EIM Business & Policy Research

Displaying 41-70 of 70 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2006

    Creative Destruction and Regional Competitiveness

    New firms stimulate competitiveness via market selection and competitive pressures, by forcing less efficient incumbents to exit or to improve their productivity. This way, both the creation and destruction of firms (turbulence) may improve competitiveness. In this paper the effect of turbulence on regional competitiveness (measured as total factor productivity...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2006

    Is Human Resource Management Profitable for Small Firms?

    A substantial body of HRM research has investigated the relationship between HRM and organizational performance. Recent paper tends to explains the effects of integrated 'Systems' or 'Configurations' of HRM practices on different indicators of firm performance. A High Performance Work System (HPWS) can be defined as a set of distinct...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2006

    Determinants of Self-Employment Preference and Realization of Women and Men in Europe and the United States

    Female self-employment rates are consistently lower than those of men. This untapped female potential has drawn the attention of policy makers. In the present paper the determinants of self-employment rates of both men and women are investigated in the context of a two-equation model explaining both actual self-employment and the...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2006

    Motivation Based Policies for an Entrepreneurial EU Economy

    This paper investigates the impact of various entrepreneurial motives and institutional conditions on entrepreneurial aspirations in terms of innovativeness, job growth expectations and export orientation. The authors estimate a two-equation model explaining entrepreneurial motivations and entrepreneurial aspirations, while taking into account the interrelationship between both groups of variables. They use...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    Knowledge Spillovers and Entrepreneurs' Export Orientation

    There is increasing evidence that firms engage in international activities early on in their existence. Consequently, both the entrepreneurship and economics literatures have devoted an increasing amount of attention to the role and importance of entrepreneurs' international activities. In this paper, the authors extend the entrepreneurship and economics literatures by...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    Exporting Starters: Starters with More Ambition and Higher Achievement

    Those entrepreneurs that begin exporting as soon as they start their businesses or shortly afterwards, are usually more highly educated and have more experience of life than starters that do not export. This is evident from the number of hours that the entrepreneurs spend working in the business and the...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    The Effects of New Firm Formation on Regional Development Over Time: The Case of Great Britain

    This paper re-examines the link between new firm formation and subsequent employment growth. It investigates whether it is possible to have the wrong type of entrepreneurship - defined as new firm formation which leads to zero or even negative subsequent employment growth. It uses a very similar approach to that...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    The Entrepreneurial Ladder and Its Determinants

    The authors test a new model where the entrepreneurial decision is described as a process of successive engagement levels, i.e., as an entrepreneurial ladder. Five levels are distinguished using nearly 12,000 observations from the 2004 \"Flash Eurobarometer survey on Entrepreneurship\" covering the 25 European Union member states and the United...

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  • White Papers // Oct 2006

    Entrepreneurship and Its Determinants in a Cross-Country Setting

    The relative stability of differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries suggests that other than economic factors are at play. The present paper offers some new thoughts about the determinants of entrepreneurial attitudes and activities by testing the relationship between institutional variables and cross-country differences in the preferences for self-employment as...

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  • White Papers // Sep 2006

    Explaining Engagement Levels of Opportunity and Necessity Entrepreneurs

    This paper investigates differences between opportunity and necessity entrepreneurs in terms of socio-demographics, attitudes and perception of 'Obstacles'. The authors use the 2004 Flash Euro barometer Survey data. Explanatory variables include gender, age, education level and self-employed parents, risk tolerance, locus of control, perceptions of four 'Obstacles' and country effects....

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  • White Papers // Sep 2006

    The Geography of New Firm Formation: Evidence From Independent Start-Ups and New Subsidiaries in the Netherlands

    This paper investigates to what extent determinants of the rate of independent startups and the rate of new subsidiaries are different. Using a regional data base for the Netherlands. The authors investigate the impact of two types of agglomeration effects, localization and urbanization, while controlling for a range of economic...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2006

    The Decision to Innovate; Literature and Propositions

    The successful business of the future is believed to be one that continuously innovates, i.e. is able to demonstrate flexibility and to pro-actively anticipate business opportunities. On the waves of a plethora of innovation and entrepreneurship studies, the past fifteen years have witnessed increased attention for the innovative efforts of...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2006

    Innovation and International Involvement of Dutch SMEs

    This paper focuses on the relation between innovation and the international involvement of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), taking into account export as well as import activities of firms. The analysis is based on a sample of more than 1.800 Dutch SMEs using regression analysis. First, a positive impact is...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2006

    Determinants of Growth of Start-Ups in the Netherlands

    Dynamics and growth of firms are considered to be important for enhancing economic growth. Growth is an issue of all times. Especially start-ups are relatively fast growing firms and contribute largely to employment creation. This paper examines the determinants of growth of start-ups in the Netherlands. In literature there is...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2006

    The Impact of New Firm Formation on Regional Development in the Netherlands

    This paper examines the relationship between new firm formation and regional employment change in the Netherlands. Using a new regional data base for the period 1988-2002, the authors examine the time lags involved in the relationship. They also investigate whether the relationship differs by sector and by degree of urbanization....

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  • White Papers // Jun 2006

    An Ambition to Grow

    This report tries to gain insight in the willingness or ambition to grow of a small business owner. The main question of this report is therefore: Which factors influence the ambition to grow a business? Firm growth is a process where the firm changes from a small, informal, simple and...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2006

    Uncertainty Avoidance and the Rate of Business Ownership Across 21 OECD Countries, 1976-2004

    Persistent differences in the level of business ownership across countries have attracted the attention of scientific as well as political debate. Cultural as well as economic influences are assumed to play a role. This paper deals with the influence of cultural attitudes towards uncertainty on the level of business ownership...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2006

    Exploring the Informal Capital Market in the Netherlands: Characteristics, Mismatches and Causes

    This paper analyses the Dutch informal capital market by using perspectives from finance theory and agency theory. Matched data are collected from informal investors and innovative entrepreneurs. The first chapter of this shortened version outlines the potential imperfections of the Dutch informal capital market. The second chapter discusses the empirical...

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  • White Papers // May 2006

    SMEs as Job Engine of the Dutch Private Economy

    Since the seminal research of Birch (1987), policy makers have been aware of the important role of small and medium sized enterprises in the creation of employment. Interest groups like MKB Nederland (the Dutch employer's organization for small and medium-sized organizations) often claim that small and medium-sized enterprises are the...

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  • White Papers // Feb 2006

    High Performance Work Systems, Performance and Innovativeness in Small Firms

    The importance of managing human resources properly running a successful organization requires finding, retaining and motivating the right employees. Current changes in the economic and demographic structure of Western societies, such as the increased role of knowledge, the ageing of the workforce and a decreasing inflow of entrants into the...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    From Nascent to Actual Entrepreneurship: The Effect of Entry Barriers

    This exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, the authors estimate a twoequation model explaining the nascent entrepreneurship rate and...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Determinants of Self-Employment Preference and Realisation of Women and Men in Europe and the United States

    This paper has investigated the factors influencing the probability of women and men to be (come) self-employed. Starting from a lower self-employment preference combined with a lower self-employment prevalence rate for women, the present paper sets out to investigate the underlying mechanisms behind these gender differences, distinguishing between different ways...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Do Entry Barriers, Perceived by SMEs, Affect Real Antry? Some Evidence From the Netherlands

    This paper is to analyze the relationship between perceived entry barriers and real entry. Real entry rates are interpreted as an indicator for the dynamics in an industry. The major hypothesis of this paper is that important entry barriers restrict new entry. Real entry rates are provided by a starter...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Strategic Decision-Making in Small Firms: Towards a Taxonomy of Entrepreneurial Decision-Makers

    Most changes in firms take place after a decision has been made. Despite that small firms are no exception to this, previous research into decision-making processes have left this subject uncharted. There are many studies with a focus on the decision-making process by managers in large firms, but only a...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Explaining Female and Male Entrepreneurship at the Country Level

    Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for 29 countries this study investigates the (differential) impact of several factors on female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. These factors are derived from three streams of literature, including that on entrepreneurship in general, on female labor force participation and on female entrepreneurship....

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels in the European Union

    A multinomial logit model and survey data from the 25 EU member states and the US are used to establish the effect of demographic and other variables on various entrepreneurial engagement levels. These engagement levels range from \"Never thought about starting a business\" to \"Thinking about it\", \"Taking steps for...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Latent and Actual Entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: Some Recent Developments

    This paper uses 2004 survey data from the 15 old EU member states and the US to explain country differences in latent and actual entrepreneurship. Other than demographic variables such as gender, age and education, the set of covariates includes the perception by respondents of administrative complexities, of availability of...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Entrepreneurship in the Old En New Europe

    Developing a dynamic SME sector is essential for countries transforming their centrally planned economy into a market oriented one. New firm formation is the major driver of this transition. Obviously, entrepreneurial energy is a necessary condition for new firm formation. This paper uses 2004 survey data from the 25 EU...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    Entrepreneurial Culture as Determinant of Nascent Entrepreneurship

    This paper develops indicators for entrepreneurial culture and investigates their effect on the rate of nascent entrepreneurship. The authors choose three measures from the World Value Survey. These include two desired job characteristics, i.e. the opportunity to use initiative and the possibility to achieve something, as well as an indicator...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    The Link Between Family Orientation, Strategy and Innovation in Dutch SMEs: A Longitudinal Study

    This paper aimed at identifying some of the factors determining innovation performance in the SME. Based on a sample of 388 Dutch SMEs, hypotheses were tested in particular regarding the main effects of strategy, and the direct and indirect effects of family orientation on firm performance. The results clearly support...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    The Entrepreneurial Ladder and Its Determinants

    The authors test a new model where the entrepreneurial decision is described as a process of successive engagement levels, i.e., as an entrepreneurial ladder. Five levels are distinguished using nearly 12,000 observations from the 2004 \"Flash Eurobarometer survey on Entrepreneurship\" covering the 25 European Union member states and the United...

    Provided By EIM Business & Policy Research

  • White Papers // Dec 2006

    Determinants of Self-Employment Preference and Realization of Women and Men in Europe and the United States

    Female self-employment rates are consistently lower than those of men. This untapped female potential has drawn the attention of policy makers. In the present paper the determinants of self-employment rates of both men and women are investigated in the context of a two-equation model explaining both actual self-employment and the...

    Provided By EIM Business & Policy Research

  • White Papers // Dec 2006

    Motivation Based Policies for an Entrepreneurial EU Economy

    This paper investigates the impact of various entrepreneurial motives and institutional conditions on entrepreneurial aspirations in terms of innovativeness, job growth expectations and export orientation. The authors estimate a two-equation model explaining entrepreneurial motivations and entrepreneurial aspirations, while taking into account the interrelationship between both groups of variables. They use...

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  • White Papers // Feb 2007

    The Relationship Between Economic Development and Business Ownership Revisited

    This paper revisits the two-equation model of Carree, van Stel, Thurik and Wennekers (2002) where deviations from the 'Equilibrium' rate of business ownership play a central role determining both the growth of business ownership and that of economic development. Two extensions of the original setup are addressed: using longer time...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2007

    New Ventures' Export Orientation: Outcome and Source of Knowledge Spillovers

    The authors draw on knowledge spillover literature to suggest that a country's proportion of exportoriented new ventures, compared to its total number of new ventures, represents an outcome of knowledge spillovers (export spillovers) that stem from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and international trade, as well as a source of knowledge...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2007

    Entrepreneurial Culture and Its Effect on the Rate of Nascent Entrepreneurship

    This paper investigates the relationship between entrepreneurial culture and the rate of nascent entrepreneurship. Embedded in trait research, the authors develop a new composite measure of entrepreneurial culture using data from the World Values Survey. To corroborate the results obtained when regressing this newly developed measure on 2002 levels of...

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  • White Papers // Sep 2012

    Do Firm Size and Firm Age Affect Employee Remuneration in Dutch SMEs?

    It is a stylized fact that larger firms pay higher wages than smaller firms and that older firms pay higher wages than younger firms. Many studies have sought to explain the firm size and firm age wage gaps. Generally speaking, a considerable part of the firm size wage gap cannot...

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  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    The Production Structure of Small, Medium-Sized and Large Enterprises in Dutch Private Enterprise

    Labour productivity differs significantly between small, medium-sized and large enterprises in the private enterprise sector. This holds both for the level of labour productivity as well as its development. Size-class differences regarding the level of labour productivity are only to a limited extent dependent on differences in sectoral structure. A...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    The Environmental Regulation Paradox for Clean Tech Ventures

    Traditionally, regulations are seen as harmful for the starting and growing of firms. However, strict environmental regulation can also trigger the discovery and introduction of clean technologies, and this innovation might improve the competitiveness of the firm. In this paper, the authors will test this environmental regulation paradox in the...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Globalization, Entrepreneurship and the Region

    Perhaps one of the less-understood phenomena accompanying the increased globalization during the first decade of the 21st century has been a shift in the comparative advantage of high-wage countries towards knowledge-based economic activity. An important implication of this shift in this comparative advantage is that much of the production and...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    A Policy Theory Evaluation of the Dutch SME and Entrepreneurship Policy Program Between 1982 and 2003

    This paper reconstructs and analyses the assumptions - i.e. the policy theory - underlying the development of the SME and Entrepreneurship Policy Program in general and the Establishment Act and the Loan Guarantee (BBMKB) in particular between 1982-2003. The analysis links these assumptions to policy output results and policy effects....

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  • White Papers // Sep 2012

    Investigating the Impact of the Technological Environment on Survival Chances of Employer Entrepreneurs

    In order to mitigate the negative consequences of the current economic and financial crisis, it is of utmost importance that existing jobs remain intact as much as possible. In this respect, it is crucial that firms which employ personnel, survive. In this paper, the authors investigate the role of the...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Ageing and Entrepreneurship

    This paper examines whether the age of the entrepreneur is related to the objectives, strategy and performance of the firm. The paper is primarily an explorative empirical study. The authors combine a descriptive analysis with econometric estimation techniques in an attempt to explain different outcomes concerning the aforementioned three variables...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Social and Commercial Entrepreneurship: Exploring Individual and Organizational Characteristics

    This paper extends the authors' current knowledge of the social entrepreneur and the activities the user is involved in and contrasts them with their understanding of commercial entrepreneurs. For the purpose of generating empirically-driven propositions, they bring together insights from current empirical investigations and insights from unique large-scale data from...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Beyond Size: Predicting Engagement in Environmental Management Practices of Dutch SMEs

    This paper focuses on the prediction of the engagement of Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) in environmental management practices, based on a random sample of 689 SMEs. This paper finds that several endogenous factors, including tangibility of sector, firm size, innovative orientation, family influence and perceived financial benefits from...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Innovation Barriers for Small Biotech, ICT and Clean Tech Firms: Coping with Knowledge Leakage and Legitimacy Deficits

    Innovative high-tech Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SMEs) are thought to be drivers of economic renewal and growth. However, due to their limited size, SMEs face two fundamental innovation barriers: the risk that other organizations appropriate the returns to the newly created knowledge by SMEs (knowledge leakage), and a lack...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Environmental Sustainability and Financial Performance of SMEs

    This paper focuses on the relationship between environmental sustainability and the financial performance of SMEs in terms of profit development and revenue development. The analysis uses a unique dataset of 337 Dutch and Chinese firms. The results suggest a significant positive association between environmental sustainability and firm performance. It appears,...

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  • White Papers // Jan 2006

    The Link Between Family Orientation, Strategy and Innovation in Dutch SMEs: A Longitudinal Study

    This paper aimed at identifying some of the factors determining innovation performance in the SME. Based on a sample of 388 Dutch SMEs, hypotheses were tested in particular regarding the main effects of strategy, and the direct and indirect effects of family orientation on firm performance. The results clearly support...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Open Innovation in SMEs: Trends, Motives and Management Challenges

    Although evidence for open innovation practices has been provided for large MNEs, they have not yet been analyzed systematically for SMEs. This paper presents the results of a survey among 605 Dutch innovating SMEs. The results show that SMEs are increasingly adapting open innovation practices. Moreover, they indicate a difference...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2013

    Entrepreneurial Activity, Industry Orientation, and Economic Growth

    There is evidence that entrepreneurial activity plays a non-negligible role in driving economic development. In this paper, the authors investigate whether the industry in which the entrepreneurial activity takes place matters for economic growth, both in developed and developing countries. They distinguish between three types of entrepreneurial activity, based on...

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  • White Papers // May 2013

    Explaining Entrepreneurial Performance of Solo Self-Employed From a Motivational Perspective

    This paper investigates whether start-up motivation (opportunity versus necessity) influences entrepreneurial performance of an important subset of entrepreneurs, viz. the solo self-employed. The authors also explore to what extent human capital measures mediate this relation. They use a unique individual-level panel data set of solo self-employed in the Netherlands for...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2013

    Start-Up Size Strategy and Risk Management: Impact on New Venture Performance

    Start-up size is a key strategic decision for entrepreneurs. Should entrepreneurs invest sufficient resources to start up close to minimum efficient scale in order to optimize performance or should they seek to manage risk and start-up on a smaller scale? Previously, this strategic decision appeared to be one of simply...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2012

    Entrepreneurial Activity and the Cycle: The Roles of Observation Frequency and Economic Openness

    The importance of entrepreneurship for modern economies has been studied widely. When considering the relation between entrepreneurship and macro-economic variables, there are three major concepts in macro-economics that one can focus on: the level of economic development, the growth of economic development and the business cycle. The authors investigate the...

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  • White Papers // Feb 2013

    Institutions and the Allocation of Entrepreneurship Across New and Established Organizations

    In this paper, the authors argue that institutions affect the allocation of entrepreneurship across new and established organizations. This is confirmed by empirical analysis of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data on early-stage (independent) entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial employee behavior. Most comparative international research on entrepreneurship has focused on independent...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2013

    How Does Employment Protection Legislation Influence Hiring and Firing Decisions by the Smallest Firms?

    This paper examines the impact of Employment Protection Legislation (EPL) on hiring decisions by own-account workers and firing decisions by very small firms (1-4 employees). Using data from the EU-15 countries, the authors' results show that the strictness of employment protection legislation is negatively related to both these types of...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    The Value of an Educated Population for an Individual's Entrepreneurship Success

    Human capital obtained through education has been shown to be one of the strongest drivers of entrepreneurship performance. The entrepreneur's human capital, though, is only one of the input factors into the production process of her venture. In this paper, the authors will analyze to what extent the education levels...

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  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Disentangling the Effects of Organizational Capabilities, Innovation and Firm Size on SME Sales Growth

    This paper focuses on certain drivers of SME sales growth related to knowledge and innovation. Building on the dynamic capabilities literature, the authors test whether two organizational capabilities (external sourcing and employee involvement in renewal activities) predict sales growth, and if so, whether such effects are mediated by process and/or...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Family Ownership, Innovation and Other Context Variables as Determinants of Sustainable Entrepreneurship in SMEs: An Empirical Research Study

    In this paper, the authors focus on the prediction of sustainable entrepreneurship, that is, behavior which demonstrates a firm's concern about the natural environment, especially among Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). Using a random sample of 382 Dutch SMEs, they examine how organizational context (firm sector, size, ownership structure) and...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Overcoming Resource-Constraints Through Internationalization? an Empirical Analysis of European SMEs

    Previous research has indicated that firms can use internationalization as a strategy to access or build up resources. Such a strategy may be of particular interest or even necessary (for example to survive or grow) for firms that lack specific resources. Based on resource dependency theory and the model for...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2007

    Knowledge Management and Innovation: An Empirical Study of Dutch SMEs

    Knowledge plays a crucial role in determining a firm's innovation capability and in enhancing working life quality of knowledge workers. Previous studies show that knowledge is managed in a different manner in Small to Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) - that knowledge is more likely to be created, shared, transferred and applied...

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