Institute for the Study of Labor

Displaying 1-40 of 613 results

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Conflict And Its Impact On Educational Accumulation And Enrollment In Colombia: What We Can Learn From Recent IDPS

    Forty years of low-intensity internal armed conflict has made Colombia home to the world's second largest population of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The effect of being directly impacted by conflict on a child's educational accumulation and enrollment is of particular concern because of the critical role that education plays in...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Does It Pay To Be Productive? The Case Of Age Groups

    Using longitudinal matched employer-employee data for the period 1999-2006, the authors investigate the relationship between age, wage and productivity in the Belgian private sector. More precisely, they examine how changes in the proportions of young (16-29 years), middle-aged (30-49 years) and older (more than 49 years) workers affect the productivity...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Wage Dispersion And Labor Turnover With Adverse Selection

    The authors consider a model of on-the-job search where firms offer long-term wage contracts to workers of different ability. Firms do not observe worker ability upon hiring but learn it gradually over time. With sufficiently strong information frictions, low-wage firms offer separating contracts and hire all types of workers in...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Search, Effort, And Locus Of Control

    The authors test the hypothesis that locus of control - one's perception of control over events in life - influences search by affecting beliefs about the efficacy of search effort in a laboratory experiment. They find that reservation offers and effort are increasing in the belief that one's efforts influence...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Teachers~ Salaries In Latin America: How Much Are They (Under Or Over) Paid?

    This paper documents the extent to which teachers are underpaid vis-?-vis workers in other professional and technical occupations in Latin America circa 2007. These labor earnings differences, attributed to observable socio-demographic and job characteristics, are assessed using a matching methodology (?opo, 2008). Teachers' underpayment is found to be stronger than...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    The Causal Effect Of Education On Health: What Is The Role Of Health Behaviors?

    In this paper, the authors investigate the contribution of health related behaviors to the education gradient, using an empirical approach that addresses the endogeneity of both education and behaviors in the health production function. They apply this approach to a multi-country data set, which includes 12 European countries and has...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    The Stability Of Big-five Personality Traits

    The authors use a large, nationally-representative sample of working-age adults to demonstrate that personality (as measured by the Big Five) is stable over a four-year period. Average personality changes are small and do not vary substantially across age groups. Intra-individual personality change is generally unrelated to experiencing adverse life events...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Underreporting Of Earnings And The Minimum Wage Spike

    This paper documents a positive correlation within European labor markets between the proportion of full-time employees with earnings on the minimum wage and the extent of underreporting of earnings in the economy. Using a simple model of a competitive labor market, the author shows how this correlation can emerge as...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    The Effect Of Variable Pay Schemes On Workplace Absenteeism

    The authors estimate the effect of variable pay schemes on workplace absenteeism using two cross sections of British establishments. Private sector establishments that explicitly link pay with individual performance are found to have significantly lower absence rates. This effect is stronger for establishments that offer variable pay schemes to a...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Economic Conditions At The Time Of Birth And Cognitive Abilities Late In Life: Evidence From Eleven European Countries

    With ageing populations and a stronger reliance on individual financial decision-making concerning asset portfolios, retirement schemes, pensions and insurances, it becomes increasingly important to understand the determinants of cognitive ability among the elderly. Macro-economic recession and boom periods provide a unique opportunity to study the effect of changes in the...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Teachers' Salaries In Latin America: How Much Are They (Under Or Over) Paid?

    This paper documents the extent to which teachers are underpaid vis-?-vis workers in other professional and technical occupations in Latin America circa 2007. These labor earnings differences, attributed to observable socio-demographic and job characteristics, are assessed using a matching methodology (?opo, 2008). Teachers' underpayment is found to be stronger than...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Labor Markets And Labor Market Institutions In Transition Economies

    This paper summarizes the evolution of labor markets and labor market institutions and policies in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe as well as of Central Asia over the last two decades. The main focus is on the evolution of labor market institutions, which are among candidate explanations for...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Enforcement Of Labor Regulation And Informality

    Enforcement of labor regulations in the formal sector may drive workers to informality because they increase the costs of formal labor. But better compliance with mandated benefits makes it attractive to be a formal employee. The authors show that, in locations with frequent inspections workers pay for mandated benefits by...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Health And Economic Development: Evidence From The Introduction Of Public Health Care

    This paper investigates the causal effect of changes in health on economic development using a long panel of European countries. Identification is based on the particular timing of the introduction of public health care systems in different countries, which is the random outcome of a political process. The authors document...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    How Policy Changes Affect Shareholder Wealth: The Case Of The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster

    This paper analyzes how policy changes affect shareholder wealth in the context of environmental regulation. The authors exploit the unique and unexpected German reaction to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, which involved the immediate shutdown of almost half of Germany's nuclear reactors while safety checks were carried out, and a...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    International Trade And Firm Performance: A Survey Of Empirical Studies Since 2006

    The literature on international trade and firm performance grows exponentially. This paper attempts to summarize what we learn from this literature to guide both future empirical and theoretical work in this area, and public debates and policy makers, in an evidence-based way. The focus is on the empirical part of...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Job Re-grading, Real Wages, And The Cycle

    This paper makes use of the British New Earnings Survey Panel Dataset between 1976 and 2010. It consists of individual-level payroll data and comprises a random sample of 1% of the entire male and female labor force. About two-thirds of within- and between-company moves involve job re-grading (measured at 3-digit...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Tax Policy And Income Inequality In The U.S., 1978-2009: A Decomposition Approach

    The authors assess the effects of U.S. tax policy reforms on inequality by applying a new decomposition method that allows them to disentangle mechanical effects due to changes in pre-tax incomes from direct effects of policy reforms. While tax reforms implemented under Democrat administrations, in particular the EITC reforms in...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Income Inequality, Mobility, And The Welfare State: A Political Economy Model

    In this paper, the authors set up a three-period stochastic overlapping generations model to analyze the implications of income inequality and mobility for demand for redistribution and social insurance. They model the size of two different public programs under the welfare state. They investigate bidimensional voting on the tax rates...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    R&D And Employment: Some Evidence From European Microdata

    After discussing theory regarding the consequences of technological change on employment and surveying previous microeconometric literature, the authors' aim with this paper is to test the possible job creation effect of business R&D expenditures, using a unique longitudinal database covering 677 European manufacturing and service firms over the period 1990-2008....

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Social Interactions In The Labor Market

    The authors examine theoretically and empirically social interactions in labor markets and how policy prescriptions can change dramatically when there are social interactions present. Spillover effects increase labor supply and conformity effects make labor supply perfectly inelastic at a reference group average. The demand for a good may also be...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Minimum Wages And Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach

    The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    The Trend Over Time Of The Gender Wage Gap In Italy

    The authors analyze gender wage inequalities in Italy in the mid-1990s and in the mid-2000s. In this period important labour market developments occurred: institutional changes have loosened the use of flexible and atypical contracts; the female employment rates and educational levels have substantially increased. They identify the time trends of...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Trade And Employment: Evidence From China

    Coordination of macro-economic development and employment is an essential issue for China's social development, which largely depends on economic expansion, as well as integration into the global market to create jobs. Through the literature review and empirical test, this paper analyzes the relationship between macro-economic policy and employment, and discusses...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Taxes, Wages And Working Hours

    This paper presents estimates of individuals' responses in hourly wages to changes in marginal tax rates. Estimates based on register panel data of Swedish households covering the period 1992 to 2007 produce significant but relatively small net-of-tax rate elasticities. The results vary with family type, with the largest elasticities obtained...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Elasticity Of Supply To The Firm And The Business Cycle

    A body of recent empirical work has found strong evidence that the labor elasticity of supply to the firm is finite, implying that firms may have wage setting power. However, these studies capture only snapshots of the parameter. The authors study this parameter over a period that provides substantial variation...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Multidimensional Affluence: Theory And Applications To Germany And The US

    This paper suggests multidimensional affluence measures for the top of the distribution. In contrast to commonly used top income shares, they allow the analysis of the extent, intensity and breadth of affluence in several dimensions within a common framework. The authors illustrate this by analyzing the role of income and...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Exports, Imports And Firm Survival: First Evidence For Manufacturing Enterprises In Germany

    This paper documents the relationship between firm survival and three types of international trade activities - exports, imports and two-way trade. It uses unique new representative data for manufacturing enterprises from Germany, one of the leading actors on the world market for goods, that merge information from surveys performed by...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    The Use Of Violence In Illegal Markets: Evidence From Mahogany Trade In The Brazilian Amazon

    Agents operating in illegal markets cannot resort to the justice system to guarantee property rights, to enforce contracts, or to seek protection from competitors' improper behaviors. In these contexts, violence is used to enforce previous agreements and to fight for market share. This relationship plays a major role in the...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Gender Gaps Across Countries And Skills: Supply, Demand And The Industry Structure

    The gender wage gap varies widely across countries and across skill groups within countries. Interestingly, there is a positive cross-country correlation between the unskilled-to-skilled gender wage gap and the corresponding gap in hours worked. Based on a canonical supply and demand framework, this positive correlation would reveal the presence of...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Integrating Personality Psychology Into Economics

    This paper reviews the problems and potential benefits of integrating personality psychology into economics. Economists have much to learn from and contribute to personality psychology. What can economists learn from and contribute to personality psychology? What do we learn from personality psychology? Personality traits predict many behaviors - sometimes with...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Access To Justice And Entrepreneurship: Evidence From Brazil's Special Civil Tribunals

    Entrepreneurship is usually identified as an important determinant of aggregate productivity and long-term growth. The determinants of entrepreneurship, nevertheless, are not entirely understood. A recent literature has linked entrepreneurship to the development of the justice system. This paper contributes to this literature by evaluating the role of access to justice...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Wage Rigidity, Collective Bargaining And The Minimum Wage: Evidence From French Agreement Data

    Using several unique data sets on wage agreements at industry and firm levels in France, the authors document stylized facts on wage stickiness and the impact of wage-setting institutions on wage rigidity. First, the average duration of wages is a little less than one year and around 10 percent of...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Lower And Upper Bounds Of Unfair Inequality: Theory And Evidence For Germany And The US

    Previous estimates of unfair Inequality of Opportunity (IOp) are only lower bounds because of the unobservability of the full set of endowed circumstances beyond the sphere of individual responsibility. In this paper, the authors suggest a new estimator based on a fixed effects panel model which additionally allows identifying an...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Longevity, Life-cycle Behavior And Pension Reform

    How can public pension systems be reformed to ensure fiscal stability in the face of increasing life expectancy? To address this pressing open question in public finance, the authors estimate a life-cycle model in which the optimal employment, retirement and consumption decisions of forward-looking individuals depend, inter alia, on life...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Growth, Colonization, And Institutional Development: In And Out Of Africa

    This paper investigates the determinants of the growth performance of Africa. The author starts by illustrating a broader research agenda which accounts not only for basic economic and demographic factors, but also for the role of history and institutional development. After reporting results from standard growth regressions, the author analyzes...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Immigration, Unemployment And Growth In The Host Country: Bootstrap Panel Granger Causality Analysis On OECD Countries

    This paper examines the causality relationship between immigration, unemployment and economic growth of the host country. The authors employ the bootstrap panel Granger causality testing approach of K?nya (2006) that allows testing for causality on each individual country separably by accounting for dependence across countries. Using annual data over the...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Contractual Dualism, Market Power And Informality

    Two stylized representations are often found in the academic and policy literature on informality and formality in developing countries. The first is that the informal (or unregulated) sector is more competitive than the formal (or regulated) sector. The second is that contract enforcement is easier in the formal sector than...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    The NRU And The Evolution Of Regional Disparities In Spanish Unemployment

    On both theoretical and empirical grounds, this paper provides evidence that refutes the Natural Rate of Unemployment (NRU) hypothesis as an explanation of the evolution of regional disparities in the unemployment rate. The authors first present their analytical framework, which follows the Chain Reaction Theory (CRT) of unemployment and argues...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Did Growth And Reforms Increase Citizens' Support For The Transition?

    How did post-communist transformations affect people's perceptions of their economic and political systems? The authors model a pseudo-panel with 89 country-year clusters, based on 13 countries observed between 1991 and 2004, to identify the macro and institutional drivers of the public opinion. Their main findings are: when the economy is...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Rise To The Challenge Or Not Give A Damn: Differential Performance In High Vs. Low Stakes Tests

    This paper studies how different demographic groups respond to incentives by comparing performance in the GRE examination in "High" and "Low" stakes situations. The high stakes situation is the real GRE examination and the low stakes situation is a voluntary experimental section of the GRE that examinees were invited to...

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  • White Papers // May 2011

    Unraveling The Role Of Public Researcher Mobility For Industrial Innovation

    The authors estimate the relative contribution of mobile scientists who leave academia for the private sector on the subsequent innovative performance of the firms they join. They use data on the population of Danish firms and their R&D workers for the period 1999-2004 and measure innovation performance by the (value-adjusted)...

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  • White Papers // May 2011

    Recessions Are Bad For Workplace Safety

    Workplace accidents are an important economic phenomenon. Yet, the pro-cyclical fluctuations in workplace accidents are not well understood. They could be related to fluctuations in effort and working hours, but workplace accidents may also be affected by reporting behavior. The authors' paper uses unique data on workplace accidents from an...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Immigration And Innovation

    The authors combine firm-level innovation data with area-level Census data to examine the relationship between local workforce characteristics, especially the presence of immigrants and local skills, and the likelihood of innovation by firms. They examine a range of innovation outcomes, and test the relationship for selected subgroups of firms. They...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Managerial Valuation Of Applicant Credentials And Personal Traits In Hiring Decisions

    The authors study how managers value applicant credentials and personal traits in hiring decisions. Using the ordered probit model, they confirm previous results - managers rank applicant traits higher than credentials. However, they also uncover patterns not previously observed - managerial valuations of some of these characteristics are dependent on...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Europe Agreements And Trade Balance: Evidence Form Four New EU Members

    This paper analyses the trade balance effects of Europe Agreements (EA) between the EU- 15 and four new EU members from Central and Eastern Europe (CEEC-4) using both static and dynamic panel data approaches. Specifically, the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM, Blundell and Bond, 1998) and recently developed econometric...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    How Did The Great Recession Affect Different Types Of Workers? Evidence From 17 Middle-income Countries

    This paper examines how different types of workers in 17 middle-income countries were affected by labor market retrenchment during the great recession. Impacts on different types of workers varied by country and were only weakly related to the severity of the shock. Among active workers, youth experienced by far the...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Ethnic Dimensions Of Suburbanisation In Estonia

    Large scale suburbanization is a relatively recent phenomenon in East Central Europe and responsible for major socio-spatial changes in metropolitan areas. Little is known about the ethnic dimensions of this process. However, large minority population groups, mainly ethnic Russians, remained into the former member states of the Soviet Union after...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Tax Evasion, Welfare Fraud, And "The Broken Windows" Effect: An Experiment In Belgium, France And The Netherlands

    In a series of experiments conducted in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders), France and the Netherlands, the authors compare behavior regarding tax evasion and welfare dodging, with and without information about others' behavior. Subjects have to decide between a 'Registered' income, the realization of which will be known to the tax...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Optimal Commodity Taxation And Redistribution Within Households

    Using a collective model of consumption, the authors characterize optimal commodity taxes aimed at targeting specific individuals within the household. The main message is that distortionary indirect taxation can circumvent the agency problem of the household. Essentially, taxation should discourage less the consumption of a certain group of goods: those...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Labour Market Institutions And Unemployment: Does Finance Matter?

    The authors explore whether finance influences the impact of labor market institutions on unemployment. Using a data set of 18 OECD countries over 1980-2004, they estimate a panel Vector AutoRegressive model. They check whether causalities from labor market variables to unemployment are affected by financial factors. In Belgium, Italy, Australia,...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    The Aggregate Effects Of Trade And Migration: Evidence From OECD Countries

    Two large but separate bodies of literature analyze the economic effects of international trade and immigration. Given that several factors are important determinants of both trade and migration flows, the previous studies are vulnerable to a potentially serious omitted-variables bias, questioning the validity of existing estimates of the effects of...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Market Distortions And Local Indeterminacy: A General Approach

    The authors provide a methodology to study the role of market distortions on the emergence of indeterminacy and bifurcations. Most of the specific market imperfections considered in the related literature are particular cases of their framework. Comparing them they obtain several equivalence results in terms of local dynamic properties, highlighting...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Assessing The Effectiveness Of Health Care Cost Containment Measures

    Using SOEP panel data and difference-in-differences methods, this paper is the first to empirically evaluate the effectiveness of four different health care cost containment measures within an integrated framework. The four measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    The Relative Efficiency Of Active Labour Market Policies: Evidence From A Social Experiment And Non-parametric Methods

    The authors re-analyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. They apply newly developed non-parametric methods to determine which of...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    The Intergenerational Transmission Of Employers In Canada And Denmark

    The intergenerational transmission of employers between fathers and sons is a common feature of labour markets in Canada and Denmark, with 30 to 40% of young adults having at some point been employed with a firm that also employed their fathers. This is strongly associated with the first jobs obtained...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Retaining Through Training: Even For Older Workers

    This paper investigates whether on-the-job training has an effect on the employability of workers. Using data from the Netherlands, the authors disentangle the true effect of training incidence from the spurious one determined by unobserved individual heterogeneity. They also take into account that there might be feedback from shocks in...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Is There Discriminatory Mortgage Pricing Against Immigrants In The Spanish Lending Market?

    In this paper, the authors investigate whether evidence of discriminatory treatment against immigrants in the Spanish mortgage market exists. More specifically, they test whether, ceteris paribus, immigrant borrowers tend to be charged with higher interest rates on their mortgages than their Spanish born counterparts. To do so, they use a...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Unemployment Insurance Savings Accounts In Latin America: Overview And Assessment

    The unemployment protection systems that exist in most Latin American economies are generally considered inadequate in terms of providing insurance to workers. They may also encourage stratified labor markets and impose barriers to the employee's mobility and the firm's adjustment to changing labor market conditions. In addition, some of these...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    The Impact Of Amnesty On Labor Market Outcomes: A Panel Study Using The Legalized Population Survey

    This paper tests whether amnesty, a provision of the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA), affected the labor market outcomes of the legalized population. Using the Legalized Population Survey (LPS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) from 1987-1992, a quasi-experimental framework is developed to assess the differential...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Experts In Experiments: How Selection Matters For Estimated Distributions Of Risk Preferences

    An ever increasing number of experiments attempts to elicit risk preferences of a population of interest with the aim of calibrating parameters used in economic models. The authors are concerned with two types of selection effects, which may affect the external validity of standard experiments: sampling from a narrowly defined...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Union Threat And Non-Union Employment: A Natural Experiment On The Use Of Temporary Employment In British Firms

    This paper presents the first empirical evidence on the effect of the threat of unionization on the use of a predominantly non-union type of employment, i.e. temporary employment. The identification strategy exploits an exogenous variation in union threat induced in the UK by new legislation enabling unions to obtain recognition...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Inequality Perceptions, Distributional Norms, And Redistributive Preferences In East And West Germany

    This paper studies differences in inequality perceptions, distributional norms, and redistributive preferences between East and West Germany. As expected, there are substantial differences with respect to all three of these measures. Surprisingly, however, differences in distributional norms are much smaller than differences with respect to inequality perceptions or redistributive preferences....

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Trust In Public Institutions Over The Business Cycle

    The authors document that trust in public institutions - and particularly trust in banks, business and government - has declined over recent years. U.S. time series evidence suggests that this partly reflects the pro-cyclical nature of trust in institutions. Cross-country comparisons reveal a clear legacy of the Great Recession, and...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Optimal Redistributive Taxation With Both Labor Supply And Labor Demand Responses

    This paper characterizes the optimal redistributive tax schedule in a matching unemployment framework with endogenous (voluntary) nonparticipation and (involuntary) unemployment. The optimal employment tax rate is given by an inverse employment elasticity rule. This rule depends on the global response of the employment rate, which depends not only on the...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Worktime Regulations And Spousal Labour Supply

    The authors investigate spillovers in spousal labour supply exploiting independent variation in hours worked generated by the introduction of the shorter workweek in France in the late 1990s. They find that female and male employees treated by the shorter legal workweek reduce their weekly labour supply by about 2 hours,...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Does Female Empowerment Promote Economic Development?

    Empirical evidence suggests that money in the hands of mothers (as opposed to their husbands) benefits children. Does this observation imply that targeting transfers to women is good economic policy? The authors develop a series of noncooperative family bargaining models to understand what kind of frictions can give rise to...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Short-time Work Benefits Revisited: Some Lessons From The Great Recession

    The Great Recession triggered a resurgence of Short-Time Work (STW) throughout the OECD. Several countries introduced from scratch STW or significantly expanded the scope of the programmes already in place. In some countries like Italy, Japan and Germany between 2.5 and 5 per cent of the workforce participated in short-time...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Turkish Wage Curve: Evidence From The Household Labor Force Survey

    This paper examines the Turkish wage curve using individual data from the Household Labor Force Survey (HLFS) including 26 NUTS-2 regions over the period 2005-2008. When the local unemployment rate is treated as predetermined, there is evidence in favor of the wage curve only for younger and female workers. However,...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Effects Of Active Labour Market Policies For Immigrants Receiving Social Assistance In Denmark

    The authors estimate the effect of active labour market programmes on the exit rate to regular employment for non-western immigrants in Denmark who receive social assistance. They use the timing-of-events duration model and rich administrative data. They find large positive post-programme effects, and, surprisingly, even most in-programme effects are positive....

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  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    China's Latent Human Capital Investment: Achieving Milestones And Competing For The Top

    In this paper, the authors provide an overview of China's human capital strategy and educational achievements over the last two decades. While every one acknowledges China as an economic superpower, very few are aware of or realize China's notable achievements in education as well as its internationalization of education. Since...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Democratization, Violent Social Conflicts, And Growth

    This paper investigates the empirical role of violent conflicts for the causal effect of democracy on economic growth. Exploiting within-country variation to identify the effect of democratization during the "Third Wave", the authors find evidence that the effect of democratization is weaker than reported previously once one accounts for the...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Two Economists? Musings On The Stability Of Locus Of Control

    Empirical studies of the role of non-cognitive skills in driving economic behavior often rely heavily on the assumption that these skills are stable over the relevant time frame. The authors analyze the change in a specific non-cognitive skill, i.e. locus of control, in order to directly assess the validity of...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Are Self-employed Really Happier Than Employees? An Approach Modelling Adaptation And Anticipation Effects To Self-employment And General Job Changes

    Empirical analyses using cross-sectional and panel data found significantly higher levels of job satisfaction for self-employed than for employees. The authors argue that those estimates in previous studies might be biased by neglecting anticipation and adaptation effects. For testing they specify several models accounting for anticipation and adaptation to self-employment...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Impact Of Union Dissolution On Moving Distances And Destinations In The UK

    The number of people who have ever experienced a divorce, or a split up of a non-marital union, is rising every year. It is well known that union dissolution has a disruptive effect on the housing careers of those involved, often leading to downward moves on the housing ladder. Much...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Pre-hire Factors And Workplace Ethnic Segregation

    In addition to neighborhoods of residence, family and places of work play important roles in producing and reproducing ethnic segregation. Therefore, recent research on ethnic segregation and contact is increasingly turning its attention from residential areas towards other important domains of daily interethnic contact. The key innovation of this paper...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Intergenerational Analysis Of Social Interaction

    The authors explore the relationship between the social interaction of parents and their offspring from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. Their theoretical framework establishes possible explanations for the intergenerational transfer of social interaction whereby the social interaction of the parent may influence that of their offspring and vice versa....

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Incentives And Cooperation In Firms: Field Evidence

    The authors empirically investigate the impact of incentive scheme structure on the degree of cooperation in firms using a unique and representative data set. Combining employee survey data with detailed firm level information on the relative importance of individual, team, and company performance for compensation, they find a significant positive...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Egyptian Men Working Abroad: Labor Supply Responses By The Women Left Behind

    Female labor force participation has remained low in Egypt. This paper examines whether male international migration provides a leeway for women to enter the labor market and/or to increase their labor supply. In line with previous studies, the authors find a decrease in wage work in both rural and urban...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Labor Market Adjustment: Is Russia Different?

    The paper discusses how the Russian labor market has been evolving over two decades of the transition. It starts with tracing key labor market indicators such as employment, unemployment, labor force participation, working hours, and real wages. Their dynamics indicate that the labor market tends to operate in a non-conventional...

    Provided By Institute for the Study of Labor