Louisiana State University

Displaying 1-31 of 31 results

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Distributed Source Coding for Sensor Data Model

    The authors measure reliability in sensor networks which are dependent on limited resources of individual sensor nodes such has battery capacity, transmission range and channel interference due to simultaneous wireless transmissions. From the initial simulation it is estimated that the routing errors using a distributed algorithm for a large network...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Optimal Channel Equalization for MIMO Time-Varying Channels

    The authors consider optimal channel equalization for MIMO (Multi-Input/Multi-Output) time-varying channels in the sense of MMSE (Minimum Mean-Squared-Error), where the observation noise can be non-stationary. They show that all ZF (Zero-Forcing) receivers can be parameterized in an affine form which eliminates completely the ISI (Inter-Symbol-Interference), and optimal channel equalizers can...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff of Asynchronous Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks

    Synchronization of relay nodes is an important and critical issue in exploiting cooperative diversity in wireless networks. In this paper, two asynchronous cooperative diversity schemes are proposed, namely, distributed delay diversity and asynchronous space-time coded cooperative diversity schemes. In terms of the overall Diversity-Multiplexing (DM) tradeoff of a relay channel,...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Using Misbehavior to Analyze Strategic Versus Aggregate Energy Minimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    The authors present a novel formulation of the problem of energy misbehavior and develop an analytical framework for quantifying its impact on other nodes. Specifically, they formulate two versions of the power control problem for wireless sensor networks with latency constraints arising from duty cycle allocations. In the first version,...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Connectivity-Through-Time Protocols for Dynamic Wireless Networks to Support Mobile Robot Teams

    Mobile robot teams are increasingly deployed in various applications involving remote operations in unstructured environments that do not support wireless network infrastructures. The authors propose a class of protocols based on the connectivity-through-time concepts that exploit the robot movements to extend the traditional notions of network connectivity. These protocols enable...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A New Paradigm in Data Intensive Computing: Stork and the Data-Aware Schedulers

    The unbounded increase in the computation and data requirements of scientific applications has necessitated the use of widely distributed compute and storage resources to meet the demand. In a widely distributed environment, data is no more locally accessible and has thus to be remotely retrieved and stored. Efficient and reliable...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Autonomic Management of Application Workflows on Hybrid Computing Infrastructure

    In this paper, the authors present a programming and runtime framework that enables the autonomic management of complex application workflows on hybrid computing infrastructures. The framework is designed to address system and application heterogeneity and dynamics to ensure that application objectives and constraints are satisfied. The need for such autonomic...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Abstractions for Loosely-Coupled and Ensemble-Based Simulations on Azure

    Azure is an emerging cloud platform developed and operated by Microsoft. It provides a range of abstractions and building blocks for creating scalable and reliable scientific applications. In this paper the authors investigate the applicability of the azure abstractions to the well-known class of loosely coupled and ensemble-based applications. They...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    MobiCon: Mobile Context Monitoring Platform for Sensor-Rich Dynamic Environments

    The authors present a new mobile context monitoring platform to support emerging pervasive applications in a Personal Area Network (PAN)-scale dynamic mobile computing environment. Composed of a mobile device and many wearable and space-embedded sensors, the PAN-scale computing environment will constitute an important part of future pervasive spaces technology. The...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Simplifying Complex Software Assembly: The Component Retrieval Language and Implementation

    Assembling simulation software along with the associated tools and utilities is a challenging endeavor, particularly when the components are distributed across multiple source code versioning systems. It is problematic for researchers compiling and running the software across many different supercomputers, as well as for novices in a field who are...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Breaking Down The Barriers: Competition, Syndicate Structure, And Underwriting Incentives

    The authors argue that the entry of commercial banks into bond underwriting led to the evolution of co-led underwriting arrangements and lowered the screening incentives of underwriters. Lead underwriters in co-led syndicates faced weaker incentives to screen issuer quality. In boom markets, issues underwritten by co-led syndicates were more likely...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Dynamic Capabilities Approach to Understanding the Impact of IT-Enabled Businesses Processes and IT-Business Alignment on the Strategic and Operational Performance of the Firm

    For the past two decades, researchers have sought to understand how IT investment leads to organizational success. However, this has proven to be an elusive goal. The authors posit that a new perspective is needed to better understand IT investment. They must examine how the investment is enacted and reflected...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    SAGA BigJob: An Extensible and Interoperable Pilot-Job Abstraction for Distributed Applications and Systems

    The uptake of distributed infrastructures by scientific applications has been limited by the availability of extensible, pervasive and simple-to-use abstractions which are required at multiple levels - development, deployment and execution stages of scientific applications. The pilot-job abstraction has been shown to be an effective abstraction to address many requirements...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Multidimensional Visualization Tools for Analysis of Expression Data

    Expression data analysis is based mostly on the statistical approaches that are indispensable for the study of biological systems. Large amounts of multidimensional data resulting from the high-throughput technologies are not completely served by biostatistical techniques and are usually complemented with visual, knowledge discovery and other computational tools. In many...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Physical Layer Security in Wireless Networks: Intelligent Jamming and Eavesdropping

    As the title suggests, the present dissertation is focused on the physical layer security in wireless networks. The concept of communication security is linked to two main desired features. The first of these is the system reliability, which means that a certain message (encoded for transmission and transmitted over a...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Programming Abstractions for Data Intensive Computing on Clouds and Grids

    MapReduce has emerged as an important data-parallel programming model for data-intensive computing - for clouds and grids. However most if not all implementations of MapReduce are coupled to a specific infrastructure. SAGA is a high-level programming interface which provides the ability to create distributed applications in an infrastructure independent way....

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    A Case Study: Using Architectural Features to Improve Sophisticated Denial-of-Service Attack Detections

    Application features such as port numbers are used by Network-based Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs) to detect attacks coming from networks. System calls and the operating system related information are used by Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDSs) to detect intrusions towards a host. However, the relationship between hardware architecture events and...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    A Critique Of "The Louisiana Supreme Court In Question: An Empirical And Statistical Study Of The Effects Of Campaign Money On The Judicial Function"

    Palmer and Levendis' (2008) offer a rather confusing and contradictory paper on the impact of campaign contributions on voting behavior by Louisiana Supreme Court justices. The first two sentences provide a very good example of the paper's fundamental flaws. The first sentence asserts that no literature exists to guide their...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    A Preference-Theoretic Methodology For Nonmarket Goods

    A methodology for nonmarket goods is presented based on preference algebra and set theory that allows one to specify exactly when preference assumptions such as weak complementarity can be tested against revealed preference information. Revealed preference is insufficient for welfare analysis involving state preference variables such as nonmarket goods. The...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Falsifying The "Goodness" Of Nonmarket Goods With Revealed Preference

    Some assert that it is impossible to test preference restrictions against revealed preference. The "Goodness" preference restriction simply assumes that one value of a nonmarket good is preferred over another other with any fixed commodity consumption. This paper uses a preference-theoretic methodology to show how goodness can be falsified by...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Preference-Theoretic Weak Complementarity: Getting More With Less

    A preference-theoretic characterization of weak complementarity is provided based on an explicit representation of revealed preference. Weak complementarity is defined in terms of the observable property of nonessentiality and the unobservable property of no existence value. Preference-theoretic characterizations of these properties facilitate a precision and intuition that is not generally...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Technology-Skill Complementarity And International TFP Differences

    What determines whether a country is better at using some technologies than others? A widely held view is that a country's ability to absorb and implement technologies is tied to its human capital. In this paper, the authors construct a novel specification of technology that incorporates this idea. Countries are...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Jamming in Fixed-Rate Wireless Systems With Power Constraints - Part I: Fast Fading Channels

    This is the first part of a two-part paper that studies the problem of jamming in a fixed-rate transmission system with fading, under the general assumption that the jammer has no knowledge about either the codebook used by the legitimate communication terminals, or the source's output. Both transmitter and jammer...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Jamming in Fixed-Rate Wireless Systems With Power Constraints - Part II: Parallel Slow Fading Channels

    This is the second part of a two-part paper that studies the problem of jamming in a fixed-rate transmission system with fading. In the first part, the authors studied the scenario with a fast fading channel, and found Nash equilibria of mixed strategies for short term power constraints, and for...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Programming Abstractions for Clouds

    Clouds seem like 'Grids done right', including scalability, transparency, and ease of management. Virtual Machines are the dominant application environments for compute Clouds, however, that does not make application programming any less relevant than "Non-virtualized" environments. The limited set of successful Cloud applications show that distributed programming patterns of the...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    EasyMAC: A New and Simple Protocol for Slot Assignment

    The authors give a new distributed algorithm EasyMAC for the slot assignment for Media Access Control (MAC) of nodes in a sensor network. The algorithm reduces both the number of messages and the time required to complete the slot assignment compared to existing algorithms. They achieve this by maintaining additional...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Enterprise Data Mining: A Review and Research Directions

    Manufacturing enterprise systems and service enterprise systems carry out the bulk of economic activities in any country and in the increasingly connected world. Enterprise data are necessary to ensure that each manufacturing or service enterprise system is run efficiently and effectively. As it becomes easier to capture and fairly inexpensive...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // May 2008

    Teaching an Introductory Programming Course in a Virtual World

    Computer science education is facing a significant challenge in the form of steeply declining enrollments. Computer science educators are examining many aspects of what people do, including the manner in which they introduce programming to their students. This paper reports on an approach which makes use of a massively multiuser...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // May 2008

    Analyzing Skilled And Unskilled Labor Efficiencies In The US

    In this paper, using a production framework in which skilled and unskilled labor are imperfect substitutes, the author analyze the time paths of the efficiencies of skilled and unskilled labor and their implications for economic growth and wage inequality in the US between 1950 and 2005. There are two main...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Apr 2008

    Approximation Algorithms for Minimum Energy Transmission in Rate and Duty-Cycle Constrained Wireless Networks

    The authors consider a constrained energy optimization problem for wireless networks, where the constraints arise because of interference between wireless nodes that limits their transmission rates along with load and duty-cycle (on-off) restrictions. Since traditional optimization methods using Lagrange multipliers do not work well and are computationally expensive given the...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Feb 2008

    Factors Affecting Outsourcing for Information Technology Services in Rural Hospitals: Theory and Evidence

    As health information technology becomes more prevalent for most healthcare facilities, hospitals across the nation are choosing between performing this service in-house and outsourcing to a technology firm in the health industry. This paper examines factors affecting the Information Technology (IT) outsource decision for various hospitals. Using 2004 data from...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Programming Abstractions for Clouds

    Clouds seem like 'Grids done right', including scalability, transparency, and ease of management. Virtual Machines are the dominant application environments for compute Clouds, however, that does not make application programming any less relevant than "Non-virtualized" environments. The limited set of successful Cloud applications show that distributed programming patterns of the...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    MobiCon: Mobile Context Monitoring Platform for Sensor-Rich Dynamic Environments

    The authors present a new mobile context monitoring platform to support emerging pervasive applications in a Personal Area Network (PAN)-scale dynamic mobile computing environment. Composed of a mobile device and many wearable and space-embedded sensors, the PAN-scale computing environment will constitute an important part of future pervasive spaces technology. The...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff of Asynchronous Cooperative Diversity in Wireless Networks

    Synchronization of relay nodes is an important and critical issue in exploiting cooperative diversity in wireless networks. In this paper, two asynchronous cooperative diversity schemes are proposed, namely, distributed delay diversity and asynchronous space-time coded cooperative diversity schemes. In terms of the overall Diversity-Multiplexing (DM) tradeoff of a relay channel,...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Jamming in Fixed-Rate Wireless Systems With Power Constraints - Part I: Fast Fading Channels

    This is the first part of a two-part paper that studies the problem of jamming in a fixed-rate transmission system with fading, under the general assumption that the jammer has no knowledge about either the codebook used by the legitimate communication terminals, or the source's output. Both transmitter and jammer...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Jamming in Fixed-Rate Wireless Systems With Power Constraints - Part II: Parallel Slow Fading Channels

    This is the second part of a two-part paper that studies the problem of jamming in a fixed-rate transmission system with fading. In the first part, the authors studied the scenario with a fast fading channel, and found Nash equilibria of mixed strategies for short term power constraints, and for...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Apr 2008

    Approximation Algorithms for Minimum Energy Transmission in Rate and Duty-Cycle Constrained Wireless Networks

    The authors consider a constrained energy optimization problem for wireless networks, where the constraints arise because of interference between wireless nodes that limits their transmission rates along with load and duty-cycle (on-off) restrictions. Since traditional optimization methods using Lagrange multipliers do not work well and are computationally expensive given the...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Using Misbehavior to Analyze Strategic Versus Aggregate Energy Minimization in Wireless Sensor Networks

    The authors present a novel formulation of the problem of energy misbehavior and develop an analytical framework for quantifying its impact on other nodes. Specifically, they formulate two versions of the power control problem for wireless sensor networks with latency constraints arising from duty cycle allocations. In the first version,...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Distributed Source Coding for Sensor Data Model

    The authors measure reliability in sensor networks which are dependent on limited resources of individual sensor nodes such has battery capacity, transmission range and channel interference due to simultaneous wireless transmissions. From the initial simulation it is estimated that the routing errors using a distributed algorithm for a large network...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Dynamic Capabilities Approach to Understanding the Impact of IT-Enabled Businesses Processes and IT-Business Alignment on the Strategic and Operational Performance of the Firm

    For the past two decades, researchers have sought to understand how IT investment leads to organizational success. However, this has proven to be an elusive goal. The authors posit that a new perspective is needed to better understand IT investment. They must examine how the investment is enacted and reflected...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Autonomic Management of Application Workflows on Hybrid Computing Infrastructure

    In this paper, the authors present a programming and runtime framework that enables the autonomic management of complex application workflows on hybrid computing infrastructures. The framework is designed to address system and application heterogeneity and dynamics to ensure that application objectives and constraints are satisfied. The need for such autonomic...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Abstractions for Loosely-Coupled and Ensemble-Based Simulations on Azure

    Azure is an emerging cloud platform developed and operated by Microsoft. It provides a range of abstractions and building blocks for creating scalable and reliable scientific applications. In this paper the authors investigate the applicability of the azure abstractions to the well-known class of loosely coupled and ensemble-based applications. They...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    SAGA BigJob: An Extensible and Interoperable Pilot-Job Abstraction for Distributed Applications and Systems

    The uptake of distributed infrastructures by scientific applications has been limited by the availability of extensible, pervasive and simple-to-use abstractions which are required at multiple levels - development, deployment and execution stages of scientific applications. The pilot-job abstraction has been shown to be an effective abstraction to address many requirements...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Programming Abstractions for Data Intensive Computing on Clouds and Grids

    MapReduce has emerged as an important data-parallel programming model for data-intensive computing - for clouds and grids. However most if not all implementations of MapReduce are coupled to a specific infrastructure. SAGA is a high-level programming interface which provides the ability to create distributed applications in an infrastructure independent way....

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Feb 2008

    Factors Affecting Outsourcing for Information Technology Services in Rural Hospitals: Theory and Evidence

    As health information technology becomes more prevalent for most healthcare facilities, hospitals across the nation are choosing between performing this service in-house and outsourcing to a technology firm in the health industry. This paper examines factors affecting the Information Technology (IT) outsource decision for various hospitals. Using 2004 data from...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Enterprise Data Mining: A Review and Research Directions

    Manufacturing enterprise systems and service enterprise systems carry out the bulk of economic activities in any country and in the increasingly connected world. Enterprise data are necessary to ensure that each manufacturing or service enterprise system is run efficiently and effectively. As it becomes easier to capture and fairly inexpensive...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    A Case Study: Using Architectural Features to Improve Sophisticated Denial-of-Service Attack Detections

    Application features such as port numbers are used by Network-based Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs) to detect attacks coming from networks. System calls and the operating system related information are used by Host-based Intrusion Detection Systems (HIDSs) to detect intrusions towards a host. However, the relationship between hardware architecture events and...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Physical Layer Security in Wireless Networks: Intelligent Jamming and Eavesdropping

    As the title suggests, the present dissertation is focused on the physical layer security in wireless networks. The concept of communication security is linked to two main desired features. The first of these is the system reliability, which means that a certain message (encoded for transmission and transmitted over a...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Multidimensional Visualization Tools for Analysis of Expression Data

    Expression data analysis is based mostly on the statistical approaches that are indispensable for the study of biological systems. Large amounts of multidimensional data resulting from the high-throughput technologies are not completely served by biostatistical techniques and are usually complemented with visual, knowledge discovery and other computational tools. In many...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Connectivity-Through-Time Protocols for Dynamic Wireless Networks to Support Mobile Robot Teams

    Mobile robot teams are increasingly deployed in various applications involving remote operations in unstructured environments that do not support wireless network infrastructures. The authors propose a class of protocols based on the connectivity-through-time concepts that exploit the robot movements to extend the traditional notions of network connectivity. These protocols enable...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Breaking Down The Barriers: Competition, Syndicate Structure, And Underwriting Incentives

    The authors argue that the entry of commercial banks into bond underwriting led to the evolution of co-led underwriting arrangements and lowered the screening incentives of underwriters. Lead underwriters in co-led syndicates faced weaker incentives to screen issuer quality. In boom markets, issues underwritten by co-led syndicates were more likely...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A New Paradigm in Data Intensive Computing: Stork and the Data-Aware Schedulers

    The unbounded increase in the computation and data requirements of scientific applications has necessitated the use of widely distributed compute and storage resources to meet the demand. In a widely distributed environment, data is no more locally accessible and has thus to be remotely retrieved and stored. Efficient and reliable...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Simplifying Complex Software Assembly: The Component Retrieval Language and Implementation

    Assembling simulation software along with the associated tools and utilities is a challenging endeavor, particularly when the components are distributed across multiple source code versioning systems. It is problematic for researchers compiling and running the software across many different supercomputers, as well as for novices in a field who are...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // May 2008

    Analyzing Skilled And Unskilled Labor Efficiencies In The US

    In this paper, using a production framework in which skilled and unskilled labor are imperfect substitutes, the author analyze the time paths of the efficiencies of skilled and unskilled labor and their implications for economic growth and wage inequality in the US between 1950 and 2005. There are two main...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    A Critique Of "The Louisiana Supreme Court In Question: An Empirical And Statistical Study Of The Effects Of Campaign Money On The Judicial Function"

    Palmer and Levendis' (2008) offer a rather confusing and contradictory paper on the impact of campaign contributions on voting behavior by Louisiana Supreme Court justices. The first two sentences provide a very good example of the paper's fundamental flaws. The first sentence asserts that no literature exists to guide their...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    A Preference-Theoretic Methodology For Nonmarket Goods

    A methodology for nonmarket goods is presented based on preference algebra and set theory that allows one to specify exactly when preference assumptions such as weak complementarity can be tested against revealed preference information. Revealed preference is insufficient for welfare analysis involving state preference variables such as nonmarket goods. The...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Falsifying The "Goodness" Of Nonmarket Goods With Revealed Preference

    Some assert that it is impossible to test preference restrictions against revealed preference. The "Goodness" preference restriction simply assumes that one value of a nonmarket good is preferred over another other with any fixed commodity consumption. This paper uses a preference-theoretic methodology to show how goodness can be falsified by...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Preference-Theoretic Weak Complementarity: Getting More With Less

    A preference-theoretic characterization of weak complementarity is provided based on an explicit representation of revealed preference. Weak complementarity is defined in terms of the observable property of nonessentiality and the unobservable property of no existence value. Preference-theoretic characterizations of these properties facilitate a precision and intuition that is not generally...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Optimal Channel Equalization for MIMO Time-Varying Channels

    The authors consider optimal channel equalization for MIMO (Multi-Input/Multi-Output) time-varying channels in the sense of MMSE (Minimum Mean-Squared-Error), where the observation noise can be non-stationary. They show that all ZF (Zero-Forcing) receivers can be parameterized in an affine form which eliminates completely the ISI (Inter-Symbol-Interference), and optimal channel equalizers can...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // May 2008

    Teaching an Introductory Programming Course in a Virtual World

    Computer science education is facing a significant challenge in the form of steeply declining enrollments. Computer science educators are examining many aspects of what people do, including the manner in which they introduce programming to their students. This paper reports on an approach which makes use of a massively multiuser...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Technology-Skill Complementarity And International TFP Differences

    What determines whether a country is better at using some technologies than others? A widely held view is that a country's ability to absorb and implement technologies is tied to its human capital. In this paper, the authors construct a novel specification of technology that incorporates this idea. Countries are...

    Provided By Louisiana State University

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    EasyMAC: A New and Simple Protocol for Slot Assignment

    The authors give a new distributed algorithm EasyMAC for the slot assignment for Media Access Control (MAC) of nodes in a sensor network. The algorithm reduces both the number of messages and the time required to complete the slot assignment compared to existing algorithms. They achieve this by maintaining additional...

    Provided By Louisiana State University