Harvard University

Displaying 41-80 of 177 results

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Robustness And Contagion In The International Financial Network

    Globalization has created an international financial network of countries linked by trade in goods and assets. These linkages allow for more efficient resource allocation across borders, but also create potentially hazardous financial interdependence, such as the great financial distress caused by the 2010 threat of Greece's default or the 2008...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Multicore OSes: Looking Forward From 1991, er, 2011

    Upcoming multicore processors, with hundreds of cores or more in a single chip, require a degree of parallel scalability that is not currently available in today's system software. Based on prior experience in the supercomputing sector, the likely trend for multicore processors is away from shared memory and toward shared...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Benchmarking File System Benchmarking: It is Rocket Science

    The quality of file system benchmarking has not improved in over a decade of intense research spanning hundreds of publications. Researchers repeatedly use a wide range of poorly designed benchmarks, and in most cases, develop their own ad-hoc benchmarks. The authors' community lacks a definition of what they want to...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Ethical Dilemmas in Take-Down Research

    The authors discuss nine ethical dilemmas which have arisen during the investigation of 'Notice and take-down' regimes for Internet content. Issues arise when balancing the desire for accurate measurement to advance the security community's understanding with the need to immediately reduce harm that is uncovered in the course of measurement....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    PyCUDA and PyOpenCL: A Scripting-Based Approach to GPU Run-Time Code Generation

    High-performance computing has recently seen a surge of interest in heterogeneous systems, with an emphasis on modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). These devices offer tremendous potential for performance and efficiency in important large-scale applications of computational science. However, exploiting this potential can be challenging, as one must adapt to the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    The Impact of Public Information on Phishing Attack and Defense

    Attackers compromise web servers in order to host fraudulent content, such as malware and phishing websites. While the techniques used to compromise websites are widely discussed and categorized, analysis of the methods used by attackers to identify targets has remained anecdotal. In this paper, the authors study the use of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Fairness And Independence: An Impossibility Theorem

    The most widely used economic models of social preferences are specified only for certain outcomes. There are two obvious methods of extending them to lotteries. If we do so by expected utility theory, so that the independence axiom is satisfied, the results imply that the resulting preferences do not exhibit...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Intangible Capital, Relative Asset Shortages And Bubbles

    The authors analyze an OLG economy with financial frictions and accumulation of both physical and intangible capital. The key difference between these two types of capital is that intangible capital cannot be used as collateral for borrowing. As intangibles become more important relative to physical capital in production, interest rates...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    A Lesson From The South For Fiscal Policy In The US And Other Advanced Countries

    American fiscal policy has been procyclical: Washington wasted the expansion period 2001-2007 by running budget deficits, but by 2011 had come to feel constrained by inherited debt to withdraw fiscal stimulus. Chile has achieved countercyclical fiscal policy - saving in booms and easing in recession - during the same decade...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Evaluating Value-Graph Translation Validation for LLVM

    Translation validators are static analyzers that attempt to verify that program transformations preserve semantics. Normalizing translation validators do so by trying to match the value-graphs of an original function and it's transformed counterpart. In this paper, the authors present the design of such a validator for LLVM's intra-procedural optimizations, a...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Demographic Change And Economic Growth In South Asia

    Identifying factors that influence the pace of national economic growth is a time-worn activity of economists. Strangely, demographic change has often been absent from consideration. But new thinking and evidence have highlighted the powerful contribution that demographic change can make to economic growth, and this line of inquiry has some...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Bank Credit And Business Networks

    The authors construct the topology of business networks across the population of firms in an emerging economy, Pakistan, and estimate the value that membership in large yet diffuse networks brings in terms of access to bank credit and improving financial viability. They link two firms if they have a common...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On the Zero-Error Capacity Threshold for Deletion Channels

    The authors consider the zero-error capacity of deletion channels. Specifically, they consider the setting where they choose a codebook C consisting of strings of n bits, and their model of the channel corresponds to an adversary who may delete up to pn of these bits for a constant p. Their...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Country Diversification, Product Ubiquity, And Economic Divergence

    Countries differ markedly in the diversification of their exports. Products differ in the number of countries that export them, which the authors define as their ubiquity. They document a new stylized fact in the global pattern of exports: there is a systematic relationship between the diversification of a country's exports...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Credit Default Swap Spreads And Systemic Financial Risk

    This paper presents a novel method to measure the joint default risk of large financial institutions (systemic default risk) using information in bond and Credit Default Swap (CDS) prices. Bond prices reflect individual default probabilities of the issuers. CDS contracts, which insure against such defaults, pay off only as long...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A Non-Work-Conserving Operating System Scheduler for SMT Processors

    Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) processors run multiple threads simultaneously on a single processing core. Because concurrent threads compete for the processor's shared resources, non-work-conserving scheduling, i.e., running fewer threads than the processor allows even if there are threads ready to run, can often improve performance. Nevertheless, conventional operating systems do not...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Abstract Predicates and Mutable ADTs in Hoare Type Theory

    Hoare Type Theory (HTT) combines a dependently typed, higher-order language with monadically-encapsulated, stateful computations. The type system incorporates pre- and post-conditions, in a fashion similar to Hoare and Separation Logic, so that programmers can modularly specify the requirements and effects of computations within types. This paper extends HTT with quantification...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Standard Oil As A Technological Innovator

    The 1911 Standard Oil case, everyone knows, was all about price discrimination, "Predatory" pricing, acquisitions under duress, and the like. But there was also a technological element. Defending against monopolization charges, Standard Oil claimed that it had innovated both technologically and in the scale economies-enhancing investments by which it aggressively...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Challenges in Embedded Database System Administration

    Embedded systems provide a combination of opportunities and challenges in application and system configuration and management. As an embedded system is most often dedicated to a single application or small set of cooperating tasks, the operating conditions of the system are typically better understood than those of general-purpose computing environments....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Issuer Quality And Corporate Bond Returns

    Changes in the pricing of credit risk disproportionately affect the debt financing costs faced by low credit quality firms. As a result, time-series variation in the average quality of debt issuers may be useful for forecasting excess corporate bond returns. The results can be partially explained by models in which...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Propagation Of Financial Shocks: The Case Of Venture Capital

    The non-transferable information that financial intermediaries accumulate about their investments can lead portfolio companies to become locked-in. As a result, companies can become vulnerable to exogenous fluctuations in the health of their intermediaries. The author studies these issues in the context of venture capital, where informational problems are particularly severe....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Fire Sales In Finance And Macroeconomics

    Fire sales are forced sales of assets in which high-valuation bidders are sidelined, typically due to debt overhang problems afflicting many specialist bidders simultaneously. The authors overview theoretical and empirical research on asset fire sales, which shows how they can arise, how they can lead to asset under-valuations, how contracts...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Efficient Semantic Communication Via Compatible Beliefs

    In previous paper, Juba and Sudan and Goldreich, Juba and Sudan considered the idea of "Semantic communication", wherein two players, a user and a server, attempt to communicate with each other without any prior common language (or communication protocol). They showed that if communication was goal-oriented and the user could...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Lawful But Corrupt: Gaming And The Problem Of Institutional Corruption In The Private Sector

    This paper describes how the gaming of society's rules by corporations contributes to the problem of institutional corruption in the world of business. "Gaming" in its various forms involves the use of technically legal means to subvert the intent of society's rules in order to gain advantage over rivals, maximize...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Economics of Cybersecurity: Principles and Policy Options

    Economics puts the challenges facing cybersecurity into perspective better than a purely technical approach does. Systems often fail because the organizations that defend them do not bear the full costs of failure. For instance, companies operating critical infrastructures have integrated control systems with the Internet to reduce near-term, measurable costs...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    A Study on the Optimal Degree-of-Freedoms of Cellular Networks: Opportunistic Interference Mitigation

    The authors introduce an Opportunistic Interference Mitigation (OIM) protocol for cellular networks, where a user scheduling strategy is utilized in uplink K-cell environments with time-invariant channel coefficients and Base Stations (BSs) having M receive antennas. In the OIM scheme, each BS opportunistically selects a set of users who generate the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Voltage Smoothing: Characterizing and Mitigating Voltage Noise in Production Processors Via Software-Guided Thread Scheduling

    Parameter variations have become a dominant challenge in microprocessor design. Voltage variation is especially daunting because it happens so rapidly. The authors measure and characterize voltage variation in a running Intel Core Duo processor. By sensing on-die voltage as the processor runs single-threaded, multi-threaded, and multi-program workloads, they determine the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    How Can Commodity Exporters Make Fiscal And Monetary Policy Less Procyclical?

    Fiscal and monetary policy each has a role to play in mitigating the volatility that stems from the large trade shocks hitting commodity-exporting countries. All too often macroeconomic policy is procyclical that is, destabilizing, rather than countercyclical. This paper suggests two institutional innovations designed to achieve greater counter cyclicality, one...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Generalized Pricing Formulas For Stochastic Volatility Jump Diffusion Models Applied To The Exponential Vasicek Model

    Path integral techniques for the pricing of financial options are mostly based on models that can be recast in terms of a Fokker-Planck differential equation and that, consequently, neglect jumps and only describe drift and diffusion. The authors present a method to adapt formulas for both the path-integral propagators and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    What We Still Don't Know About Monetary And Fiscal Policy

    Two thousand and seven may seem an odd moment to question what we know about monetary policy. The past quarter-century has been about as good a run, at least in aggregate dimensions, as one is likely to get - and certainly far superior to what the early Brookings Panel participants,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Payout Taxes And The Allocation Of Investment

    When corporate payout is taxed, internal equity is cheaper than external equity. If there are no perfect substitutes for equity finance, payout taxes may therefore have an effect on the investment of firms. High taxes will favor investment by firms who can finance internally. Using an international panel with many...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Cloud Computing & National Security Law

    In recent years, many computer and Internet functions have moved from users' computers to remote servers that make up a "Cloud" of data and processing power. "Cloud computing" has transformed users' computers from the start and end points of data creation and transmission into portals to view and modify data...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Accelerator Store Framework for High-Performance, Low-Power Accelerator-Based Systems

    Hardware acceleration can increase performance and reduce energy consumption. To maximize these benefits, accelerator-based systems that emphasize computation on accelerators should be used. The authors introduce the \"Accelerator store,\" a structure for sharing memory between accelerators in these accelerator-based systems. The accelerator store simplifies accelerator I/O and reduces area by...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Three Challenges Facing Modern Macroeconomics

    There are three great challenges facing researchers in modern macroeconomics today, all brought into sharp relief by the recent financial crisis. The first is to find more realistic, and yet tractable, ways to incorporate financial market frictions into the canonical models for analyzing monetary policy. The second is to rethink...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Economic Security Arrangements In The Context Of Population Ageing In India

    The rapid ageing of India's population, in conjunction with migration out of rural areas and the continued concentration of the working population in the informal sector, has highlighted the need for better economic security arrangements for the elderly. Traditional family ties that have been key to ensuring a modicum of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Regulation Of Consumer Financial Products: An Introductory Essay With Four Case Studies

    The recent financial crisis has led many to question how well businesses deliver consumer financial services and how well regulatory institutions address problems in consumer financial markets. In response, the Obama administration proposed a new agency to oversee consumer financial services, and the recently enacted Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Benchmarking Adaptive Indexing

    Ideally, realizing the best physical design for the current and all subsequent workloads would impact neither performance nor storage usage. In reality, workloads and datasets can change dramatically over time and index creation impacts the performance of concurrent user and system activity. The authors propose a framework that evaluates the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Clusters and Entrepreneurship

    This paper examines the role of regional clusters in regional entrepreneurship. The authors focus on the distinct influences of convergence and agglomeration on growth in the number of start-up firms as well as in employment in these new firms in a given region-industry. While reversion to the mean and diminishing...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Speculative Pipelining for Compute Cloud Programming

    MapReduce job execution typically occurs in sequential phases of parallel steps. These phases can experience unpredictable delays when available computing and network capacities fluctuate or when there are large disparities in inter-node communication delays, as can occur on shared compute clouds. The authors propose a pipeline-based scheduling strategy, called speculative...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Location-Dependent Runs-and-Gaps Model for Predicting TCP Performance Over a UAV Wireless Channel

    In this paper, the authors use a finite-state model to predict the performance of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over a varying wireless channel between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and ground nodes. As a UAV traverses its flight path, the wireless channel may experience periods of significant packet loss,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    What We Still Don't Know About Monetary And Fiscal Policy

    Two thousand and seven may seem an odd moment to question what we know about monetary policy. The past quarter-century has been about as good a run, at least in aggregate dimensions, as one is likely to get - and certainly far superior to what the early Brookings Panel participants,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    CloudSense: Continuous Fine-Grain Cloud Monitoring With Compressive Sensing

    Continuous fine-grain status monitoring of a cloud data center enables rapid response to anomalies, but handling the resulting torrent of data poses a significant challenge. As a solution, the authors propose CloudSense, a new switch design that performs in-network compression of status streams via compressive sensing. Using MapReduce straggler detection...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Speculative Pipelining for Compute Cloud Programming

    MapReduce job execution typically occurs in sequential phases of parallel steps. These phases can experience unpredictable delays when available computing and network capacities fluctuate or when there are large disparities in inter-node communication delays, as can occur on shared compute clouds. The authors propose a pipeline-based scheduling strategy, called speculative...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Collaborative Compressive Spectrum Sensing in a UAV Environment

    Spectrum sensing is of fundamental importance to many wireless applications including cognitive radio channel assignment and radiolocation. However, conventional spectrum sensing can be prohibitively expensive in computation and network bandwidth when the bands under scanning are wide and highly contested. In this paper, the authors propose distributed spectrum sensing with...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Achieving High Throughput Ground-to-UAV Transport Via Parallel Links

    Wireless data transfer under high mobility, as found in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) applications, is a challenge due to varying channel quality and extended link outages. The authors present FlowCode, an easily deployable link-layer solution utilizing multiple transmitters and receivers for the purpose of supporting existing transport protocols such as...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Sign-Based Spectral Clustering

    Sign-based spectral clustering performs data grouping based on signs of components in the eigenvectors of the input. This paper introduces the concept of sign-based clustering, proves some of its basic properties and describes its use in applications. It is shown that for certain applications where a relatively small number of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Location-Dependent Runs-and-Gaps Model for Predicting TCP Performance Over a UAV Wireless Channel

    In this paper, the authors use a finite-state model to predict the performance of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over a varying wireless channel between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and ground nodes. As a UAV traverses its flight path, the wireless channel may experience periods of significant packet loss,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Flowcode: Multi-Site Data Exchange Over Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks Using Network Coding

    The authors present FlowCode, a system that exploits network coding at the granularity of traffic flows to facilitate fault-tolerant data exchange in wireless mesh networks. Applications include multi-site data replication in ad-hoc environments such as mesh networks or wireless data centers. By coupling an operand-driven transmission mechanism with a layered...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2009

    A Spectral Clustering Approach to Validating Sensors Via Their Peers in Distributed Sensor Networks

    In a distributed sensor network, the goodness of a sensor may change according to its current device status (e.g., health of hardware) and environment (e.g., wireless reception conditions at the sensor location). As a result, it is often necessary to validate periodically sensors in the field, in order to identify...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Capacity Bounds on Multi-Pair Two-Way Communication With a Base-Station Aided by a Relay

    The simplest bi-directional relay network consists of a pair of terminal nodes that wish to exchange messages through the use of a single relay. While the capacity of this channel is still unknown in general, it has been of great recent interest (see references in and) due to its relevance...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Information-Theoretic Limits of Dense Underwater Networks

    Information-theoretic throughput scaling laws are analyzed in an underwater acoustic network with n regularly located nodes on a unit square, in which both bandwidth and received signal power can be severely limited. A narrow-band model is assumed where the carrier frequency is allowed to scale as a function of n....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Will I Stay Or Will I Go? Cooperative And Competitive Effects Of Workgroup Sex And Race Composition On Turnover

    The authors develop an integrated theory of the social identity mechanisms linking workgroup sex and race composition across levels with individual turnover. Analyzing longitudinal human resource data on professionals employed in a large up-or-out knowledge organization, they assess the distinct effects of demographic match with superiors and demographic match with...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Does Product Market Competition Lead Firms To Decentralize?

    In this paper the authors investigate whether greater product market competition increases decentralization. To tackle the issues they collected detailed information on the internal organization of firms across nations. The few datasets that exist are either from a single industry or (at best) across many firms in a single country....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Walking The Talk In Multiparty Bargaining: An Experimental Investigation

    The authors study the framing effects of communication in multiparty bargaining. Communication has been shown to be more truthful and revealing than predicted in equilibrium. Because talk is preference revealing, it may effectively frame bargaining around logic of fairness or competition, moving parties on a path toward or away from...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    The End Of Chimerica

    For the better part of the past decade, the world economy has been dominated by a world economic order that combined Chinese export-led development with US overconsumption. First, the scale of Chinese currency intervention was without precedent, as were the resulting distortions of the world economy. Second, the Chinese have...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    The Impact Of Private Equity Ownership On Portfolio Firms? Corporate Tax Planning

    This paper investigates whether private equity (PE) firms influence the tax practices of their portfolio firms. Prior research documents that PE firms create economic value in portfolio firms through effective governance, financial, and operational engineering. Given PE firms' focus on value creation, the authors examine whether PE firms influence the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    In Favor Of Clear Thinking: Incorporating Moral Rules Into A Wise Cost-benefit Analysis

    The authors have contributed an interesting paper on the comparative benefit of moral rules versus cost-benefit analysis. Many of their specific comments are accurate, useful, and insightful. At the same time, they believe they have misrepresented cost-benefit analysis and have reached a set of conclusions that are misguided and, if...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Policy Bundling To Overcome Loss Aversion: A Method For Improving Legislative Outcomes

    Policies that would create net benefits for society but would also involve costs frequently lack the necessary support to be enacted because losses loom larger than gains psychologically. To reduce the harmful consequence of loss aversion, the authors propose a new type of policy bundling technique in which related bills...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Optimal Taxation Of Height: A Case Study Of Utilitarian Income Redistribution

    The standard Utilitarian framework for tax analysis answers this question in the affirmative. This paper can be interpreted in one of two ways. One interpretation is that personal attributes correlated with wages should be considered more widely for determining taxes. Alternatively, if policies such as a height tax are rejected,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Truth In Giving: Experimental Evidence On The Welfare Effects Of Informed Giving To The Poor

    It is often difficult for donors to predict the value of charitable giving because they know little about the persons who receive their help. This concern is particularly acute when making contributions to organizations that serve heterogeneous populations. While the authors have considerable evidence that donors are more generous if...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2009

    File-Sharing And Copyright

    The advent of file-sharing technology has allowed consumers to copy music, books, video games and other protected works on an unprecedented scale at minimal cost. In this paper, the authors ask whether the new technology has undermined the incentives of authors and entertainment companies to create market and distribute new...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Broadening Focus: Spillovers And The Benefits Of Specialization In The Hospital Industry

    The long-standing argument that focused operations outperform others stands in contrast to theory and evidence supporting a broader scope for organizations. The literature on related diversification at the level of the firm provides some reconciliation of these conflicting observations by suggesting that multi-unit firms with a portfolio of related businesses...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Securing Jobs Or The New Protectionism?: Taxing The Overseas Activities Of Multinational Firms

    Tax policy toward American multinational firms would appear to be approaching a crossroads. The presumed linkages between domestic employment conditions and the growth of foreign operations by American firms have led to calls for increased taxation on foreign operations - the so-called "End to tax breaks for companies that ship...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects Of Over-Prescribing Goal Setting

    Goal setting is one of the most replicated and influential paradigms in the management literature. Hundreds of studies conducted in numerous countries and contexts have consistently demonstrated that setting specific, challenging goals can powerfully drive behavior and boost performance. Advocates of goal setting have had a substantial impact on research,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Dishonest Deed, Clear Conscience: Self-Preservation Through Moral Disengagement And Motivated Forgetting

    People routinely engage in dishonest acts without feeling guilty about their behavior. Across four studies, people justified their dishonest deeds through moral disengagement and exhibited motivated forgetting of information that might otherwise limit their dishonesty. Using hypothetical scenarios and real tasks involving the opportunity to cheat, they find that dishonest...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    The Task And Temporal Microstructure Of Productivity: Evidence From Japanese Financial Services

    Sustaining workers' productivity is critical to organizations' operational success. Yet, comparatively little attention has been given to how managers can effectively allocate work across tasks and time to improve workers' performance. In this paper, the author uses the learning curve framework to investigate how productivity varies within task and within...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Financing Risk And Bubbles Of Innovation

    Investors in risky startups who stage their investments face financing risk - that is, the risk that later stage investors will not fund the startup, even if the fundamentals of the firm are still sound. They show that financing risk is part of a rational equilibrium where investors can flip...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Cyclicality Of Credit Supply: Firm Level Evidence

    The author tells the effect of bank loan supply through the business cycle using firm level data from 1990 to 2009. The contribution of the paper is to address two of the main empirical challenges in identifying the effects of bank credit supply. First, they focus on firms' choice between...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Unstable Equity? Combining Banking With Private Equity Investing

    Theoretical work suggests that banks can be driven by market mispricing to undertake activity in a highly cyclical manner, accelerating activity during periods when securities can be readily sold to other parties. While financial economists have largely focused on bank lending, banks are active in a variety of arenas, with...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Conceptual Foundations Of The Balanced Scorecard

    The paper was based on a multi-company research project to study performance measurement in companies whose intangible assets played a central role in value creation. The author believed that if companies were to improve the management of their intangible assets, they had to integrate the measurement of intangible assets into...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Three Challenges Facing Modern Macroeconomics

    There are three great challenges facing researchers in modern macroeconomics today, all brought into sharp relief by the recent financial crisis. The first is to find more realistic, and yet tractable, ways to incorporate financial market frictions into the canonical models for analyzing monetary policy. The second is to rethink...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The Intensive Margin Of Technology Adoption

    The authors present a tractable model for analyzing the relationship between economic growth and the intensive and extensive margins of technology adoption. The "Extensive" margin refers to the timing of a country's adoption of a new technology; the "Intensive" margin refers to how many units are adopted (for a given...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Drawdown Of Personal Retirement Assets Faculty Research

    How households draw down the balances that they accumulate in retirement saving accounts such as 401(k) plans and Individual Retirement Accounts can have an important effect on the contribution of these accounts to retirement income security. This paper presents evidence on the pattern of withdrawals at different ages. The authors...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Rank As An Incentive

    Money is the prime incentive in economic models. Recent evidence makes it clear that people are also greatly concerned about how their incomes compare with those of others, suggesting that rank may be a strong motivator as well. Three experiments in Vietnam assessed whether students in real world learning environments...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Deliberative And Non-Deliberative Negotiations

    The classic statements of deliberative democratic theory defined deliberation in opposition to negotiation. As deliberative theory has developed that opposition has weakened. The normative terms of that relation, however, are as yet unclear. Building on work reformulating the regulative ideals for deliberative democracy (Mansbridge et al. forthcoming), this paper argues...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    P2P Trading in Social Networks: The Value of Staying Connected

    The success of future P2P applications ultimately depends on whether users will contribute their bandwidth, CPU and storage resources to a larger community. In this paper, the authors propose a new incentive paradigm, Networked Asynchronous Bilateral Trading (NABT), which can be applied to a broad range of P2P applications. In...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Collecting Provenance Via the Xen Hypervisor

    The Provenance Aware Storage Systems project (PASS) currently collects system-level provenance by intercepting system calls in the Linux kernel and storing the provenance in a stackable filesystem. While this approach is reasonably efficient, it suffers from two significant drawbacks: each new revision of the kernel requires reintegration of PASS changes,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Benchmarking File System Benchmarking: It is Rocket Science

    The quality of file system benchmarking has not improved in over a decade of intense research spanning hundreds of publications. Researchers repeatedly use a wide range of poorly designed benchmarks, and in most cases, develop their own ad-hoc benchmarks. The authors' community lacks a definition of what they want to...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Multicore OSes: Looking Forward From 1991, er, 2011

    Upcoming multicore processors, with hundreds of cores or more in a single chip, require a degree of parallel scalability that is not currently available in today's system software. Based on prior experience in the supercomputing sector, the likely trend for multicore processors is away from shared memory and toward shared...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Towards Query Interoperability: PASSing PLUS

    The authors describe their experiences importing PASS provenance into PLUS. Although both systems import and export provenance that conforms to the Open Provenance Model (OPM), the two systems vary greatly with respect to the granularity of provenance captured, how much semantic knowledge the system contributes, and the completeness of provenance...

    Provided By Harvard University