Harvard University

Displaying 1-40 of 180 results

  • White Papers // Jan 2014

    A Dynamic Compilation Framework for Controlling Microprocessor Energy and Performance

    Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS) is an effective technique for controlling microprocessor energy and performance. Existing DVFS techniques are primarily based on hardware, OS time-interrupts, or static-compiler techniques. However, substantially greater gains can be realized when control opportunities are also explored in a dynamic compilation environment. There are several...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2014

    Performance, Energy, and Thermal Considerations for SMT and CMP Architectures

    Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) and Chip Multi-Processing (CMP) both allow a chip to achieve greater throughput, but their relative energy-efficiency and thermal properties are still poorly understood. In this paper, the authors use Turandot, PowerTimer, and HotSpot to explore this design space for a POWER4/POWER5-like core. For an equal-area comparison with...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2014

    Performance of Multithreaded Chip Multiprocessors and Implications for Operating System Design

    The authors investigated how operating system design should be adapted for Multi-Threaded (MT) Chip Multi-Processors (CMP) - a new generation of processors that exploit thread-level parallelism to mask the memory latency in modern workloads. They determined that the L2 cache is a critical shared resource on CMT and that an...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2014

    Cache-Fair Thread Scheduling for Multicore Processors

    The authors present a new operating system scheduling algorithm for multicore processors. Their algorithm reduces the effects of unequal CPU cache sharing that occur on these processors and cause unfair CPU sharing, priority inversion, and inadequate CPU accounting. They describe the implementation of their algorithm in the Solaris operating system...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2013

    A Uniform Min-Max Theorem with Applications in Cryptography

    The authors present a new, more constructive proof of von neumann's min-max theorem for two-player zero-sum game - specifically, an algorithm that builds a near-optimal mixed strategy for the second player from several best-responses of the second player to mixed strategies of the first player. The algorithm extends previous paper...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Quantifying Acceleration: Power/Performance Trade-Offs of Application Kernels in Hardware

    As the traditional performance gains of technology scaling diminish, one of the most promising directions is building special purpose fixed function hardware blocks, commonly referred to as accelerators. Accelerators have become prevalent in industrial SoC designs for their low power, high performance potential. In this paper, the authors explore thousands...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Characterizing and Evaluating Voltage Noise in Multi-Core Near-Threshold Processors

    Lowering the supply voltage to improve energy efficiency leads to higher load current and elevated supply sensitivity. In this paper, the authors provide the first quantitative analysis of voltage noise in multi-core near-threshold processors in a future 10nm technology across SPEC CPU2006 benchmarks. Their results reveal larger guardband requirement and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    Energy Characterization and Instruction-Level Energy Model of Intel's Xeon Phi Processor

    Current processors increasingly exploit Thread-Level Parallelism (TLP) to improve performance. As a result, multi-core/multi-thread processors are becoming the dominant architectures for domains ranging from mobile platforms to high-performance computing. As technology scales, the number of transistors available will continue to grow every generation. To make full use of those transistors...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2013

    A Highly Scalable Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Given the sensitivity of the potential WSN applications and because of resource limitations, key management emerges as a challenging issue for WSNs. One of the main concerns when designing a key management scheme is the network scalability. Indeed, the protocol should support a large number of nodes to enable a...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2013

    Measuring Code Optimization Impact on Voltage Noise

    In this paper, the authors characterize the impact of compiler optimizations on voltage noise. While intuition may suggest that the better processor utilization ensured by optimizing compilers results in a small amount of voltage variation, their measurements on a Intel R Core Duo processor show the opposite - the majority...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2013

    ISA-Independent Workload Characterization and its Implications for Specialized Architectures

    Specialized architectures will become increasingly important as the computing industry demands more energy-efficient designs. The application-centric design style for these architectures is heavily dependent on workload characterization of intrinsic program characteristics, but at the same time these architectures are likely to be decoupled from legacy ISAs. In this paper, the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    Scaling Network-Based Spectrum Analyzer With Constant Communication Cost

    The authors propose a spectrum analyzer that leverages many networked commodity sensor nodes, each of which samples its portion in a wideband spectrum. The sensors operate in parallel and transmit their measurements over a wireless network without performing any significant computations such as FFT. The measurements are forwarded to the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Loopy Belief Propagation as a Basis for Communication in Sensor Networks

    Sensor networks are an exCltmg new kmd of computer system. Consisting of a large number of tiny, cheap computational devices physically distributed in an environment, they gather and process data about the environment in real time. One of the central questions in sensor networks is what to do with the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2012

    Compressed Statistical Testing and Application to Radar

    The authors present Compressed Statistical Testing (CST) with an illustrative application to radar target detection. They characterize an optimality condition for a compressed domain test to yield the same result as the corresponding test in the uncompressed domain. They demonstrate by simulation that under high SNR, a likelihood ratio test...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Output Compression for IC Fault Detection Using Compressive Sensing

    The process of detecting logical faults in Integrated Circuits (ICs) due to manufacturing variations is bottlenecked by the I/O cost of scanning in test vectors and offloading test results. Traditionally, the output bottleneck is alleviated by reducing the number of bits in output responses using XOR networks, or computing signatures...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Determining RF Angle of Arrival Using COTS Antenna Arrays: A Field Evaluation

    The authors are interested in estimating the angle of arrival of an RF signal by using Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Software-Defined Radios (SDRs). The proposed COTS-based approach has the advantages of flexibility, low cost and ease of deployment, but - unlike traditional phased antenna arrays in which elements are already phase-aligned -...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Compressive Sensing With Optimal Sparsifying Basis and Applications in Spectrum Sensing

    The authors describe a method of integrating Karhunen-Loeve Transform (KLT) into compressive sensing, which can as a result improve the compression ratio without affecting the accuracy of decoding. They present two complementary results: by using KLT to find an optimal basis for decoding they can drastically reduce the number of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Compressive Sensing Medium Access Control for Wireless LANs

    The authors propose a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for wireless Local Area Networks (LANs) that leverages the theory of compressive sensing. The proposed Compressive Sensing MAC (CS-MAC) exploits the sparse property that, at a given time, only a few hosts are expected to request for radio channel access. Under...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    A Chip Architecture for Compressive Sensing Based Detection of Ic Trojans

    The authors present a chip architecture for a compressive sensing based method that can be used in conjunction with the JTAG standard to detect IC Trojans. The proposed architecture compresses chip output resulting from a large number of test vectors applied to a Circuit Under Test (CUT). They describe their...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Designing Informative Securities

    The authors create a formal framework for the design of informative securities in prediction markets. These securities allow a market organizer to infer the likelihood of events of interest as well as if he knew all of the traders' private signals. They consider the design of markets that are always...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2012

    Verifiable Computation With Massively Parallel Interactive Proofs

    As the cloud computing paradigm has gained prominence, the need for verifiable computation has grown increasingly urgent. Protocols for verifiable computation enable a weak client to outsource difficult computations to a powerful, but untrusted server, in a way that provides the client with a guarantee that the server performed the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2012

    Motivating Software-Driven Current Balancing in Flexible Voltage-Stacked Multicore Processors

    Computing hardware has been shifting to a multicore paradigm. One extreme of that approach is many-core computing, where a large number of simple processor cores execute in throughput mode. However, this paradigm is not ubiquitous and latency-bound applications do have a place in the workloads of the future. The authors...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2012

    Performance Gains in Conjugate Gradient Computation With Linearly Connected GPU Multiprocessors

    Conjugate gradient is an important iterative method used for solving least squares problems. It is compute-bound and generally involves only simple matrix computations. One would expect that the authors could fully parallelize such computation on the GPU architecture with multiple Stream Multiprocessors (SMs), each consisting of many SIMD processing units....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2012

    Learning Is Change in Knowledge: Knowledge-Based Security for Dynamic Policies

    In systems that handle confidential information, the security policy to enforce on information frequently changes: new users join the system, old users leave, and sensitivity of data changes over time. It is challenging, yet important, to specify what it means for such systems to be secure, and to gain assurance...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    MonetDB: Two Decades of Research in Column-oriented Database Architectures

    MonetDB is a state-of-the-art open-source column-store database management system targeting applications in need for analytics over large collections of data. MonetDB is actively used nowadays in health care, in telecommunications as well as in scientific databases and in data management research, accumulating on average more than 10,000 downloads on a...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Adaptive Indexing in Modern Database Kernels

    Physical design represents one of the hardest problems for database management systems. Without proper tuning, systems cannot achieve good performance. Offline indexing creates indexes a priori assuming good workload knowledge and idle time. More recently, online indexing monitors the workload trends and creates or drops indexes online. Adaptive indexing takes...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Modeling Internet-Scale Policies for Cleaning Up Malware

    The results of the authors' experiments using ASIM indicate that when filtering wicked traffic, the best targets for intervention are a small group of the largest ASes. Specifically, they find that intervention by the top 0.2% of ASes (in terms of size) is more effective than intervention by a randomly...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Compressive Sensing Based Channel Feedback Protocols for Spatially-Correlated Massive Antenna Arrays

    Incorporating wireless transceivers with numerous antennas (such as Massive-MIMO) is a prospective way to increase the link capacity or enhance the energy efficiency of future communication systems. However, the benefits of such approach can be realized only when proper channel information is available at the transmitter. Since the amount of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Information-Theoretic Limits of Dense Underwater Networks

    Information-theoretic throughput scaling laws are analyzed in an underwater acoustic network with n regularly located nodes on a unit square, in which both bandwidth and received signal power can be severely limited. A narrow-band model is assumed where the carrier frequency is allowed to scale as a function of n....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    External-Memory Multimaps

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A multimap is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Collaborative Compressive Spectrum Sensing in a UAV Environment

    Spectrum sensing is of fundamental importance to many wireless applications including cognitive radio channel assignment and radiolocation. However, conventional spectrum sensing can be prohibitively expensive in computation and network bandwidth when the bands under scanning are wide and highly contested. In this paper, the authors propose distributed spectrum sensing with...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Measurement Combining and Progressive Reconstruction in Compressive Sensing

    Compressive sensing has emerged as an important new technique in signal acquisition due to the surprising property that a sparse signal can be captured from measurements obtained at a sub-Nyquist rate. The decoding cost of compressive sensing, however, grows superlinearly with the problem size. In distributed sensor systems, the aggregate...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Partitioned Compressive Sensing With Neighbor-Weighted Decoding

    Compressive sensing has gained momentum in recent years as an exciting new theory in signal processing with several useful applications. It states that signals known to have a sparse representation may be encoded and later reconstructed using a small number of measurements, approximately proportional to the signal's sparsity rather than...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    DISTROY: Detecting Integrated Circuit Trojans With Compressive Measurements

    Detecting Trojans in an Integrated Circuit (IC) is an important but hard problem. A Trojan is malicious hardware - it can be extremely small in size and dormant until triggered by some unknown circuit state. To allow wake-up, a Trojan could draw a minimal amount of power, for example, to...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Collecting Provenance Via the Xen Hypervisor

    The Provenance Aware Storage Systems project (PASS) currently collects system-level provenance by intercepting system calls in the Linux kernel and storing the provenance in a stackable filesystem. While this approach is reasonably efficient, it suffers from two significant drawbacks: each new revision of the kernel requires reintegration of PASS changes,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Provenance Integration Requires Reconciliation

    While there has been a great deal of research on provenance systems, there has been little discussion about challenges that arise when making different provenance systems interoperate. In fact, most of the literature focuses on provenance systems in isolation and does not discuss interoperability - what it means, its requirements,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Separation-Based Joint Decoding in Compressive Sensing

    The authors introduce a joint decoding method for compressive sensing that can simultaneously exploit sparsity of individual components of a composite signal. Their method can significantly reduce the total number of variables decoded jointly by separating variables of large magnitudes in one domain and using only these variables to represent...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Provenance Map Orbiter: Interactive Exploration of Large Provenance Graphs

    Provenance systems can produce enormous provenance graphs that can be used for a variety of tasks from determining the inputs to a particular process to debugging entire workflow executions or tracking difficult-to-find dependencies. Visualization can be a useful tool to support such tasks, but graphs of such scale (thousands to...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    CloudSense: Continuous Fine-Grain Cloud Monitoring With Compressive Sensing

    Continuous fine-grain status monitoring of a cloud data center enables rapid response to anomalies, but handling the resulting torrent of data poses a significant challenge. As a solution, the authors propose CloudSense, a new switch design that performs in-network compression of status streams via compressive sensing. Using MapReduce straggler detection...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Achieving High Throughput Ground-to-UAV Transport Via Parallel Links

    Wireless data transfer under high mobility, as found in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications, is a challenge due to varying channel quality and extended link outages. The authors present FlowCode, an easily deployable link-layer solution utilizing multiple transmitters and receivers for the purpose of supporting existing transport protocols such as...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2005

    Counterfeit Drugs: A Growing Public Health Risk in Need of a Multi-Factored Solution

    Counterfeit drugs are those drugs that have been tampered with such that they are not what they purport to be. These drugs can be sub-potent, super-potent, contain only inactive ingredients, contain no medication whatsoever, or have false labels. While counterfeit drugs are a huge problem particularly in developing countries, the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Temporal Correlations Between Spam and Phishing Websites

    To implement a phishing scam, attackers must create a fake website and send spam to attract visitors. To date, empirical research into phishing's impact has studied either the spam being sent or the website lifetimes. This paper examines both phishing websites and the associated spam to gauge the overall effectiveness...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Evil Searching: Compromise and Recompromise of Internet Hosts for Phishing

    Criminals use web servers to host phishing websites that impersonate financial institutions, to send out email spam, to distribute malware, and for many other illegal activities. To reduce costs, and to avoid being traced, the criminals often compromise legitimate systems to host their sites. Extra files - web pages or...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    CTPPL: A Continuous Time Probabilistic Programming Language

    Probabilistic programming languages are an exciting development in probabilistic knowledge representation. They allow a modeler to build probabilistic models using complex data structures with all the power of a programming language. Most probabilistic programming languages that have been developed are static, but ProPL and D-BLOG extend such languages to dynamic...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Application-Specific Hardware Design for Wireless Sensor Network Energy and Delay Reduction

    Battery-powered embedded systems, such as Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) motes, require low energy usage to extend system lifetime. WSN motes must power sensors, a processor, and a radio for wireless communication over long periods of time, and are therefore particularly sensitive to energy use. Recent techniques for reducing WSN energy...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Making a Cloud Provenance-Aware

    The advent of cloud computing provides a cheap and convenient mechanism for scientists to share data. The utility of such data is obviously enhanced when the provenance of the data is also available. The cloud, while convenient for storing data, is not designed for storing and querying provenance. This paper...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    CAD and Image Standards for Construction Documentation

    This paper outlines how to produce and deliver CAD drawings and raster images of as-built construction drawings. For purposes of this document image files refer to the TIF format. The University Planning Office revised this standard in January 2009. Prior versions were published in 2006, 2002, 1999, 1996 and 1994....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Team-Building Strategies: Building A Winning Team For Your Organization

    Large organizations often earmark training expenditures for a particular type of service, such as individual coaching, group classes, or consulting work. When a coach or consultant encourages a more systemic solution that could yield a higher return on investment, management often responds, "I have money available only for training." Champions...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2008

    A Right To Work? A Right To Holidays With Pay? Labor Rights As Human Rights

    This paper first tries to make it plausible why labor rights would appear on the list of human rights, and next articulates some philosophical objections to their presence there. The interesting question then is not how one could respond to the objections, but to explore what commitments one needs to...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Demand Response Pricing In Organized Wholesale Markets

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR) addresses the question of proper compensation for demand response in organized wholesale electricity markets. The Commission proposes to pay the full Locational Marginal Price (LMP) for all types of demand response acting as a resource in the energy market. The...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Cloud Computing & National Security Law

    In recent years, many computer and Internet functions have moved from users' computers to remote servers that make up a "Cloud" of data and processing power. "Cloud computing" has transformed users' computers from the start and end points of data creation and transmission into portals to view and modify data...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Provenance as First Class Cloud Data

    Digital provenance is meta-data that describes the ancestry or history of a digital object. Most work on provenance focuses on how provenance increases the value of data to consumers. However, provenance is also valuable to storage providers. For example, provenance can provide hints on access patterns, detect anomalous behavior, and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Mediation In Business-Related Human Rights Disputes: Objections, Opportunities And Challenges

    In his 2008 report to the United Nations Human Rights Council, Prof. John Ruggie, the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General (SRSG) for Business and Human Rights, set out a three-part framework to advance a shared understanding of the complex interactions between companies and human rights. The framework, subsequently endorsed...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Climate Finance: Key Concepts And Ways Forward

    Climate finance is fundamental to curbing anthropogenic climate change. Compared, however, to the negotiations over emissions reduction timetables, commitments, and architectures, climate finance issues have received only limited and belated attention. Assuring delivery and appropriate use of the financial resources needed to achieve emissions reductions and secure adaptation to climate...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Fire Sales In Finance And Macroeconomics

    Fire sales are forced sales of assets in which high-valuation bidders are sidelined, typically due to debt overhang problems afflicting many specialist bidders simultaneously. The authors overview theoretical and empirical research on asset fire sales, which shows how they can arise, how they can lead to asset under-valuations, how contracts...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    How Much Sunlight Does It Take To Disinfect A Boardroom? A Short History Of Executive Compensation Regulation

    This paper reviews the history of executive compensation disclosure and other government policies affecting CEO pay and surveys the literature on the effects of these policies. CEOs are almost exclusively in the top 1 percent of the pay distribution, and regulation of their pay is seen as a well-targeted way...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Business And Philanthropy Partnerships For Human Capital Development In The Middle East

    Human capital, which the OECD defines as "The knowledge, skills, competencies and attributes embodied in individuals that facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic well-being", encompasses the entire range of abilities and resources that contribute to a firm or nation's success. It is a dynamic and multi-faceted concept that...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Green Computing: Can Computation Advance Sustainability? An Exploration

    The Green Computing Project was launched in January 2009 as a development and networking effort intended to bring the IIC's multidisciplinary approach to computational science and engineering to bear on the challenges of environmental sustainability. Over the longer term, the project aimed to catalyze faculty efforts around two main goals:...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Social Networks, Personalized Advertising, And Privacy Controls

    This paper investigates how internet users' perception of control over their personal information affects how likely they are to click on online advertising. The paper uses data from a randomized field experiment that examined the relative effectiveness of personalizing ad copy to mesh with existing personal information on a social...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Do Friends Influence Purchases In A Social Network?

    Social networks, such as Facebook and MySpace have witnessed a rapid growth in their membership. Some of these businesses have tried an advertising-based model with very limited success. However, these businesses have not fully explored the power of their members to influence each other's behavior. This potential viral or social...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Letting Misconduct Slide: The Acceptability Of Gradual Erosion In Others? Unethical Behavior

    Four laboratory studies show that people are more likely to overlook others' unethical behavior when ethical degradation occurs slowly rather than in one abrupt shift. Participants served in the role of watchdogs charged with catching instances of cheating. The watchdogs in the studies were less likely to criticize the actions...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Issuer Quality And Corporate Bond Returns

    Changes in the pricing of credit risk disproportionately affect the debt financing costs faced by low credit quality firms. As a result, time-series variation in the average quality of debt issuers may be useful for forecasting excess corporate bond returns. The results can be partially explained by models in which...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Lawful But Corrupt: Gaming And The Problem Of Institutional Corruption In The Private Sector

    This paper describes how the gaming of society's rules by corporations contributes to the problem of institutional corruption in the world of business. "Gaming" in its various forms involves the use of technically legal means to subvert the intent of society's rules in order to gain advantage over rivals, maximize...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Payout Taxes And The Allocation Of Investment

    When corporate payout is taxed, internal equity is cheaper than external equity. If there are no perfect substitutes for equity finance, payout taxes may therefore have an effect on the investment of firms. High taxes will favor investment by firms who can finance internally. Using an international panel with many...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Comparative-Advantage Approach To Government Debt Maturity

    This paper studies optimal government debt maturity in a model where investors derive monetary services from holding riskless short-term securities. In a simple setting where the government is the only issuer of such riskless paper, it trades off the monetary premium associated with short-term debt against the refinancing risk implied...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Demographic Change And Economic Growth In South Asia

    Identifying factors that influence the pace of national economic growth is a time-worn activity of economists. Strangely, demographic change has often been absent from consideration. But new thinking and evidence have highlighted the powerful contribution that demographic change can make to economic growth, and this line of inquiry has some...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    The Graying Of Global Population And Its Macroeconomic Consequences

    Population aging is emerging as a major demographic trend in many countries, with potentially important implications for a variety of macroeconomic issues. Notwithstanding these challenges, population aging will likely have a comparatively modest effect on economic growth. Although the changed age distribution would be expected to cause the labor force...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Efficient Semantic Communication Via Compatible Beliefs

    In previous paper, Juba and Sudan and Goldreich, Juba and Sudan considered the idea of "Semantic communication", wherein two players, a user and a server, attempt to communicate with each other without any prior common language (or communication protocol). They showed that if communication was goal-oriented and the user could...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    From Economic Growth To Social Wellbeing: Reflecting On Urban Theories And The Opportunities Provided By Globalization To Create A Just Society In India

    Today, Globalization is described as homogenizing the world cultures, with the assumption that global capitalism has brought in its sway disintegration of nation states, increased exploitation of indigenous populations, increased inequalities between places in the same regional boundaries. The author starts by reviewing existing literature to understand their applicability in...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Approaches To Estimating The Health State Dependence Of The Utility Function

    If the marginal utility of consumption depends on health status, this will affect the economic analysis of a number of central problems in public finance, including the optimal structure of health insurance and optimal life cycle savings. In this paper, the authors describe the promises and challenges of various approaches...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Financial Literacy And Financial Sophistication In The Older Population: Evidence From The 2008 HRS

    This paper analyzes new data on financial literacy and financial sophistication from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study. The authors' show that financial literacy is lacking among older individuals and for the first time explores additional questions on financial sophistication which proves even scarcer. For this sample of older respondents...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Rewarding Calculated Risk-Taking: Evidence From A Series Of Experiments With Commercial Bank Loan Officers

    The authors analyze the underwriting process of small-business loans to entrepreneurs in an emerging market, using data obtained from a large commercial lender in India. Using a series of randomized experiments involving loan officers from several banks, this paper provides the first rigorous test of theories of loan officer decision...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Effect Of Social Security Reform On Male Retirement In High And Middle Income Countries

    The authors analyze panel data for 40 countries over the period 1970-2000 to examine the effect of social security reforms on the labor supply of older men. The data show a trend towards earlier retirement that can be explained by rising income levels. They find that the average retirement age...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Economic Security Arrangements In The Context Of Population Ageing In India

    The rapid ageing of India's population, in conjunction with migration out of rural areas and the continued concentration of the working population in the informal sector, has highlighted the need for better economic security arrangements for the elderly. Traditional family ties that have been key to ensuring a modicum of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Propagation Of Financial Shocks: The Case Of Venture Capital

    The non-transferable information that financial intermediaries accumulate about their investments can lead portfolio companies to become locked-in. As a result, companies can become vulnerable to exogenous fluctuations in the health of their intermediaries. The author studies these issues in the context of venture capital, where informational problems are particularly severe....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Arbitrage Capital And Real Investment

    The authors study the relationship between the supply of arbitrage capital and real investment. The investment of firms that depend on convertible debt for financing responds positively to flows into convertible arbitrage hedge funds. An extra $1 of fund flows increases capital expenditures of convertible dependent firms by $0.49. At...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Effect Of Financial Development On The Investment-Cash Flow Relationship: Cross-Country Evidence From Europe

    The authors investigate if financial development eases firm level financing constraints in a cross-country data set covering much of the European economy. The cash flow sensitivity of investment is lower in countries with better-developed financial markets. To deal with potentially serious biases, they employ a difference-in-difference methodology. Subsidiaries of other...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Credit Default Swap Spreads And Systemic Financial Risk

    This paper presents a novel method to measure the joint default risk of large financial institutions (systemic default risk) using information in bond and Credit Default Swap (CDS) prices. Bond prices reflect individual default probabilities of the issuers. CDS contracts, which insure against such defaults, pay off only as long...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Meeting Multifamily Housing Finance Needs During And After The Credit Crisis: A Policy Brief

    Although multifamily housing finance is not the source of the current credit crisis, it has been disrupted by it. Even though multifamily rental loan performance has held up well, many private sources of multifamily finance have exited the market. Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, and to a lesser degree the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Macroprudential Approach To Financial Regulation

    Bank capital requirements were the cornerstone of financial regulation up until the global financial crisis. In the wake of the crisis there have been many calls for reform of financial regulation, with a first step having been recently passed in the United States. In this paper, the authors offer a...

    Provided By Harvard University