European Communities

Displaying 1-40 of 44 results

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    R&D In LowTech Sectors

    The 3% Action Plan of the Lisbon Agenda was adopted with the aim of making Europe more innovative through increases in both private and public R&D spending. R&D forms an important part of innovation activities, but ignores many other activities. However, the policy focus on R&D investment means little attention...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Business R&D In SMEs

    This paper discusses business R&D in SMEs in the light of a systematic review of publicly available information on industrial R&D, its common trends and related emerging issues. A number of factors towards better understanding of SME trajectories, specifics in terms of their R&D activities, and the attendant main challenges...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    The Public/Private Nexus Of R&D

    The public private nexus is a complex interface where policies and infrastructure influence management decisions about R&D investments and innovation opportunities. The interface is continuously evolving and conditions vary from country to country and industry to industry. Technological and market change and industry restructuring introduce new management options to decision...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Services R&D

    This paper analyses the nature of service R&D activity and growth. The role and significance of R&D in services has been growing rapidly recently, although in the context of services it is also important to note that much innovative activity in the service sector remains of a non R&D and...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    EU-R&D In Services Industries And The EU-US R&D Investment Gap

    Under the influence of the Lisbon Strategy (2000), the Barcelona '3%' objective (2002) for more investment in research in Europe and the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005), increased attention has been paid by both policymakers and researchers to the origin of the EUUS R&D investment gap, which lead to a blossoming...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    R&D And Productivity: Testing Sectoral Peculiarities Using Micro Data

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between a firm's R&D activities and its productivity using a unique micro data panel dataset and looking at sectoral peculiarities which may emerge; more specifically, the authors used an unbalanced longitudinal database consisting of 532 top European R&D investors over...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    EU-US Differences In The Size Of R&D Intensive Firms

    The average firm size of the top R&D investors among US-based companies is smaller than that of the EU-based firms. Does this help to explain why the US has a greater R&D intensity, or is the higher firm size in the EU, just as its lower R&D intensity, determined by...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2008

    Study On The Impact Of The Euro On Trade And Foreign Direct Investment

    The introduction of the euro was an immense political and symbolic step towards an integrated Europe. It was also the world's largest economic 'Experiment.' This experiment opens the door to a major advance in the understanding of how a common currency affects economic activity ranging from trade and foreign direct...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Growth And Income Distribution In An Integrated Europe: Does EMU Make A Difference?

    The relationship between growth and income inequality has occupied the attention of the profession for some 50 years, since the appearance of Kuznets (1955) pioneering work, and is both important and controversial. It is important because policy makers need to understand the way in which increases in output will be...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    The Quality Of Public Finances And Economic Growth

    Improving the Quality of Public Finances (QPF) has become a new focus for European policy makers. This focus is largely a response to preparing the European economies for the dual challenge of ageing populations and increased exposure to global competition. Better QPF can help tackle both challenges: either directly through...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Fiscal Policy, Intercountry Adjustment and the Real Exchange Rate

    The paper argues that an improved fiscal policy process might result in improved macro-economic performance within Europe. Within EMU, a country may have difficulty ensuring stability in the face of asymmetric shocks; the response may be unstable, or, even if not, the real exchange rate might overshoot. In this context,...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Adjustment Capacity Of Labour Markets Of The Western Balkans, With A Focus On Labour Markets

    The main question addressed in this paper is the performance of the labor markets in the Western Balkans. The aim was to find out whether they can deliver growth of employment and decline of unemployment in the medium run and whether they can withstand short-term shocks due to changes in...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    The Great Financial Crisis In Finland And Sweden The Dynamics Of Boom, Bust And Recovery, 1985-2000

    This paper explores the anatomy of the boom, deep depression and recovery in the Finnish and Swedish economies in the period 1985-2000. These fifteen years are divided into three phases: financial liberalization and the boom and the overheating of 1985-90, the outbreak and spread of the crisis to all sectors...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Constricted, Lame And Pro-Cyclical? Fiscal Policy In The Euro Area Revisited

    It is often argued that fiscal stabilization in the euro area compares unfavorably with the US, not least because of the perceived limitations of the Stability and Growth Pact. This paper qualifies this perception by taking a closer look at fiscal policy making since the mid-1990s. It examines a number...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    What Explains The Differences In Income And Labour Utilisation And Drives Labour And Economic Growth In Europe? A GDP Accounting Perspective

    The paper decomposes GDP both in terms of level per capita and growth rate, so as to identify the sources of income differences and of economic growth for all EU27 member states. This accounting approach has multiple advantages, although a number of substantial caveats should be borne in mind when...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    International Taxation And Multinational Firm Location Decision

    Using a large international firm-level data set, the authors estimate separate effects of host and parent country taxation on the location decisions of multinational firms. Both types of taxation are estimated to have a negative impact on the location of new foreign subsidiaries. In fact, the impact of parent country...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Fiscal Policy With Credit Constrained Household

    This paper explores the effects of discretionary fiscal policy in a DSGE model that explicitly models housing investment and allows for credit constrained households along the lines of the financial accelerator literature. The presence of credit constrained households raises the marginal propensity to consume out of transitory tax reductions and...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Setting Targets For Government Budgets In The Pursuit Of Intergenerational Equit

    The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) adopted in 1997 originally set budget balance as the Medium-Term Objective (MTO) for all EU Member States, to create a safety margin under the 3% of GDP deficit ceiling. In a reform in 2005, MTOs were made country-specific and dependent on initial debt and...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Healthcare Professionals Identification at Regional and Local Level: An RFId Integrated Scenario Based on Synergic Experiences

    This paper presents a perspective scenario of synergy on the themes of identification provisioning and traceability, which may bind closely two top tier projects in the Lombardy Region, Italy. The first is the Regional Social Healthcare Information System (SISS) and its Regional Smart Card (CRS), a project funded and promoted...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Performance Of Top R&D Investing Companies In The Stock Market

    Based on an original data set with information of a representative portfolio of among the largest 304 Research and Development (R&D) investing companies over the 20032006 period, the overall analysis, except in a few cases, gives some robust evidence of a positive relationship between top R&D investing companies and their...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Impact Of Innovation On Labor Productivity Growth In European Industries: Does It Depend On Firms- Competitiveness Strategies?

    The diversity of technological activities that contribute to growth in labor productivity is examined in this paper for manufacturing and services industries in eight major EU countries. The authors test the relevance of the two major strategies of technological competitiveness (based on innovation in products and markets) or cost competitiveness...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    The Global Economic And Financial Downturn: What Does It Imply For Firms- R&D Strategies?

    R&D as well as the entire innovation process are likely to be affected by the current crisis. Apart from changes in R&D spending, as any crisis usually provides also chances it may stimulate a new wave of networked / open innovation and in this regard lead to 'Creative destruction' as...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Does Europe Perform Too Little Corporate R&D? A Comparison Of EU And Non EU Corporate R&D Performance

    This paper examines whether there are differences in private R&D investment performance between the EU and the US and, if so, why. The study is based on data from the 2008 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. The investigation assesses the effects of several very distinct factors that can determine the...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Innovation Input And Output: Differences Among Sectors

    This paper investigates deals with the impact of various innovation activities on innovation output by using Spanish CIS3 data on 3,247 innovative firms and applying several Knowledge Production Functions. It is confirmed that different innovation activities lead to differences in both the propensity to innovate and innovation output, depending on...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Is Corporate R&D Investment In HighTech Sectors More Effective?: Some Guidelines For European Research Policy

    This paper discusses the link between R&D and productivity across the European industrial and service sectors. The empirical analysis is based on both the European sectoral OECD data over the period 19872002 and on a unique micro longitudinal database consisting of 532 top European R&D investors over the six year...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    The EU Enlargement And Economic Growth In The CEE New Member Countries

    In this paper, the authors aim to check whether the EU enlargement contributed to economic growth of ten new member countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE-10), including their real convergence towards the EU-15 development level. To this end, they econometrically test the relationships between selected macroeconomic variables linked to...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    FDI Spillovers In The Czech Republic: Takeovers Vs. Greenfield

    This paper analyzes the effects of foreign direct investment on the sales growth rate of domestic companies in the Czech Republic. Using firm-level panel data from 1995 to 2005, it studies both horizontal and vertical spillovers with respect to two kinds of foreign investment - takeovers and Greenfields. This is...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    The Cyclically-Adjusted Budget Balance In EU Fiscal Policy Making: A Love At First Sight Turned Into A Mature Relationship

    The Cyclically-adjusted Budget Balance (CAB) plays a key role in the fiscal surveillance framework of the Economic and Monetary Union. It started off in a supporting role in the shadow of the headline deficit and, before long, turned into the linchpin of the rules and requirements of the Stability and...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Understanding Labour Income Share Dynamics In Europe

    This paper seeks to understand labor share dynamics in Europe over the medium run. After documenting basic empirical regularities, the authors quantify the contribution of shifts in the sectoral and the employment composition of the economy to labor share movements. The findings from the shift-share analysis being on the descriptive...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Price Rigidity In The Euro Area - An Assessment

    The goal of this paper is to analyze nominal rigidities in the Euro area and evaluate their importance for the functioning of markets. Under flexible exchange rates the adjustment to economic shocks that have different effects across countries can take place through changes in the nominal exchange rates, which alter...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Diffusion/Adoption Of Innovation In The IntThe Diffusion/Adoption Of Innovation In The Internal Marketernal Market

    In the Lisbon Strategy, the Member States and the European Commission recognized that increasing innovation is a key to respond to the challenge offered by globalization. When studying this innovation process, part of the literature understands the technological change process into three distinct phases: the invention process (whereby new ideas...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Growth And Economic Crises In Turkey: Leaving Behind A Turbulent Past

    This paper first looked into Turkey's growth patterns and economic catching-up since the end of the Second World War and observed that the performance was sub-optimal for two reasons. Until the 1980s Turkey was a closed economy with a strong interventionist economic model and starting with the 1990s Turkey experienced...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Determinants Of Intra-Euro Area Government Bond Spreads During The Financial Crisis

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the determinants of government bond yield spreads in the euro area with a focus on developments during the global financial crisis that started in 2007. In line with the previous literature, the authors find that international factors, in particular general risk perception, play...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Institutions And Performance In European Labour Markets: Taking A Fresh Look At Evidence

    This paper presents a selective survey of the recent literature on labor market institutions and offers new empirical EU-based evidence on the impact of labor market reforms on employment and labor market adjustment. While the literature traditionally treats labor market institutions as exogenous, attention shifted recently towards understanding the underlying...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Quality Of Public Finances In Support Of Growth In The Mediterranean Partner Countries Of The EU (Study)

    Until the early 1990s, the discussions on fiscal policy primarily largely centered on the functions of economic stabilization, income redistribution and resource allocation. Long-term growth was not usually viewed as an end by itself, and fiscal policy was often not sufficiently tailored to the different circumstances and priorities of countries...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Did The Introduction Of The Euro Impact On Inflation Uncertainty? An Empirical Assessment

    The authors study the impact of the introduction of the European Monetary Union on inflation uncertainty. Two groups of economies, one consisting of three European Union members which are not part of the EMU and one of six OECD member economies, are used as control groups to contrast the effects...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Taxation Trends In The European Union

    The Taxation trends in the European Union appear at a time of upheaval. The effects of the global economic and financial crisis have hit the EU with increasing force from the second half of 2008. Given that the last year for which detailed data are available is 2007, this year's...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Sustainable Real Exchange Rates In The New EU Member States: Is FDI A Mixed Blessing?

    This paper focuses on the various macroeconomic opportunities and challenges created by the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows in the New Member States (NMS). The authors question whether the macroeconomic performance of the NMS is furthered through the FDI's overall positive impact on the trade balance or whether it can...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    How To Close The Productivity Gap Between The US And Europe: A Quantitative Assessment Using A Semi-Endogenous Growth Model

    This paper uses a semi-endogenous growth model to identify possible sources for three interrelated stylised differences between the EU and the US, namely a higher level of productivity and knowledge investment and larger skill premia in the US compared to the EU. The model allows the authors to explain these...

    Provided By European Communities

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    A Comparison Of Structural Reform Scenarios Across The EU Member States

    This paper calibrates the Roeger-Varga-Veld (2008) micro-founded DSGE model with endogenous growth for all EU member states using country specific structural characteristics and employs the individual country models to analyze the macroeconomic impact of various structural reforms. The authors use the country models to analyze the costs and benefits of...

    Provided By European Communities