysis of Face Recognition Under Varying Facial Expression: A Survey

    Automatic face recognition is one of the most emphasizing dilemmas in diverse of potential relevance like in different surveillance systems, security systems, authentication or verification of individual like criminals etc. Adjoining of dynamic expression in face causes a broad range of discrepancies in recognition systems. Facial expression not only exposes...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Evaluating Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols under Mobility and Scalability Constraints

    Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs) provide users with the facility to communicate while moving with whatever the node speed, the node density and the number of traffic flows they want, without any unwanted delay and/or disruption. This paper contributes Linear Programming models (LP-models) for WMhNs. In WMhNs, different routing protocols are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Evaluating Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols with Linear Programming Model for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    In Wireless Ad-hoc NETworks, nodes are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus topology may change quickly and capriciously. In Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks, especially Wireless Multi-hop Networks provide users with facility of quick communication. In Wireless Multi-hop Networks, routing protocols with energy efficient and delay reduction techniques are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Modeling and Simulating Network Connectivity in Routing Protocols for MANETs and VANETs

    In this paper, the authors present a framework for node distribution with respect to density, network connectivity and communication time. Using NS2, they evaluate and compare performance of three routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Fisheye State Routing (FSR) both in MANETs (IEEE 802.11)...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Evaluating and Comparing Probability of Path Loss in DSDV, OLSR and DYMO at 802.11 and 802.11p

    In this paper, the authors present path loss model for VANETs and simulate three routing protocols; Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) to evaluate and compare their performance using NS-2. The main contribution of this paper is enhancement of existing techniques...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    A Survey of Different Residential Energy Consumption Controlling Techniques for Autonomous DSM in Future Smart Grid Communications

    In this paper, the authors present a survey of residential load controlling techniques to implement demand side management in future smart grid. Power generation sector facing important challenges in both quality and quantity to meet the increasing requirements of consumers. Energy efficiency, reliability, economics and integration of new energy resources...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Home Energy Management Systems in Future Smart Grids

    The authors present a detailed review of various Home Energy Management Schemes (HEMS). HEMs will increase savings, reduce peak demand and Pto Average Ratio (PAR). Among various applications of smart grid technologies, home energy management is probably the most important one to be addressed. Various steps have been taken by...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Advanced LEACH: A Static Clustering-Based Heteroneous Routing Protocol for WSNs

    Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) have a big application in heterogeneous networks. In this paper, the authors propose and evaluate Advanced Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Ad-LEACH) which is static clustering based heterogeneous routing protocol. The complete network field is first divided into static clusters and then in each cluster separate Ad-LEACH...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Comparative Analysis of Routing Protocols for Under Water Wireless Sensor Networks

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks due to peculiar characteristics of low bandwidth, high latency, limited energy, node float mobility and high error probability. These features bring many challenges to the network protocol design of UWSNs. Several routing protocols have been developed in recent years...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware (EESAA) Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), with growing applications in the environment which are not within human reach have been addressed tremendously in the recent past. For optimized working of network many routing algorithms have been proposed, mainly focusing energy efficiency, network lifetime, clustering processes. Considering homogeneity of network, the authors proposed...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    In-Home Power Line Communications Local Area Network Based on Uniform Discrete Multitone Transceiver

    Cyclic prefix based channel equalization employed in the Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation offers the advantage of simplified implementation. However, this method has the disadvantage of amplifying channel noise for channels having deep nulls in the frequency response. The in-home power line channel is one such channel that has high noise...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    Analysis of Video Coding and Error Resilience Tools of H.264/AVC in Wireless Environment

    Recently more and more telecommunication systems are supporting different kinds of real-time transmission, video transmission being one of the most important applications. In wireless environments, channel bandwidth and high packet loss rate are to main limitations in the way of delivering of a good quality video to the end user....

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Improvement of Key Problems of Software Testing in Quality Assurance

    Quality assurance makes sure the project will be completed based on the previously approved specifications, standards and functionality. It is required without defects and possible problems. It monitors and tries to progress the development process from the start of the project. Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is the combination of the...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Enhanced Junction Selection Mechanism for Routing Protocol in VANETs

    Routing in infrastructure less vehicular ad hoc networks is challenging because of the dynamic network, predictable topology, high speed of nodes, and predictable mobility patterns. This paper presents an enhanced routing protocol specifically designed for city environments. It uses vehicular speed and directional density for dynamic junction selection. Simulation results...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    In this paper, the authors present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    A Step Forward to Component-Based Software Cost Estimation in Object-Oriented Environment

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) of a project is pivotal to the acceptance or rejection of the development of software project. Various SCE techniques have been in practice with their own strengths and limitations. The latest of these is object-oriented one. Currently, object-oriented approach for SCE is based on Line Of...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Authentication and Secure Communication in GSM, GPRS, and UMTS Using Asymmetric Cryptography

    With its great features like providing access to users at anytime and anywhere in the world, mobile communication has been very attractive among the users as well as operators and service providers. However, despite of several advantages, mobile communication has also been facing many security problems. In 2G and 3G...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Performance Evaluation of WiMAX (802.16) Using Different Encoding Schemes

    WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX is based on wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) standards developed by IEEE 802.16 group. It operates in the licensed exempt and licensed spectrum between 2-11 GHz and 10-66 GHz frequency ranges respectively. It was developed to connect the Internet and to...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Gender Differences And Leadership: An Empirical Evidence

    Gender diversity at workplace with respect to leadership practices and need for leadership among followers have drawn the considerable research attention among leadership researchers across the world. A number of studies depicting the masculine and feminine leadership practices and followers' needs and preferences pertaining to leadership have been conducted in...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Distributed Grid Based Robust Clustering Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    This paper presents a distributed grid based robust clustering protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. An overwhelming majority of current research on sensor network routing protocols considers static networks only, while the authors consider mobile environment. Grid based robust clustering is a distributed location based, energy aware clustering protocol designed...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Distributed Efficient Multi Hop Clustering Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    This paper presents a Distributed Efficient Multi hop Clustering (DEMC) protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. An overwhelming majority of current research on sensor networks considers static networks only, while the authors consider mobile environment. DEMC is distributed, works well with mobile nodes, and has a recovery mechanism that is...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Management of Location Based Advertisement Services Using Spatial Triggers

    This paper discusses the advent of new technologies which have emerged under the area of Location Based Services (LBS). An innovative implementation and approach has been presented for design of applications which are inventive and attractive towards the user. Spatial Trigger is one of the most promising additions to the...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Computational Complexities and Breaches in Authentication Frameworks

    Secure access of communication networks has become an increasingly important area of consideration for the communication service providers of present day. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks are proving to be an efficient and cost-effective solution for the provisioning of high rate wireless traffic links in static and mobile domains. The...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    In-Home Power Line Communications Local Area Network Based on Uniform Discrete Multitone Transceiver

    Cyclic prefix based channel equalization employed in the Discrete Multi-Tone (DMT) modulation offers the advantage of simplified implementation. However, this method has the disadvantage of amplifying channel noise for channels having deep nulls in the frequency response. The in-home power line channel is one such channel that has high noise...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    Analysis of Video Coding and Error Resilience Tools of H.264/AVC in Wireless Environment

    Recently more and more telecommunication systems are supporting different kinds of real-time transmission, video transmission being one of the most important applications. In wireless environments, channel bandwidth and high packet loss rate are to main limitations in the way of delivering of a good quality video to the end user....

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Evaluating Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols under Mobility and Scalability Constraints

    Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs) provide users with the facility to communicate while moving with whatever the node speed, the node density and the number of traffic flows they want, without any unwanted delay and/or disruption. This paper contributes Linear Programming models (LP-models) for WMhNs. In WMhNs, different routing protocols are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2013

    Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Authentication and Secure Communication in GSM, GPRS, and UMTS Using Asymmetric Cryptography

    With its great features like providing access to users at anytime and anywhere in the world, mobile communication has been very attractive among the users as well as operators and service providers. However, despite of several advantages, mobile communication has also been facing many security problems. In 2G and 3G...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Distributed Grid Based Robust Clustering Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    This paper presents a distributed grid based robust clustering protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. An overwhelming majority of current research on sensor network routing protocols considers static networks only, while the authors consider mobile environment. Grid based robust clustering is a distributed location based, energy aware clustering protocol designed...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Distributed Efficient Multi Hop Clustering Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    This paper presents a Distributed Efficient Multi hop Clustering (DEMC) protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. An overwhelming majority of current research on sensor networks considers static networks only, while the authors consider mobile environment. DEMC is distributed, works well with mobile nodes, and has a recovery mechanism that is...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Computational Complexities and Breaches in Authentication Frameworks

    Secure access of communication networks has become an increasingly important area of consideration for the communication service providers of present day. Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) networks are proving to be an efficient and cost-effective solution for the provisioning of high rate wireless traffic links in static and mobile domains. The...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Management of Location Based Advertisement Services Using Spatial Triggers

    This paper discusses the advent of new technologies which have emerged under the area of Location Based Services (LBS). An innovative implementation and approach has been presented for design of applications which are inventive and attractive towards the user. Spatial Trigger is one of the most promising additions to the...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Performance Evaluation of WiMAX (802.16) Using Different Encoding Schemes

    WiMAX stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access. WiMAX is based on wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) standards developed by IEEE 802.16 group. It operates in the licensed exempt and licensed spectrum between 2-11 GHz and 10-66 GHz frequency ranges respectively. It was developed to connect the Internet and to...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Gender Differences And Leadership: An Empirical Evidence

    Gender diversity at workplace with respect to leadership practices and need for leadership among followers have drawn the considerable research attention among leadership researchers across the world. A number of studies depicting the masculine and feminine leadership practices and followers' needs and preferences pertaining to leadership have been conducted in...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    In this paper, the authors present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    A Step Forward to Component-Based Software Cost Estimation in Object-Oriented Environment

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) of a project is pivotal to the acceptance or rejection of the development of software project. Various SCE techniques have been in practice with their own strengths and limitations. The latest of these is object-oriented one. Currently, object-oriented approach for SCE is based on Line Of...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Enhanced Junction Selection Mechanism for Routing Protocol in VANETs

    Routing in infrastructure less vehicular ad hoc networks is challenging because of the dynamic network, predictable topology, high speed of nodes, and predictable mobility patterns. This paper presents an enhanced routing protocol specifically designed for city environments. It uses vehicular speed and directional density for dynamic junction selection. Simulation results...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    Energy Efficient Sleep Awake Aware (EESAA) Intelligent Sensor Network Routing Protocol

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), with growing applications in the environment which are not within human reach have been addressed tremendously in the recent past. For optimized working of network many routing algorithms have been proposed, mainly focusing energy efficiency, network lifetime, clustering processes. Considering homogeneity of network, the authors proposed...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Improvement of Key Problems of Software Testing in Quality Assurance

    Quality assurance makes sure the project will be completed based on the previously approved specifications, standards and functionality. It is required without defects and possible problems. It monitors and tries to progress the development process from the start of the project. Software Quality Assurance (SQA) is the combination of the...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Evaluating Wireless Reactive Routing Protocols with Linear Programming Model for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    In Wireless Ad-hoc NETworks, nodes are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily, thus topology may change quickly and capriciously. In Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks, especially Wireless Multi-hop Networks provide users with facility of quick communication. In Wireless Multi-hop Networks, routing protocols with energy efficient and delay reduction techniques are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Modeling and Simulating Network Connectivity in Routing Protocols for MANETs and VANETs

    In this paper, the authors present a framework for node distribution with respect to density, network connectivity and communication time. Using NS2, they evaluate and compare performance of three routing protocols; Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Fisheye State Routing (FSR) both in MANETs (IEEE 802.11)...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Evaluating and Comparing Probability of Path Loss in DSDV, OLSR and DYMO at 802.11 and 802.11p

    In this paper, the authors present path loss model for VANETs and simulate three routing protocols; Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) to evaluate and compare their performance using NS-2. The main contribution of this paper is enhancement of existing techniques...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    A Survey of Different Residential Energy Consumption Controlling Techniques for Autonomous DSM in Future Smart Grid Communications

    In this paper, the authors present a survey of residential load controlling techniques to implement demand side management in future smart grid. Power generation sector facing important challenges in both quality and quantity to meet the increasing requirements of consumers. Energy efficiency, reliability, economics and integration of new energy resources...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Home Energy Management Systems in Future Smart Grids

    The authors present a detailed review of various Home Energy Management Schemes (HEMS). HEMs will increase savings, reduce peak demand and Pto Average Ratio (PAR). Among various applications of smart grid technologies, home energy management is probably the most important one to be addressed. Various steps have been taken by...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Advanced LEACH: A Static Clustering-Based Heteroneous Routing Protocol for WSNs

    Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) have a big application in heterogeneous networks. In this paper, the authors propose and evaluate Advanced Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (Ad-LEACH) which is static clustering based heterogeneous routing protocol. The complete network field is first divided into static clusters and then in each cluster separate Ad-LEACH...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Comparative Analysis of Routing Protocols for Under Water Wireless Sensor Networks

    Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks due to peculiar characteristics of low bandwidth, high latency, limited energy, node float mobility and high error probability. These features bring many challenges to the network protocol design of UWSNs. Several routing protocols have been developed in recent years...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2013

    Analysis of Face Recognition Under Varying Facial Expression: A Survey

    Automatic face recognition is one of the most emphasizing dilemmas in diverse of potential relevance like in different surveillance systems, security systems, authentication or verification of individual like criminals etc. Adjoining of dynamic expression in face causes a broad range of discrepancies in recognition systems. Facial expression not only exposes...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2013

    A Survey: Linear and Nonlinear PCA Based Face Recognition Techniques

    Face recognition is considered to be one of the most reliable biometric, when security issues are taken into concern. For this, feature extraction becomes a critical problem. Different methods are used for extraction of facial feature which are broadly classified into linear and nonlinear subspaces. Among the linear methods are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2013

    Implementation and Comparative Analysis of the Fault Attacks on AES

    Cryptography is concerned with protection of private and confidential information. Cryptographic techniques evolve constantly because of constant threats being posed against them. Different kinds of attacks are always discovered with the advancement of technology. The authors are particularly interested in fault attacks due to two reasons. First, these attacks are...

    Provided By COMSATS Institute of Information Technology