IMDEA

Displaying 1-40 of 45 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2013

    Interactive Encryption, Message Authentication, and Anonymous Key Exchange

    Public-Key Encryption (PKE) and Message Authentication (PKMA, aka as digital signatures) are fundamental cryptographic primitives. Traditionally, both notions are defined as non-interactive (i.e., single-message). In this paper, the authors initiate rigorous study of (possibly) interactive PKE and PKMA schemes. They obtain the following results demonstrating the power of interaction to...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jun 2013

    FIRMA: Malware Clustering and Network Signature Generation with Mixed Network Behaviors

    In this paper the authors present FIRMA, a tool that given a large pool of network traffic obtained by executing unlabeled malware binaries, generates a clustering of the malware binaries into families and a set of network signatures for each family. Compared with prior tools, FIRMA produces network signatures for...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Certified Computer-Aided Cryptography: Efficient Provably Secure Machine Code From High-Level Implementations

    The authors present a computer-aided framework for proving concrete security bounds for cryptographic machine code implementations. The front-end of the framework is an interactive verification tool that extends the EasyCrypt framework to reason about relational properties of C-like programs extended with idealized probabilistic operations in the style of code-based security...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    Driving in the Cloud: An Analysis of Drive-By Download Operations and Abuse Reporting

    Drive-by downloads are the preferred distribution vector for many malware families. In the drive-by ecosystem many exploit servers run the same exploit kit and it is a challenge understanding whether the exploit server is part of a larger operation. In this paper, the authors propose a technique to identify exploit...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Under approximation of Procedure Summaries for Integer Programs

    The authors show how to under approximate the procedure summaries of recursive programs over the integers using off-the-shelf analyzers for non-recursive programs. The novelty of their approach is that the non-recursive program they compute may capture unboundedly many behaviors of the original recursive program for which stack usage cannot be...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Lightweight Compilation of (C)LP to JavaScript

    The authors present and evaluate a compiler from Prolog (and extensions) to JavaScript which makes it possible to use (constraint) logic programming to develop the client side of web applications while being compliant with current industry standards. Targeting JavaScript makes (C) LP programs executable in virtually every modern computing device...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Firm Dynamics, Job Turnover, And Wage Distributions In An Open Economy

    This paper explores the effects of tariffs, trade costs, and firing costs on firm dynamics and labor markets outcomes. The analysis is based on a general equilibrium model with labor market search frictions, wage bargaining, firing costs, firm-specific productivity shocks, and endogenous entry/exit decisions. Firing costs reduce firms' profits and...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Decentralization, Happiness And The Perception Of Institutions

    This paper analyses whether the different powers and resources at the disposal of local and regional governments across Europe deliver greater satisfaction with political institutions and lead to greater personal happiness. The analysis uses microdata from the four available waves of the European social survey (2002, 2004, 2006 and 2008),...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Spatial Development

    The authors present a theory of spatial development. Manufacturing and services firms located in a continuous geographic area choose each period how much to innovate. Firms trade subject to transport costs and technology diffuses spatially across locations. The result is a spatial endogenous growth theory that can shed light on...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    When Local Interaction Does Not Suffice: Sources Of Firm Innovation In Urban Norway

    The geographical sources of innovation of firms have been hotly debated. While the traditional view is that physical proximity within city-regions is key for the innovative capacity of firms, the literature on 'Global pipelines' has been stressing the importance of establishing communication channels to the outside world. This paper uses...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Reconciling Top-Down And Bottom-Up Development Policies

    Top-down and bottom up development policies have been generally sold as two irreconcilable ends of the development intervention spectrum. Top-down policies, solidly based in micro- and macroeconomic theories, but lacking the adequate flexibility and 'Place-awareness' to respond to local complexity; bottom-up approaches much more responsive to diverse territorial needs, but...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Can The Economic Impact Of Political Decentralisation Be Measured?

    This paper examines whether, given the increasing salience of subnational governments, political decentralisation has an impact on overall economic performance. It uses panel data analyses in order to determine the association between a number of the different indices of political decentralisation developed over the last decade and a half with...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Welfare Regimes And The Incentives To Work And Get Educated

    This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100,000 European individuals, the results show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people- and household-based effects (internal returns to education and household wage...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On The Economics Of Hedge Fund Drawdown Status: Performance, Insurance Selling And Darwinian Selection

    In this paper, the authors study the drawdown status of hedge funds as a hedge fund characteristic related to performance. A hedge fund's drawdown status is the decile to which the fund belongs in the industry's drawdown distribution (at a given point in time). Economic reasoning suggests that both the...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Tax Rates, Governance, And The Informal Economy In High-Income Countries

    Approximately 16.7% of output in high-income OECD countries is produced informally. There exists a positive (negative) relation between tax rates (governance quality) and informality across high-income OECD countries. While existing models of the informal economy mostly focus on developing countries, this paper studies the mechanisms behind the informal economy in...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Economists As Geographers And Geographers As Something Else: On The Changing Conception Of Distance In Geography And Economics

    In the lifetime of the Journal of Economic Geography geographers and economists have followed diverging paths to the study of the location of economic activity which, paradoxically, has resulted in very similar spatial configurations: a world dominated by large metropolis, where intermediate and peripheral spaces tend to matter less and...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    The Productivity Advantages Of Large Cities: Distinguishing Agglomeration From Firm Selection

    Firms are more productive on average in larger cities. Two explanations have been offered: agglomeration economies (larger cities promote interactions that increase productivity) and firm selection (larger cities toughen competition allowing only the most productive to survive). To distinguish between them, the authors nest a generalised version of a tractable...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Performance Evaluation In Competitive REE Models

    The authors' basic premise is that fund managers performance is related to superior information about an asset payoff. They investigate the relationship between managerial skills and trading behavior within a two-period Rational Expectation Equilibrium (REE) model where agents trade on private information in the first round, while a public signal...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Consumption, Retirement And Life-Cycle Prices: Evidence From Spain

    Evidence from several countries reveals a substantial drop in household consumption around retirement age that some researchers believe is difficult to reconcile with standard life-cycle models. Using detailed expenditure data from a Spanish panel survey, the authors find no evidence of a consumption-retirement puzzle in Spain for the period of...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    House Prices And Risk Sharing

    Homeowners in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are able to maintain a high level of consumption following job loss (or disability) in periods of rising local house prices while the consumption drop for homeowners who lose their job in times of lower house prices is substantial. These results are...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Price Support In The Stock Market

    The interplay of delegated portfolio management and asset management ownership generates a double agency problem that may result on trading to support security prices. The authors test this hypothesis analyzing the trading patterns of mutual funds affiliated with banks with the stocks of their controlling banks. They show that affiliated...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Do Clusters Generate Greater Innovation And Growth? An Analysis Of European Regions

    The analysis of clusters has attracted considerable interest over the last few decades. The articulation of clusters into complex networks and systems of innovation - generally known as regional innovation systems - has, in particular, been associated with the delivery of greater innovation and growth. However, despite the growing economic...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Trade And Regional Inequality

    This paper examines the relationship between openness and within-country regional inequality across 28 countries over the period 1975-2005, paying special attention to whether increases in global trade affect the developed and developing world differently. Using a combination of static and dynamic panel data analysis, it is found that while increases...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Socially-Embedded Investments: Explaining Gender Differences In Job-Specific Skills

    Gender-differences in post-schooling skill investments play a central role in stratification processes. Yet little research has been devoted to explaining how these differences come about. This paper helps to fill this gap by proposing and testing a job-investment model with social-interaction effects that melds substantive ideas of sociology and economics....

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Is Fiscal Decentralization Harmful For Economic Growth? Evidence From The OECD Countries

    The global drive towards decentralization has been increasingly justified on the basis that greater transfers of resources to subnational governments are expected to deliver greater efficiency in the provision of public goods and services and greater economic growth. This paper examines whether this is the case, by analysing the relationship...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Migration, Wages, And Parental Background: Obstacles To Entrepreneurship And Growth In East Germany

    For the last decade, the East German economy has been suffering from high unemployment and low economic growth. Policy makers often point to the lack of entrepreneurship as one of East Germany's main problems. This paper addresses the question of how East Germany's integration into an established economy, West Germany,...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Ruggedness: The Blessing Of Bad Geography In Africa

    The authors show that geography, through its impact on history, can have important effects on current economic development. The analysis focuses on the historic interaction between ruggedness and Africa's slave trades. Although rugged terrain hinders trade and most productive activities, negatively affecting income globally, within Africa rugged terrain afforded protection...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    How Much Competition Is A Secondary Market?

    Do active secondary markets aid or harm durable goods manufacturers? The authors build a dynamic equilibrium model of durable goods oligopoly, with consumers who incur lumpy costs when transacting in the secondary market, and calibrate it to U.S. auto-mobile industry data. By varying transaction costs, they obtain a direct measure...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Quantitative Theory Of The Gender Gap In Wages

    This paper measures how much of the gender wage gap over the life cycle is due to the fact that working hours are lower for women than for men. The authors build a quantitative theory of fertility, labor supply, and human capital accumulation decisions to measure gender differences in human...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Do Institutions Matter For Regional Development?

    This paper discusses whether institutions matter for regional development and how to integrate them in regional development strategies. It finds that while institutions are crucial for economic development, generating an institution-based regional development strategy is likely to be undermined by the lack of definition of what are adequate, solid, and...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Geographers And The Limelight: The Reaction To The 2009 World Development Report

    The reaction of economic geographers to the World Bank's World Development Report 2009 - Reshaping Economic Geography - has so far been a corporatist turf-protecting exercise. The report has been dismissed as the work of economists who completely ignore a rich tradition of work by 'Proper' economic geographers. However, this...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    On Spatial Dynamics

    It has long been recognized that the forces that lead to the agglomeration of economic activity and to aggregate growth are similar. Unfortunately, few formal frameworks have been advanced to explore this link. The authors critically discuss the literature and present a simple framework that can circumvent some of the...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Returns To Migration, Education, And Externalities In The European Union

    This paper uses microeconomic data for more than 100,000 European individuals in order to analyse whether the individual economic returns to education vary between migrants and non-migrants and whether any differences in earnings between these two groups are affected by household and/or geographical (regional and interregional) externalities. The results point...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Decentralization Of Social Protection Expenditure And Economic Growth In The OECD

    This paper examines the effect of the degree of decentralization of social protection expenditure on economic growth, using panel data for twenty OECD countries over the period 1990-2005. The authors' results show a positive impact of the subnational share of total government expenditure in social protection on economic performance. This...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Labor-Market Exposure As A Determinant Of Attitudes Toward Immigration

    This paper re-examines the role of labor-market competition as a determinant of attitudes toward immigration. The authors claim two main contributions. First, they use more sophisticated measures of the degree of exposure to competition from immigrants than previously done. Specifically, they focus on the protection derived from investments in job-specific...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Innovating In The Periphery: Firms, Values, And Innovation In Southwest Norway

    How do peripheral and relatively isolated regions innovate? Recent research has tended to stress the importance of agglomeration economies and geographical proximity as key motors of innovation. According to this research, large core areas have significant advantages with respect to peripheral areas in innovation potential. Yet, despite these trends, some...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    The Evolution Of Markets And The Revolution Of Industry: A Unified Theory Of Growth

    This paper puts forth a unified theory of growth that captures a number of relevant features of countries' transitions from stagnant, predominantly rural economies to vibrant, industrialized economies that have been overlooked by the literature. In the authors' theory, increasing variety of consumer goods and increasing firm size, which are...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    How Important Is Human Capital? A Quantitative Theory Assessment Of World Income Inequality

    The authors develop a quantitative theory of human capital investments in order to evaluate the magnitude of cross-country differences in Total Factor Productivity (TFP) that explains the variation in per-capita incomes across countries. The authors build a heterogeneous-agent economy with cross-sectional variation in ability, schooling, and expenditures on schooling quality....

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A General Equilibrium Analysis Of Parental Leave Policies

    Despite mandatory parental-leave policies being a prevalent feature of labor markets in developed countries, the aggregate effects of leave policies are not well understood. In order to assess the quantitative impact of mandated leave policies in the economy, the authors develop a general-equilibrium model of fertility and labor-market decisions that...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Magnitude And Causes Of Agglomeration Economies

    Firms and workers are much more productive in large and dense urban environments. There is substantial evidence of such agglomeration economies based on three approaches. First, on a clustering of production beyond what can be explained by chance or comparative advantage. Second, on spatial patterns in wages and rents. Third,...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Reconciling Top-Down And Bottom-Up Development Policies

    Top-down and bottom up development policies have been generally sold as two irreconcilable ends of the development intervention spectrum. Top-down policies, solidly based in micro- and macroeconomic theories, but lacking the adequate flexibility and 'Place-awareness' to respond to local complexity; bottom-up approaches much more responsive to diverse territorial needs, but...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Can The Economic Impact Of Political Decentralisation Be Measured?

    This paper examines whether, given the increasing salience of subnational governments, political decentralisation has an impact on overall economic performance. It uses panel data analyses in order to determine the association between a number of the different indices of political decentralisation developed over the last decade and a half with...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Welfare Regimes And The Incentives To Work And Get Educated

    This paper examines whether differences in welfare regimes shape the incentives to work and get educated. Using microeconomic data for more than 100,000 European individuals, the results show that welfare regimes make a difference for wages and education. First, people- and household-based effects (internal returns to education and household wage...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Economists As Geographers And Geographers As Something Else: On The Changing Conception Of Distance In Geography And Economics

    In the lifetime of the Journal of Economic Geography geographers and economists have followed diverging paths to the study of the location of economic activity which, paradoxically, has resulted in very similar spatial configurations: a world dominated by large metropolis, where intermediate and peripheral spaces tend to matter less and...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Performance Evaluation In Competitive REE Models

    The authors' basic premise is that fund managers performance is related to superior information about an asset payoff. They investigate the relationship between managerial skills and trading behavior within a two-period Rational Expectation Equilibrium (REE) model where agents trade on private information in the first round, while a public signal...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Consumption, Retirement And Life-Cycle Prices: Evidence From Spain

    Evidence from several countries reveals a substantial drop in household consumption around retirement age that some researchers believe is difficult to reconcile with standard life-cycle models. Using detailed expenditure data from a Spanish panel survey, the authors find no evidence of a consumption-retirement puzzle in Spain for the period of...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    House Prices And Risk Sharing

    Homeowners in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics are able to maintain a high level of consumption following job loss (or disability) in periods of rising local house prices while the consumption drop for homeowners who lose their job in times of lower house prices is substantial. These results are...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Price Support In The Stock Market

    The interplay of delegated portfolio management and asset management ownership generates a double agency problem that may result on trading to support security prices. The authors test this hypothesis analyzing the trading patterns of mutual funds affiliated with banks with the stocks of their controlling banks. They show that affiliated...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Do Clusters Generate Greater Innovation And Growth? An Analysis Of European Regions

    The analysis of clusters has attracted considerable interest over the last few decades. The articulation of clusters into complex networks and systems of innovation - generally known as regional innovation systems - has, in particular, been associated with the delivery of greater innovation and growth. However, despite the growing economic...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Trade And Regional Inequality

    This paper examines the relationship between openness and within-country regional inequality across 28 countries over the period 1975-2005, paying special attention to whether increases in global trade affect the developed and developing world differently. Using a combination of static and dynamic panel data analysis, it is found that while increases...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Socially-Embedded Investments: Explaining Gender Differences In Job-Specific Skills

    Gender-differences in post-schooling skill investments play a central role in stratification processes. Yet little research has been devoted to explaining how these differences come about. This paper helps to fill this gap by proposing and testing a job-investment model with social-interaction effects that melds substantive ideas of sociology and economics....

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Is Fiscal Decentralization Harmful For Economic Growth? Evidence From The OECD Countries

    The global drive towards decentralization has been increasingly justified on the basis that greater transfers of resources to subnational governments are expected to deliver greater efficiency in the provision of public goods and services and greater economic growth. This paper examines whether this is the case, by analysing the relationship...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Migration, Wages, And Parental Background: Obstacles To Entrepreneurship And Growth In East Germany

    For the last decade, the East German economy has been suffering from high unemployment and low economic growth. Policy makers often point to the lack of entrepreneurship as one of East Germany's main problems. This paper addresses the question of how East Germany's integration into an established economy, West Germany,...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Tax Rates, Governance, And The Informal Economy In High-Income Countries

    Approximately 16.7% of output in high-income OECD countries is produced informally. There exists a positive (negative) relation between tax rates (governance quality) and informality across high-income OECD countries. While existing models of the informal economy mostly focus on developing countries, this paper studies the mechanisms behind the informal economy in...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    How Much Competition Is A Secondary Market?

    Do active secondary markets aid or harm durable goods manufacturers? The authors build a dynamic equilibrium model of durable goods oligopoly, with consumers who incur lumpy costs when transacting in the secondary market, and calibrate it to U.S. auto-mobile industry data. By varying transaction costs, they obtain a direct measure...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Quantitative Theory Of The Gender Gap In Wages

    This paper measures how much of the gender wage gap over the life cycle is due to the fact that working hours are lower for women than for men. The authors build a quantitative theory of fertility, labor supply, and human capital accumulation decisions to measure gender differences in human...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Do Institutions Matter For Regional Development?

    This paper discusses whether institutions matter for regional development and how to integrate them in regional development strategies. It finds that while institutions are crucial for economic development, generating an institution-based regional development strategy is likely to be undermined by the lack of definition of what are adequate, solid, and...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Geographers And The Limelight: The Reaction To The 2009 World Development Report

    The reaction of economic geographers to the World Bank's World Development Report 2009 - Reshaping Economic Geography - has so far been a corporatist turf-protecting exercise. The report has been dismissed as the work of economists who completely ignore a rich tradition of work by 'Proper' economic geographers. However, this...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Spatial Development

    The authors present a theory of spatial development. Manufacturing and services firms located in a continuous geographic area choose each period how much to innovate. Firms trade subject to transport costs and technology diffuses spatially across locations. The result is a spatial endogenous growth theory that can shed light on...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    On Spatial Dynamics

    It has long been recognized that the forces that lead to the agglomeration of economic activity and to aggregate growth are similar. Unfortunately, few formal frameworks have been advanced to explore this link. The authors critically discuss the literature and present a simple framework that can circumvent some of the...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Returns To Migration, Education, And Externalities In The European Union

    This paper uses microeconomic data for more than 100,000 European individuals in order to analyse whether the individual economic returns to education vary between migrants and non-migrants and whether any differences in earnings between these two groups are affected by household and/or geographical (regional and interregional) externalities. The results point...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Labor-Market Exposure As A Determinant Of Attitudes Toward Immigration

    This paper re-examines the role of labor-market competition as a determinant of attitudes toward immigration. The authors claim two main contributions. First, they use more sophisticated measures of the degree of exposure to competition from immigrants than previously done. Specifically, they focus on the protection derived from investments in job-specific...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Innovating In The Periphery: Firms, Values, And Innovation In Southwest Norway

    How do peripheral and relatively isolated regions innovate? Recent research has tended to stress the importance of agglomeration economies and geographical proximity as key motors of innovation. According to this research, large core areas have significant advantages with respect to peripheral areas in innovation potential. Yet, despite these trends, some...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    How Important Is Human Capital? A Quantitative Theory Assessment Of World Income Inequality

    The authors develop a quantitative theory of human capital investments in order to evaluate the magnitude of cross-country differences in Total Factor Productivity (TFP) that explains the variation in per-capita incomes across countries. The authors build a heterogeneous-agent economy with cross-sectional variation in ability, schooling, and expenditures on schooling quality....

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A General Equilibrium Analysis Of Parental Leave Policies

    Despite mandatory parental-leave policies being a prevalent feature of labor markets in developed countries, the aggregate effects of leave policies are not well understood. In order to assess the quantitative impact of mandated leave policies in the economy, the authors develop a general-equilibrium model of fertility and labor-market decisions that...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Magnitude And Causes Of Agglomeration Economies

    Firms and workers are much more productive in large and dense urban environments. There is substantial evidence of such agglomeration economies based on three approaches. First, on a clustering of production beyond what can be explained by chance or comparative advantage. Second, on spatial patterns in wages and rents. Third,...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Individual Earnings And Educational Externalities In The European Union

    This paper examines whether differences in educational externalities affect individual earnings across regions in the EU. Using microeconomic data from the European Community Household Panel, the analysis relies on spatial economic analysis in order to determine to what extent differences in individual earnings are the result of the educational attainment...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    The Evolution Of Markets And The Revolution Of Industry: A Unified Theory Of Growth

    This paper puts forth a unified theory of growth that captures a number of relevant features of countries' transitions from stagnant, predominantly rural economies to vibrant, industrialized economies that have been overlooked by the literature. In the authors' theory, increasing variety of consumer goods and increasing firm size, which are...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Decentralization Of Social Protection Expenditure And Economic Growth In The OECD

    This paper examines the effect of the degree of decentralization of social protection expenditure on economic growth, using panel data for twenty OECD countries over the period 1990-2005. The authors' results show a positive impact of the subnational share of total government expenditure in social protection on economic performance. This...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Does Decentralization Matter For Regional Disparities? A Cross-Country Analysis

    This paper looks at the relationship between fiscal and political decentralization and the evolution of regional inequalities in a panel of 26 countries - 19 developed and 7 developing - for the period between 1990 and 2006. Using an instrumental variables method, it finds that whereas for the whole sample...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    The Productivity Advantages Of Large Cities: Distinguishing Agglomeration From Firm Selection

    Firms are more productive on average in larger cities. Two explanations have been offered: agglomeration economies (larger cities promote interactions that increase productivity) and firm selection (larger cities toughen competition allowing only the most productive to survive). To distinguish between them, the authors nest a generalised version of a tractable...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Wake Up And Smell The Ginseng: International Trade And The Rise Of Incremental Innovation In Low-Wage Countries

    Increasingly, a small number of low-wage countries such as China and India are involved in incremental innovation. That is, they are responsible for resolving production-line bugs and suggesting product improvements. The authors provide evidence of this new phenomenon and develop a model in which there is a transition from old-style...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Immigration And Cumulative Causation: Explaining The Ethnic And Spatial Diffusion Of Spain~s Immigrant Population 1997-2007

    This paper argues that it is possible to explain the immigration intensity of close to 3 million immigration events in Spain by means of cumulative causation. In addition, it proposes that the theory of cumulative causation not only explains the intensity of migration but also the spatial and ethnic diffusion...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Feb 2008

    Why Plea-Bargaining Fails To Achieve Results In So Many Criminal Justice Systems: A New Framework For Assessment

    Plea-bargaining is very much a reality outside of the United States. The myth of American exceptionalism in this matter is certainly by now quite untrue. It is now an important part of criminal procedure in the United Kingdom (there are three separate criminal law jurisdictions there; England & Wales, Scotland...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Ruggedness: The Blessing Of Bad Geography In Africa

    The authors show that geography, through its impact on history, can have important effects on current economic development. The analysis focuses on the historic interaction between ruggedness and Africa's slave trades. Although rugged terrain hinders trade and most productive activities, negatively affecting income globally, within Africa rugged terrain afforded protection...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Under approximation of Procedure Summaries for Integer Programs

    The authors show how to under approximate the procedure summaries of recursive programs over the integers using off-the-shelf analyzers for non-recursive programs. The novelty of their approach is that the non-recursive program they compute may capture unboundedly many behaviors of the original recursive program for which stack usage cannot be...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Lightweight Compilation of (C)LP to JavaScript

    The authors present and evaluate a compiler from Prolog (and extensions) to JavaScript which makes it possible to use (constraint) logic programming to develop the client side of web applications while being compliant with current industry standards. Targeting JavaScript makes (C) LP programs executable in virtually every modern computing device...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // May 2013

    Certified Computer-Aided Cryptography: Efficient Provably Secure Machine Code From High-Level Implementations

    The authors present a computer-aided framework for proving concrete security bounds for cryptographic machine code implementations. The front-end of the framework is an interactive verification tool that extends the EasyCrypt framework to reason about relational properties of C-like programs extended with idealized probabilistic operations in the style of code-based security...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Decentralization, Happiness And The Perception Of Institutions

    This paper analyses whether the different powers and resources at the disposal of local and regional governments across Europe deliver greater satisfaction with political institutions and lead to greater personal happiness. The analysis uses microdata from the four available waves of the European social survey (2002, 2004, 2006 and 2008),...

    Provided By IMDEA

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Firm Dynamics, Job Turnover, And Wage Distributions In An Open Economy

    This paper explores the effects of tariffs, trade costs, and firing costs on firm dynamics and labor markets outcomes. The analysis is based on a general equilibrium model with labor market search frictions, wage bargaining, firing costs, firm-specific productivity shocks, and endogenous entry/exit decisions. Firing costs reduce firms' profits and...

    Provided By IMDEA