ECINEQ

Displaying 1-28 of 28 results

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Beyond The Joneses: Inter-Country Income Comparisons And Happiness

    The paper provides some novel evidence on the burgeoning literature on life satisfaction and relative comparisons by showing that in the last 30 years comparisons with the wellbeing of top income countries have generated progressively more negative feelings on a large sample of individuals in the Euro barometer survey. The...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    An Intra-Group Variance Based Polarization Measure

    In this paper, it will be shown that polarization not only depends on identification and alienation. There exist additional factors such as the share of power held by each of the groups and the number of groups that should be considered to compute it. Consistent with this idea and with...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Redistributive Effects In A Dual Income Tax System

    Equity issues of the dual income tax have been left aside in the field of economics. Since a dual income tax needs different modeling than a comprehensive one this paper offers firstly a quantitative framework to measure redistributive effects; it turns out that this involves both direct and indirect effects....

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Evaluating Welfare Reform Under Program Heterogeneity And Alternative Measures Of Success

    This paper aims at presenting an assessment of welfare reforms under a framework of program heterogeneity and alternative measures of success. The authors focus on a specific welfare program - Madrid's Ingreso Madrile?o de Integraci?n (IMI) - which comprises heterogeneous subprograms. They test whether work-related subprograms perform better than general...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Conditional Occupational Segregation Of Minorities In The U.S.

    In this paper, the authors use a propensity score-based methodology to analyze the role of demographic and human capital characteristics of minorities in the U.S. in explaining their high occupational segregation with respect to whites. Thus, they measure conditional segregation based on an estimated counterfactual distribution in which minorities are...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Distributions In Motion: Economic Growth, Inequality, And Poverty Dynamics

    The joint determination of aggregate economic growth and distributional change has been studied empirically from at least three different perspectives. A macroeconomic approach that relies on cross-country data on poverty, inequality, and growth rates has generated some interesting stylized facts about the correlations between these variables, but has not shed...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Global Poverty Estimates: Present And Future

    The authors review the recent empirical literature on global poverty, focusing on key methodological aspects. These include the choice of welfare indicator, poverty line and purchasing power parity exchange rates, equivalence scales, data sources, and estimation methods. They also discuss the importance of the intra-household resource allocation process in determining...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Extent Of Occupational Segregation In The US: Differences By Race, Ethnicity, And Gender

    By using data from the American Community Survey, this paper studies occupational segregation by ethnicity/race and gender in the US by comparing the distribution of any demographic group with the employment structure of the economy. The analysis shows that occupational segregation is particularly intense in the Hispanic and Asian population...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Race And Income Distribution: Evidence From The US, Brazil And South Africa

    This paper is to provide some empirical evidence about black-white differentials in the distribution of income and wellbeing in three different countries: Brazil, US and South Africa. In all cases, people of African descent are in a variety of ways socially disadvantaged compared with the relatively more affluent whites. The...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Life Satisfaction And Income Inequality

    This paper attempts to determine some of the possible causes of such empirical heterogeneity. Using a very large sample of world citizens the authors test the consistency of income inequality in predicting life satisfaction. They find that income inequality has a negative and significant effect on life satisfaction. This result...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Fair And Unfair Income Inequalities In Europe

    This paper analyses the extent of income inequality and opportunity inequality in 25 European countries. The present work contributes to understanding the origin of standard income inequality, helping to identify potential institutional setups that are associated to opportunity inequality. The authors distinguish between ex-ante and ex-post opportunity inequality. They find...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Economic Well-Being In Italy: The Role Of Income Insecurity And Intergenerational Inequality

    This paper provides a measure of economic well-being for the Italian context. In the last two decades Italy experienced a sharp increase in labor market flexibility and a relative loss of command over resources of young generations with respect to older ones. The authors include new measures of temporary work...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Occupational Segregation Of Immigrant Women In Spain

    This paper is to analyze occupational segregation in the Spanish labor market from a gender and an immigration perspective. In doing so, several local and overall segregation measures are used. The results suggest that immigrant women in Spain suffer a double segregation since segregation affects them to a greater extent...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Accounting For Family Background When Designing Optimal Income Taxes: A Microeconometric Simulation Analysis

    This paper is to introduce and adopt a generalized version of Roemer's (1998) Equality of Opportunity (EOp) framework, which they call extended EOp, for analyzing second-best optimal income taxation. Unlike the pure EOp criterion of Roemer (1998) the extended EOp criterion allows for alternative weighting profiles in the treatment of...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Inequality Of Opportunity And Growth

    Theoretical and empirical studies exploring the effects of income inequality upon growth reach a disappointing inconclusive result. This paper postulates that one reason for this ambiguity is that income inequality is actually a composite measure of at least two different sorts of inequality: inequality of opportunity and inequality of returns...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Welfare, Inequality And Financial Consequences Of A Multi-Pillar Pension System. A Reform In Peru

    The distributional impact of the structural pension reform in Latin American countries has been largely absent in the economic debate. However, this reform may widen inequality in old-age and reduce welfare. In this paper the authors study the consequences of implementing a multi-pillar system in one of these countries. They...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Informality And Poverty: Are These Processes Dynamically Interrelated? Evidence From Argentina

    Poverty and informal employment are often regarded as correlated phenomena. Many empirical studies have shown that informal employment has a causal impact on household poverty, mainly through low wages. Yet other studies focus on the reverse causality from poverty to informality, arising from a range of constraints that poverty poses...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Transport Consumption Inequalities And Redistributive Effects Of Taxes: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Evaluation On French Household Data

    This paper evaluates transport consumption inequalities among French households, investigates their temporal dynamics, and estimates the redistributive effects of taxes on different commodity categories. A decomposition by expenditure component of the Gini coefficient is applied, using household-level data from five expenditure surveys conducted between the end of the 1970's and...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Tax - Benefit Incidence. The Mexican Experience During The Last Twenty Years

    This paper presents a tax-benefit incidence analysis for a large time period. The objective is to know if has been income redistribution across Mexican households during the last twenty years, since during this period the Mexican economy has suffered important structural changes and as well its public policies. The analysis...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Income And Beyond: Multidimensional Poverty In Six Latin American Countries

    This paper presents empirical results of a wide range of multidimensional poverty measures for: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay, for the period 1992 - 2006. Six dimensions are analyzed: income, child attendance at school, education of the household head, sanitation, water and shelter. Over the study period,...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Horizontal Inequity In Access To Health Care In Four South American Cities

    This paper analyzes and compares socioeconomic inequalities in the use of healthcare services by the elderly in four South-American cities: Buenos Aires (Argentina), Santiago (Chile), Montevideo (Uruguay) and San Pablo (Brazil). The authors use data from SABE, a survey on Health, Well-being and Aging administered in several Latin American cities...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Pro-Poor Growth And The Lognormal Income Distribution

    A widely accepted criterion for pro-poorness of an income growth pattern is that it should reduce a (chosen) measure of poverty by more than if all incomes were growing equiproportionately. Inequality reduction is not generally seen as either necessary or sufficient for pro-poorness. Because empirical income distributions fit well to...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Time Use And Time Budgets: Improvements, Future Challenges And Recommendations

    Time-use statistics offer a unique tool for exploring a wide range of policy concerns including social change; division of labor; allocation of time for household work; the estimation of the value of household production; transportation; leisure and recreation; pension plans; and health-care programs, among others (United Nations). This expertise will...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Gender, Education And Reciprocal Generosity: Evidence From 1,500 Experiment Subjects

    There is not general consensus about if women are more or less generous than men. Although the number of papers supporting more generous females is a bit larger than the opposed it is not possible to establish any definitive and systematic gender bias. This paper provides new evidence on this...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Virtuous Interactions In Removing Exclusion: The Link Between Foreign Market Access And Access To Education

    The authors devise a retrospective panel data approach to evaluate the effects of fair trade affiliation on the schooling decisions of a sample of Thai organic rice producers across the past 20 years. They find that the probability of school enrolment in families with more than two children is significantly...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Measuring Economic Insecurity

    The authors provide a systematic treatment of the notion of economic insecurity, assuming that an individual's sentiment of insecurity depends on the current wealth level and its variations experienced in the past. They think of wealth as a comprehensive variable encompassing anything that may help in coping with adverse occurrences....

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    The Effects Of Inequality On Growth: A Survey Of The Theoretical And Empirical Literature

    Basically, the extensive theoretical and empirical literature on the interactions between growth/development and distribution can be divided into two main approaches. The first one examines the impact of economic development on income distribution in a long run perspective. The second one focuses on the inverse causality between inequality and growth....

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Measuring Poverty Using Both Income And Wealth: A Cross-Country Comparison Between The U.S. And Spain

    In this paper the authors study the correspondence between a household's current income and its vulnerability to income shocks in two developed countries: the U.S. and Spain. Vulnerability is measured by the availability of wealth type resources to smooth consumption in a multidimensional approach to measuring poverty, which allows identifying...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Extent Of Occupational Segregation In The US: Differences By Race, Ethnicity, And Gender

    By using data from the American Community Survey, this paper studies occupational segregation by ethnicity/race and gender in the US by comparing the distribution of any demographic group with the employment structure of the economy. The analysis shows that occupational segregation is particularly intense in the Hispanic and Asian population...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Race And Income Distribution: Evidence From The US, Brazil And South Africa

    This paper is to provide some empirical evidence about black-white differentials in the distribution of income and wellbeing in three different countries: Brazil, US and South Africa. In all cases, people of African descent are in a variety of ways socially disadvantaged compared with the relatively more affluent whites. The...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Life Satisfaction And Income Inequality

    This paper attempts to determine some of the possible causes of such empirical heterogeneity. Using a very large sample of world citizens the authors test the consistency of income inequality in predicting life satisfaction. They find that income inequality has a negative and significant effect on life satisfaction. This result...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Fair And Unfair Income Inequalities In Europe

    This paper analyses the extent of income inequality and opportunity inequality in 25 European countries. The present work contributes to understanding the origin of standard income inequality, helping to identify potential institutional setups that are associated to opportunity inequality. The authors distinguish between ex-ante and ex-post opportunity inequality. They find...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Economic Well-Being In Italy: The Role Of Income Insecurity And Intergenerational Inequality

    This paper provides a measure of economic well-being for the Italian context. In the last two decades Italy experienced a sharp increase in labor market flexibility and a relative loss of command over resources of young generations with respect to older ones. The authors include new measures of temporary work...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Occupational Segregation Of Immigrant Women In Spain

    This paper is to analyze occupational segregation in the Spanish labor market from a gender and an immigration perspective. In doing so, several local and overall segregation measures are used. The results suggest that immigrant women in Spain suffer a double segregation since segregation affects them to a greater extent...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Accounting For Family Background When Designing Optimal Income Taxes: A Microeconometric Simulation Analysis

    This paper is to introduce and adopt a generalized version of Roemer's (1998) Equality of Opportunity (EOp) framework, which they call extended EOp, for analyzing second-best optimal income taxation. Unlike the pure EOp criterion of Roemer (1998) the extended EOp criterion allows for alternative weighting profiles in the treatment of...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Inequality Of Opportunity And Growth

    Theoretical and empirical studies exploring the effects of income inequality upon growth reach a disappointing inconclusive result. This paper postulates that one reason for this ambiguity is that income inequality is actually a composite measure of at least two different sorts of inequality: inequality of opportunity and inequality of returns...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Measuring Poverty Using Both Income And Wealth: A Cross-Country Comparison Between The U.S. And Spain

    In this paper the authors study the correspondence between a household's current income and its vulnerability to income shocks in two developed countries: the U.S. and Spain. Vulnerability is measured by the availability of wealth type resources to smooth consumption in a multidimensional approach to measuring poverty, which allows identifying...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Welfare, Inequality And Financial Consequences Of A Multi-Pillar Pension System. A Reform In Peru

    The distributional impact of the structural pension reform in Latin American countries has been largely absent in the economic debate. However, this reform may widen inequality in old-age and reduce welfare. In this paper the authors study the consequences of implementing a multi-pillar system in one of these countries. They...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Informality And Poverty: Are These Processes Dynamically Interrelated? Evidence From Argentina

    Poverty and informal employment are often regarded as correlated phenomena. Many empirical studies have shown that informal employment has a causal impact on household poverty, mainly through low wages. Yet other studies focus on the reverse causality from poverty to informality, arising from a range of constraints that poverty poses...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Transport Consumption Inequalities And Redistributive Effects Of Taxes: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Evaluation On French Household Data

    This paper evaluates transport consumption inequalities among French households, investigates their temporal dynamics, and estimates the redistributive effects of taxes on different commodity categories. A decomposition by expenditure component of the Gini coefficient is applied, using household-level data from five expenditure surveys conducted between the end of the 1970's and...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Tax - Benefit Incidence. The Mexican Experience During The Last Twenty Years

    This paper presents a tax-benefit incidence analysis for a large time period. The objective is to know if has been income redistribution across Mexican households during the last twenty years, since during this period the Mexican economy has suffered important structural changes and as well its public policies. The analysis...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Income And Beyond: Multidimensional Poverty In Six Latin American Countries

    This paper presents empirical results of a wide range of multidimensional poverty measures for: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay, for the period 1992 - 2006. Six dimensions are analyzed: income, child attendance at school, education of the household head, sanitation, water and shelter. Over the study period,...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Horizontal Inequity In Access To Health Care In Four South American Cities

    This paper analyzes and compares socioeconomic inequalities in the use of healthcare services by the elderly in four South-American cities: Buenos Aires (Argentina), Santiago (Chile), Montevideo (Uruguay) and San Pablo (Brazil). The authors use data from SABE, a survey on Health, Well-being and Aging administered in several Latin American cities...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Pro-Poor Growth And The Lognormal Income Distribution

    A widely accepted criterion for pro-poorness of an income growth pattern is that it should reduce a (chosen) measure of poverty by more than if all incomes were growing equiproportionately. Inequality reduction is not generally seen as either necessary or sufficient for pro-poorness. Because empirical income distributions fit well to...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Time Use And Time Budgets: Improvements, Future Challenges And Recommendations

    Time-use statistics offer a unique tool for exploring a wide range of policy concerns including social change; division of labor; allocation of time for household work; the estimation of the value of household production; transportation; leisure and recreation; pension plans; and health-care programs, among others (United Nations). This expertise will...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Gender, Education And Reciprocal Generosity: Evidence From 1,500 Experiment Subjects

    There is not general consensus about if women are more or less generous than men. Although the number of papers supporting more generous females is a bit larger than the opposed it is not possible to establish any definitive and systematic gender bias. This paper provides new evidence on this...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Virtuous Interactions In Removing Exclusion: The Link Between Foreign Market Access And Access To Education

    The authors devise a retrospective panel data approach to evaluate the effects of fair trade affiliation on the schooling decisions of a sample of Thai organic rice producers across the past 20 years. They find that the probability of school enrolment in families with more than two children is significantly...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Measuring Economic Insecurity

    The authors provide a systematic treatment of the notion of economic insecurity, assuming that an individual's sentiment of insecurity depends on the current wealth level and its variations experienced in the past. They think of wealth as a comprehensive variable encompassing anything that may help in coping with adverse occurrences....

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    The Effects Of Inequality On Growth: A Survey Of The Theoretical And Empirical Literature

    Basically, the extensive theoretical and empirical literature on the interactions between growth/development and distribution can be divided into two main approaches. The first one examines the impact of economic development on income distribution in a long run perspective. The second one focuses on the inverse causality between inequality and growth....

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Beyond The Joneses: Inter-Country Income Comparisons And Happiness

    The paper provides some novel evidence on the burgeoning literature on life satisfaction and relative comparisons by showing that in the last 30 years comparisons with the wellbeing of top income countries have generated progressively more negative feelings on a large sample of individuals in the Euro barometer survey. The...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    An Intra-Group Variance Based Polarization Measure

    In this paper, it will be shown that polarization not only depends on identification and alienation. There exist additional factors such as the share of power held by each of the groups and the number of groups that should be considered to compute it. Consistent with this idea and with...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Redistributive Effects In A Dual Income Tax System

    Equity issues of the dual income tax have been left aside in the field of economics. Since a dual income tax needs different modeling than a comprehensive one this paper offers firstly a quantitative framework to measure redistributive effects; it turns out that this involves both direct and indirect effects....

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Evaluating Welfare Reform Under Program Heterogeneity And Alternative Measures Of Success

    This paper aims at presenting an assessment of welfare reforms under a framework of program heterogeneity and alternative measures of success. The authors focus on a specific welfare program - Madrid's Ingreso Madrile?o de Integraci?n (IMI) - which comprises heterogeneous subprograms. They test whether work-related subprograms perform better than general...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Conditional Occupational Segregation Of Minorities In The U.S.

    In this paper, the authors use a propensity score-based methodology to analyze the role of demographic and human capital characteristics of minorities in the U.S. in explaining their high occupational segregation with respect to whites. Thus, they measure conditional segregation based on an estimated counterfactual distribution in which minorities are...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Distributions In Motion: Economic Growth, Inequality, And Poverty Dynamics

    The joint determination of aggregate economic growth and distributional change has been studied empirically from at least three different perspectives. A macroeconomic approach that relies on cross-country data on poverty, inequality, and growth rates has generated some interesting stylized facts about the correlations between these variables, but has not shed...

    Provided By ECINEQ

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Global Poverty Estimates: Present And Future

    The authors review the recent empirical literature on global poverty, focusing on key methodological aspects. These include the choice of welfare indicator, poverty line and purchasing power parity exchange rates, equivalence scales, data sources, and estimation methods. They also discuss the importance of the intra-household resource allocation process in determining...

    Provided By ECINEQ