Harvard University

Displaying 41-80 of 144 results

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Robustness And Contagion In The International Financial Network

    Globalization has created an international financial network of countries linked by trade in goods and assets. These linkages allow for more efficient resource allocation across borders, but also create potentially hazardous financial interdependence, such as the great financial distress caused by the 2010 threat of Greece's default or the 2008...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Multicore OSes: Looking Forward From 1991, er, 2011

    Upcoming multicore processors, with hundreds of cores or more in a single chip, require a degree of parallel scalability that is not currently available in today's system software. Based on prior experience in the supercomputing sector, the likely trend for multicore processors is away from shared memory and toward shared...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Benchmarking File System Benchmarking: It is Rocket Science

    The quality of file system benchmarking has not improved in over a decade of intense research spanning hundreds of publications. Researchers repeatedly use a wide range of poorly designed benchmarks, and in most cases, develop their own ad-hoc benchmarks. The authors' community lacks a definition of what they want to...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Ethical Dilemmas in Take-Down Research

    The authors discuss nine ethical dilemmas which have arisen during the investigation of 'Notice and take-down' regimes for Internet content. Issues arise when balancing the desire for accurate measurement to advance the security community's understanding with the need to immediately reduce harm that is uncovered in the course of measurement....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    PyCUDA and PyOpenCL: A Scripting-Based Approach to GPU Run-Time Code Generation

    High-performance computing has recently seen a surge of interest in heterogeneous systems, with an emphasis on modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). These devices offer tremendous potential for performance and efficiency in important large-scale applications of computational science. However, exploiting this potential can be challenging, as one must adapt to the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    The Impact of Public Information on Phishing Attack and Defense

    Attackers compromise web servers in order to host fraudulent content, such as malware and phishing websites. While the techniques used to compromise websites are widely discussed and categorized, analysis of the methods used by attackers to identify targets has remained anecdotal. In this paper, the authors study the use of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Fairness And Independence: An Impossibility Theorem

    The most widely used economic models of social preferences are specified only for certain outcomes. There are two obvious methods of extending them to lotteries. If we do so by expected utility theory, so that the independence axiom is satisfied, the results imply that the resulting preferences do not exhibit...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Intangible Capital, Relative Asset Shortages And Bubbles

    The authors analyze an OLG economy with financial frictions and accumulation of both physical and intangible capital. The key difference between these two types of capital is that intangible capital cannot be used as collateral for borrowing. As intangibles become more important relative to physical capital in production, interest rates...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    A Lesson From The South For Fiscal Policy In The US And Other Advanced Countries

    American fiscal policy has been procyclical: Washington wasted the expansion period 2001-2007 by running budget deficits, but by 2011 had come to feel constrained by inherited debt to withdraw fiscal stimulus. Chile has achieved countercyclical fiscal policy - saving in booms and easing in recession - during the same decade...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Evaluating Value-Graph Translation Validation for LLVM

    Translation validators are static analyzers that attempt to verify that program transformations preserve semantics. Normalizing translation validators do so by trying to match the value-graphs of an original function and it's transformed counterpart. In this paper, the authors present the design of such a validator for LLVM's intra-procedural optimizations, a...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Bank Credit And Business Networks

    The authors construct the topology of business networks across the population of firms in an emerging economy, Pakistan, and estimate the value that membership in large yet diffuse networks brings in terms of access to bank credit and improving financial viability. They link two firms if they have a common...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Demographic Change And Economic Growth In South Asia

    Identifying factors that influence the pace of national economic growth is a time-worn activity of economists. Strangely, demographic change has often been absent from consideration. But new thinking and evidence have highlighted the powerful contribution that demographic change can make to economic growth, and this line of inquiry has some...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On the Zero-Error Capacity Threshold for Deletion Channels

    The authors consider the zero-error capacity of deletion channels. Specifically, they consider the setting where they choose a codebook C consisting of strings of n bits, and their model of the channel corresponds to an adversary who may delete up to pn of these bits for a constant p. Their...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Country Diversification, Product Ubiquity, And Economic Divergence

    Countries differ markedly in the diversification of their exports. Products differ in the number of countries that export them, which the authors define as their ubiquity. They document a new stylized fact in the global pattern of exports: there is a systematic relationship between the diversification of a country's exports...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Challenges in Embedded Database System Administration

    Embedded systems provide a combination of opportunities and challenges in application and system configuration and management. As an embedded system is most often dedicated to a single application or small set of cooperating tasks, the operating conditions of the system are typically better understood than those of general-purpose computing environments....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Standard Oil As A Technological Innovator

    The 1911 Standard Oil case, everyone knows, was all about price discrimination, "Predatory" pricing, acquisitions under duress, and the like. But there was also a technological element. Defending against monopolization charges, Standard Oil claimed that it had innovated both technologically and in the scale economies-enhancing investments by which it aggressively...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Credit Default Swap Spreads And Systemic Financial Risk

    This paper presents a novel method to measure the joint default risk of large financial institutions (systemic default risk) using information in bond and Credit Default Swap (CDS) prices. Bond prices reflect individual default probabilities of the issuers. CDS contracts, which insure against such defaults, pay off only as long...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Abstract Predicates and Mutable ADTs in Hoare Type Theory

    Hoare Type Theory (HTT) combines a dependently typed, higher-order language with monadically-encapsulated, stateful computations. The type system incorporates pre- and post-conditions, in a fashion similar to Hoare and Separation Logic, so that programmers can modularly specify the requirements and effects of computations within types. This paper extends HTT with quantification...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A Non-Work-Conserving Operating System Scheduler for SMT Processors

    Simultaneous Multi-Threading (SMT) processors run multiple threads simultaneously on a single processing core. Because concurrent threads compete for the processor's shared resources, non-work-conserving scheduling, i.e., running fewer threads than the processor allows even if there are threads ready to run, can often improve performance. Nevertheless, conventional operating systems do not...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Issuer Quality And Corporate Bond Returns

    Changes in the pricing of credit risk disproportionately affect the debt financing costs faced by low credit quality firms. As a result, time-series variation in the average quality of debt issuers may be useful for forecasting excess corporate bond returns. The results can be partially explained by models in which...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Propagation Of Financial Shocks: The Case Of Venture Capital

    The non-transferable information that financial intermediaries accumulate about their investments can lead portfolio companies to become locked-in. As a result, companies can become vulnerable to exogenous fluctuations in the health of their intermediaries. The author studies these issues in the context of venture capital, where informational problems are particularly severe....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Fire Sales In Finance And Macroeconomics

    Fire sales are forced sales of assets in which high-valuation bidders are sidelined, typically due to debt overhang problems afflicting many specialist bidders simultaneously. The authors overview theoretical and empirical research on asset fire sales, which shows how they can arise, how they can lead to asset under-valuations, how contracts...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Efficient Semantic Communication Via Compatible Beliefs

    In previous paper, Juba and Sudan and Goldreich, Juba and Sudan considered the idea of "Semantic communication", wherein two players, a user and a server, attempt to communicate with each other without any prior common language (or communication protocol). They showed that if communication was goal-oriented and the user could...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Lawful But Corrupt: Gaming And The Problem Of Institutional Corruption In The Private Sector

    This paper describes how the gaming of society's rules by corporations contributes to the problem of institutional corruption in the world of business. "Gaming" in its various forms involves the use of technically legal means to subvert the intent of society's rules in order to gain advantage over rivals, maximize...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Economics of Cybersecurity: Principles and Policy Options

    Economics puts the challenges facing cybersecurity into perspective better than a purely technical approach does. Systems often fail because the organizations that defend them do not bear the full costs of failure. For instance, companies operating critical infrastructures have integrated control systems with the Internet to reduce near-term, measurable costs...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    A Study on the Optimal Degree-of-Freedoms of Cellular Networks: Opportunistic Interference Mitigation

    The authors introduce an Opportunistic Interference Mitigation (OIM) protocol for cellular networks, where a user scheduling strategy is utilized in uplink K-cell environments with time-invariant channel coefficients and Base Stations (BSs) having M receive antennas. In the OIM scheme, each BS opportunistically selects a set of users who generate the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Voltage Smoothing: Characterizing and Mitigating Voltage Noise in Production Processors Via Software-Guided Thread Scheduling

    Parameter variations have become a dominant challenge in microprocessor design. Voltage variation is especially daunting because it happens so rapidly. The authors measure and characterize voltage variation in a running Intel Core Duo processor. By sensing on-die voltage as the processor runs single-threaded, multi-threaded, and multi-program workloads, they determine the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    How Can Commodity Exporters Make Fiscal And Monetary Policy Less Procyclical?

    Fiscal and monetary policy each has a role to play in mitigating the volatility that stems from the large trade shocks hitting commodity-exporting countries. All too often macroeconomic policy is procyclical that is, destabilizing, rather than countercyclical. This paper suggests two institutional innovations designed to achieve greater counter cyclicality, one...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Generalized Pricing Formulas For Stochastic Volatility Jump Diffusion Models Applied To The Exponential Vasicek Model

    Path integral techniques for the pricing of financial options are mostly based on models that can be recast in terms of a Fokker-Planck differential equation and that, consequently, neglect jumps and only describe drift and diffusion. The authors present a method to adapt formulas for both the path-integral propagators and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    What We Still Don't Know About Monetary And Fiscal Policy

    Two thousand and seven may seem an odd moment to question what we know about monetary policy. The past quarter-century has been about as good a run, at least in aggregate dimensions, as one is likely to get - and certainly far superior to what the early Brookings Panel participants,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Payout Taxes And The Allocation Of Investment

    When corporate payout is taxed, internal equity is cheaper than external equity. If there are no perfect substitutes for equity finance, payout taxes may therefore have an effect on the investment of firms. High taxes will favor investment by firms who can finance internally. Using an international panel with many...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Cloud Computing & National Security Law

    In recent years, many computer and Internet functions have moved from users' computers to remote servers that make up a "Cloud" of data and processing power. "Cloud computing" has transformed users' computers from the start and end points of data creation and transmission into portals to view and modify data...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Accelerator Store Framework for High-Performance, Low-Power Accelerator-Based Systems

    Hardware acceleration can increase performance and reduce energy consumption. To maximize these benefits, accelerator-based systems that emphasize computation on accelerators should be used. The authors introduce the \"Accelerator store,\" a structure for sharing memory between accelerators in these accelerator-based systems. The accelerator store simplifies accelerator I/O and reduces area by...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Three Challenges Facing Modern Macroeconomics

    There are three great challenges facing researchers in modern macroeconomics today, all brought into sharp relief by the recent financial crisis. The first is to find more realistic, and yet tractable, ways to incorporate financial market frictions into the canonical models for analyzing monetary policy. The second is to rethink...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Regulation Of Consumer Financial Products: An Introductory Essay With Four Case Studies

    The recent financial crisis has led many to question how well businesses deliver consumer financial services and how well regulatory institutions address problems in consumer financial markets. In response, the Obama administration proposed a new agency to oversee consumer financial services, and the recently enacted Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Economic Security Arrangements In The Context Of Population Ageing In India

    The rapid ageing of India's population, in conjunction with migration out of rural areas and the continued concentration of the working population in the informal sector, has highlighted the need for better economic security arrangements for the elderly. Traditional family ties that have been key to ensuring a modicum of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Clusters and Entrepreneurship

    This paper examines the role of regional clusters in regional entrepreneurship. The authors focus on the distinct influences of convergence and agglomeration on growth in the number of start-up firms as well as in employment in these new firms in a given region-industry. While reversion to the mean and diminishing...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Benchmarking Adaptive Indexing

    Ideally, realizing the best physical design for the current and all subsequent workloads would impact neither performance nor storage usage. In reality, workloads and datasets can change dramatically over time and index creation impacts the performance of concurrent user and system activity. The authors propose a framework that evaluates the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Speculative Pipelining for Compute Cloud Programming

    MapReduce job execution typically occurs in sequential phases of parallel steps. These phases can experience unpredictable delays when available computing and network capacities fluctuate or when there are large disparities in inter-node communication delays, as can occur on shared compute clouds. The authors propose a pipeline-based scheduling strategy, called speculative...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Location-Dependent Runs-and-Gaps Model for Predicting TCP Performance Over a UAV Wireless Channel

    In this paper, the authors use a finite-state model to predict the performance of the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over a varying wireless channel between an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and ground nodes. As a UAV traverses its flight path, the wireless channel may experience periods of significant packet loss,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2012

    Compressed Statistical Testing and Application to Radar

    The authors present Compressed Statistical Testing (CST) with an illustrative application to radar target detection. They characterize an optimality condition for a compressed domain test to yield the same result as the corresponding test in the uncompressed domain. They demonstrate by simulation that under high SNR, a likelihood ratio test...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Partitioned Compressive Sensing With Neighbor-Weighted Decoding

    Compressive sensing has gained momentum in recent years as an exciting new theory in signal processing with several useful applications. It states that signals known to have a sparse representation may be encoded and later reconstructed using a small number of measurements, approximately proportional to the signal's sparsity rather than...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Measurement Combining and Progressive Reconstruction in Compressive Sensing

    Compressive sensing has emerged as an important new technique in signal acquisition due to the surprising property that a sparse signal can be captured from measurements obtained at a sub-Nyquist rate. The decoding cost of compressive sensing, however, grows superlinearly with the problem size. In distributed sensor systems, the aggregate...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Separation-Based Joint Decoding in Compressive Sensing

    The authors introduce a joint decoding method for compressive sensing that can simultaneously exploit sparsity of individual components of a composite signal. Their method can significantly reduce the total number of variables decoded jointly by separating variables of large magnitudes in one domain and using only these variables to represent...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    DISTROY: Detecting Integrated Circuit Trojans With Compressive Measurements

    Detecting Trojans in an Integrated Circuit (IC) is an important but hard problem. A Trojan is malicious hardware - it can be extremely small in size and dormant until triggered by some unknown circuit state. To allow wake-up, a Trojan could draw a minimal amount of power, for example, to...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Ensuring Strong Dominance of the Leading Eigenvalues for Cluster Ensembles

    Spectral analysis is a popular mathematical tool in analyzing a variety of network and distributed systems. For a special class of networks, called cluster ensembles, which are made of interconnected clusters, the authors can characterize those which exhibit strong dominance of the leading eigenvalues in terms of the cluster structure....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Designing Informative Securities

    The authors create a formal framework for the design of informative securities in prediction markets. These securities allow a market organizer to infer the likelihood of events of interest as well as if he knew all of the traders' private signals. They consider the design of markets that are always...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Ethical Dilemmas in Take-Down Research

    The authors discuss nine ethical dilemmas which have arisen during the investigation of 'Notice and take-down' regimes for Internet content. Issues arise when balancing the desire for accurate measurement to advance the security community's understanding with the need to immediately reduce harm that is uncovered in the course of measurement....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    The Impact of Public Information on Phishing Attack and Defense

    Attackers compromise web servers in order to host fraudulent content, such as malware and phishing websites. While the techniques used to compromise websites are widely discussed and categorized, analysis of the methods used by attackers to identify targets has remained anecdotal. In this paper, the authors study the use of...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    How Hard Can It Be to Measure Phishing?

    Measuring cybercrime might be thought to be easy; if only the criminals and victims would cooperate and provide the data. This short paper explains, by reference to 'phishing' criminality, how even when a great deal of data is available it is far from clear quite what should be measured. Examples...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2013

    A Highly Scalable Key Pre-Distribution Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Given the sensitivity of the potential WSN applications and because of resource limitations, key management emerges as a challenging issue for WSNs. One of the main concerns when designing a key management scheme is the network scalability. Indeed, the protocol should support a large number of nodes to enable a...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2013

    Scaling Network-Based Spectrum Analyzer With Constant Communication Cost

    The authors propose a spectrum analyzer that leverages many networked commodity sensor nodes, each of which samples its portion in a wideband spectrum. The sensors operate in parallel and transmit their measurements over a wireless network without performing any significant computations such as FFT. The measurements are forwarded to the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    An Adaptive Rate Assignment Strategy for CDMA2000 IS-856 Subject to RAB Delay

    CDMA2000 1xEV-DO (IS-856) is designed for high-performance wireless networks to provide high-speed service at low cost. IS-856 uses the same bandwidth as traditional CDMA2000, but provides higher throughput; this translates to very high data rate on downlink channel. In this paper, the problem of resource allocation in IS-856 uplink in...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    What We Still Don't Know About Monetary And Fiscal Policy

    Two thousand and seven may seem an odd moment to question what we know about monetary policy. The past quarter-century has been about as good a run, at least in aggregate dimensions, as one is likely to get - and certainly far superior to what the early Brookings Panel participants,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    CloudSense: Continuous Fine-Grain Cloud Monitoring With Compressive Sensing

    Continuous fine-grain status monitoring of a cloud data center enables rapid response to anomalies, but handling the resulting torrent of data poses a significant challenge. As a solution, the authors propose CloudSense, a new switch design that performs in-network compression of status streams via compressive sensing. Using MapReduce straggler detection...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Loopy Belief Propagation as a Basis for Communication in Sensor Networks

    Sensor networks are an exCltmg new kmd of computer system. Consisting of a large number of tiny, cheap computational devices physically distributed in an environment, they gather and process data about the environment in real time. One of the central questions in sensor networks is what to do with the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Strategic Advantage: Why America Should Care About Cybersecurity

    The internet is an interconnected series of networks - where it is difficult to determine where private security threats end and public ones begin. These networks deliver power and water to the people households and businesses, enable one to access their bank accounts from almost any city in the world,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2012

    Verifiable Computation With Massively Parallel Interactive Proofs

    As the cloud computing paradigm has gained prominence, the need for verifiable computation has grown increasingly urgent. Protocols for verifiable computation enable a weak client to outsource difficult computations to a powerful, but untrusted server, in a way that provides the client with a guarantee that the server performed the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Evaluating Value-Graph Translation Validation for LLVM

    Translation validators are static analyzers that attempt to verify that program transformations preserve semantics. Normalizing translation validators do so by trying to match the value-graphs of an original function and it's transformed counterpart. In this paper, the authors present the design of such a validator for LLVM's intra-procedural optimizations, a...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2012

    Learning Is Change in Knowledge: Knowledge-Based Security for Dynamic Policies

    In systems that handle confidential information, the security policy to enforce on information frequently changes: new users join the system, old users leave, and sensitivity of data changes over time. It is challenging, yet important, to specify what it means for such systems to be secure, and to gain assurance...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Bank Credit And Business Networks

    The authors construct the topology of business networks across the population of firms in an emerging economy, Pakistan, and estimate the value that membership in large yet diffuse networks brings in terms of access to bank credit and improving financial viability. They link two firms if they have a common...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    A Lesson From The South For Fiscal Policy In The US And Other Advanced Countries

    American fiscal policy has been procyclical: Washington wasted the expansion period 2001-2007 by running budget deficits, but by 2011 had come to feel constrained by inherited debt to withdraw fiscal stimulus. Chile has achieved countercyclical fiscal policy - saving in booms and easing in recession - during the same decade...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Development As Leadership-Led Change - A Report For The Global Leadership Initiative And The World Bank Institute (WBI)

    Development involves change. But many development initiatives produce unimpressive levels of change in targeted countries, organizations and outcomes. This is the case in social sector initiatives, core public management reforms, and even macroeconomic adjustment operations. Change is often limited even when countries adopt proposed solutions in their proposed forms, in...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Challenges in Embedded Database System Administration

    Embedded systems provide a combination of opportunities and challenges in application and system configuration and management. As an embedded system is most often dedicated to a single application or small set of cooperating tasks, the operating conditions of the system are typically better understood than those of general-purpose computing environments....

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Economics of Cybersecurity: Principles and Policy Options

    Economics puts the challenges facing cybersecurity into perspective better than a purely technical approach does. Systems often fail because the organizations that defend them do not bear the full costs of failure. For instance, companies operating critical infrastructures have integrated control systems with the Internet to reduce near-term, measurable costs...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Phish Market Protocol: Securely Sharing Attack Data Between Competitors

    A key way in which banks mitigate the effects of phishing is to remove fraudulent websites or suspend abusive domain names. This 'take-down' is often subcontracted to specialist firms. Prior work has shown that these take-down companies refuse to share 'Feeds' of phishing website URLs with each other, and consequently,...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Population Aging And Economic Growth In China

    According to current UN projections, the population of the world age 60 or older will be 2 billion by 2050. With populations aging in nearly all countries, there has been widespread concern about the possible effects on economic growth and on the ability of countries to provide support for their...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Improved Delegation of Computation Using Fully Homomorphic Encryption

    Following Gennaro, Gentry, and Parno (Cryptology ePrint Archive 2009/547), the authors use fully homomorphic encryption to design improved schemes for delegating computation. In such schemes, a delegator outsources the computation of a function F on many, dynamically chosen inputs xi to a worker in such a way that it is...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    PyCUDA and PyOpenCL: A Scripting-Based Approach to GPU Run-Time Code Generation

    High-performance computing has recently seen a surge of interest in heterogeneous systems, with an emphasis on modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). These devices offer tremendous potential for performance and efficiency in important large-scale applications of computational science. However, exploiting this potential can be challenging, as one must adapt to the...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Country Diversification, Product Ubiquity, And Economic Divergence

    Countries differ markedly in the diversification of their exports. Products differ in the number of countries that export them, which the authors define as their ubiquity. They document a new stylized fact in the global pattern of exports: there is a systematic relationship between the diversification of a country's exports...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Generalized Pricing Formulas For Stochastic Volatility Jump Diffusion Models Applied To The Exponential Vasicek Model

    Path integral techniques for the pricing of financial options are mostly based on models that can be recast in terms of a Fokker-Planck differential equation and that, consequently, neglect jumps and only describe drift and diffusion. The authors present a method to adapt formulas for both the path-integral propagators and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Required Information Release

    Many computer systems have a functional requirement to release information. Such requirements are an important part of a system's information security requirements. Current information-flow control techniques are able to reason about permitted information flows, but not required information flows. In this paper, the authors introduce and explore the specification and...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Rewarding Calculated Risk-Taking: Evidence From A Series Of Experiments With Commercial Bank Loan Officers

    The authors analyze the underwriting process of small-business loans to entrepreneurs in an emerging market, using data obtained from a large commercial lender in India. Using a series of randomized experiments involving loan officers from several banks, this paper provides the first rigorous test of theories of loan officer decision...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Demographic Change And Economic Growth In South Asia

    Identifying factors that influence the pace of national economic growth is a time-worn activity of economists. Strangely, demographic change has often been absent from consideration. But new thinking and evidence have highlighted the powerful contribution that demographic change can make to economic growth, and this line of inquiry has some...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    The Graying Of Global Population And Its Macroeconomic Consequences

    Population aging is emerging as a major demographic trend in many countries, with potentially important implications for a variety of macroeconomic issues. Notwithstanding these challenges, population aging will likely have a comparatively modest effect on economic growth. Although the changed age distribution would be expected to cause the labor force...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Financial Literacy And Financial Sophistication In The Older Population: Evidence From The 2008 HRS

    This paper analyzes new data on financial literacy and financial sophistication from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study. The authors' show that financial literacy is lacking among older individuals and for the first time explores additional questions on financial sophistication which proves even scarcer. For this sample of older respondents...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    From Economic Growth To Social Wellbeing: Reflecting On Urban Theories And The Opportunities Provided By Globalization To Create A Just Society In India

    Today, Globalization is described as homogenizing the world cultures, with the assumption that global capitalism has brought in its sway disintegration of nation states, increased exploitation of indigenous populations, increased inequalities between places in the same regional boundaries. The author starts by reviewing existing literature to understand their applicability in...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Effect Of Financial Development On The Investment-Cash Flow Relationship: Cross-Country Evidence From Europe

    The authors investigate if financial development eases firm level financing constraints in a cross-country data set covering much of the European economy. The cash flow sensitivity of investment is lower in countries with better-developed financial markets. To deal with potentially serious biases, they employ a difference-in-difference methodology. Subsidiaries of other...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Arbitrage Capital And Real Investment

    The authors study the relationship between the supply of arbitrage capital and real investment. The investment of firms that depend on convertible debt for financing responds positively to flows into convertible arbitrage hedge funds. An extra $1 of fund flows increases capital expenditures of convertible dependent firms by $0.49. At...

    Provided By Harvard University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Efficient Semantic Communication Via Compatible Beliefs

    In previous paper, Juba and Sudan and Goldreich, Juba and Sudan considered the idea of "Semantic communication", wherein two players, a user and a server, attempt to communicate with each other without any prior common language (or communication protocol). They showed that if communication was goal-oriented and the user could...

    Provided By Harvard University