Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Displaying 41-80 of 85 results

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Cloud Computing for Linguists

    The system presented is a web application designed to aid linguistic research with data collection and online publishing. It is a service mainly for linguists and language experts working with language description of less-documented and less-resourced languages. When the central concern is in-depth linguistic analysis, maintaining and administering software can...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Network Calculus Approach to Delay Evaluation of IEEE 802.11 DCF

    Stochastic network calculus is an evolving theory for network performance guarantee analysis. Although many theoretical results of this theory have been developed, there still lack applicable examples to demonstrate how it may be used. This paper exemplifies applying stochastic network calculus to delay analysis of the IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Hybrid Approach for Estimating Document Frequencies in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Scalable search and retrieval over numerous web document collections distributed across different sites can be achieved by adopting a Peer-To-Peer (P2P) communication model. Terms and their document frequencies are the main components of text information retrieval and as such need to be computed, aggregated, and distributed throughout the system. This...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Towards Analysis of Intra-Flow Contention in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    Based on whether the competing active nodes are forwarding packets of the same flow, the channel access contention in multi-hop wireless networks can be classified into intra-flow contention and inter-flow contention. In this paper, the authors analyze the effect of intra-flow contention on multi-hop network performance. First, they demonstrate that...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Efficient Quantification Using Local Information for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio

    Cooperative spectrum sensing, a key technology in cognitive radio, has to summarize all the detection information from cognitive terminals without licensed band. In order to employ both reliable and efficient transmission of overhead, this paper seeks a way of quantifying the detection information with variable length to save the spectrum...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // May 2010

    On the Model Transform in Stochastic Network Calculus

    Stochastic network calculus requires special care in the search of proper stochastic traffic arrival models and stochastic service models. Tradeoff must be considered between the feasibility for the analysis of performance bounds, the usefulness of performance bounds, and the ease of their numerical calculation. In theory, transform between different traffic...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    On the Validity of the Fixed Point Equation and Decoupling Assumption for Analyzing the 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Performance evaluation of the 802.11 MAC protocol is classically based on the decoupling assumption, which hypothesizes that the backoff processes at different nodes are independent. A necessary condition for the validity of this approach is the existence and uniqueness of a solution to a fixed point equation. However, it was...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Analyzing Router Performance Using Network Calculus With External Measurements

    In this paper, the authors present results from an extensive measurement study of various hardware and (virtualized) software routers using several queueing strategies, i.e., First-Come-First-Served and Fair Queueing. In addition to well-known metrics such as packet forwarding performance, per packet processing time, and jitter, they apply network calculus models for...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    On the Optimal Design of MAC Protocols in Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

    In this paper, the authors present their results on the performance of MAC protocols in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks in terms of the newly proposed metric "Aggregate multi-hop information efficiency". This metric captures the impact of the traffic conditions, the quality of service requirements for rate and correct packet...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    On the Usage of Antennas in MIMO and MISO Interference Channels

    The authors investigate the performance of an uncoordinated 2 link MIMO interference channel as a function of the number of antennas and the average channel gains. The channel coefficients are random and uncorrelated, all links undergo Rayleigh fading, and the transmitters have no channel state information. The analysis is done...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Performance of Acyclic Stochastic Networks With Network Coding

    Network coding allows a network node to code the information flows before forwarding them. While it has been theoretically proved that network coding can achieve maximum network throughput, the theoretical results usually do not consider the burstiness of data traffic, delays, and the stochastic nature in information processing and transmission....

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On the Balance Between Accuracy and Robustness for Online Estimation of Delay Tail Probability

    In the Internet, premium services require to keep a very small delay tail probability with respect to some delay threshold. Such a small probability is difficult to measure in real time due to the large measurement variability. Practical approaches measure the traffic statistics instead and derive the tail probability by...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Data Hiding Techniques Using Prime and Natural Numbers

    In this paper, a few novel data hiding techniques are proposed. These techniques are improvements over the classical LSB data hiding technique and the Fibonacci LSB data-hiding technique proposed by Battisti et al. The classical LSB technique is the simplest, but using this technique it is possible to embed only...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Distributed Power Control and Beamforming on MIMO Interference Channels

    This paper considers the so-called Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Interference Channel (MIMO-IC). The authors address the design of precoding (i.e. beamforming) vectors and power control at each data stream with the aim of striking a compromise between beamforming gain at the intended receiver (Egoism) and the mitigation of interference created towards other receivers...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    On the Modeling of Delay and Burstiness for Calculating Throughput

    This paper presents a formula for the throughput of a network considering the bursty nature and delay requirements of real sources by using the established results in the area of guaranteed rate scheduling. The network of which the throughput is derived, implements aggregate scheduling which has been tipped as the...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Human Capital Investment And Optimal Portfolio Choice

    The authors analyze how an individual should optimally invest in human capital when he also has financial wealth. They treat the individual's possibilities to take more education as expansion options and apply real option analysis. In addition, they characterize the individual's optimal consumption strategy and portfolio weights. The individual has...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Performance Analysis of a Cognitive Radio Network With Imperfect Spectrum Sensing

    In this paper, the authors use stochastic network calculus to analyze a cognitive radio network, where influences of imperfect spectrum sensing and different retransmission schemes are considered. In particular, stochastic arrival curves for spectrum sensing error processes are derived firstly, based on which stochastic service curve for each class of...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Analysis of Stochastic Service Guarantees in Communication Networks: A Traffic Model

    The arrival curve has been used as a powerful concept for deterministic service guarantee analysis in communication networks. Since many applications and networks do not require or provide deterministic service guarantees, stochastic service guarantee analysis is becoming increasingly important and has attracted a lot of research attention in recent years....

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Interconnection Between 802.15.4 Devices and IPv6: Implications and Existing Approaches

    The increasing role of home automation in routine life and the rising demand for sensor networks enhanced Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) development, pervasiveness of wireless & wired network, and research. Soon arose the need of implementing the Internet Protocol in these devices in order to WPAN standards, raising the...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Optimal Tradeoff Between Transmission Rate and Packet Duration in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    This paper considers the tradeoff between bursty and continuous transmissions in wireless ad hoc networks. In the authors' network model, packets belonging to specific transmitters arrive randomly in space and time according to a 3-D Poisson point process, and are then transmitted to their intended destinations using a fully-distributed MAC...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Branch-and-Price for Service Network Design With Asset Management Constraints

    This paper addresses the service network design problem with asset management considerations for consolidation-based freight carriers. Given a set of demands to be transported from origins to destinations and a set of transshipment facilities, the objective is to select services and their schedules, build routes for the assets (vehicles) operating...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    SIP Mobility Modes: Application Layer and Data Link Layer

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely used protocols for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Mobility is a very sophisticated service in VoIP. VoIP mobility performance depends on the handoff delay in the Data Link layer. As VoIP is application layer application, application layer mobility support...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Asynchronous CDMA Systems With Random Spreading - Part I: Fundamental Limits

    Spectral efficiency for asynchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) with random spreading is calculated in the large system limit allowing for arbitrary chip waveforms and frequency-flat fading. Signal to Interference and Noise Ratios (SINRs) for suboptimal receivers, such as the linear Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detectors, are derived. The...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Software Entropy in Agile Product Evolution

    As agile software development principles and methods are being adopted by large software product organizations it is important to understand the role of software entropy. That is, how the maintainability of a system may degrade over time due to continuous change. This may on one side affect the ability to...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Managing In And Out Of Networks - Forms Of Co-Strategising

    In this paper the authors contend that there is little idiographic empirical research that considers the issue of deliberate networking action in network contexts. The ability of an organisation to manage in a network context involves the three myths of; action, limits to discretion and completeness (Ford et al., 2003)....

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    On the Delay-Energy Tradeoff in Multiuser Fading Channels

    The authors consider the delay-energy tradeoff on a fading channel with multiuser diversity. For fixed arbitrary rates of the users, the total transmitted energy is minimized subject to a delay constraint. To achieve this goal they propose a scheme which schedules a subset of all users simultaneously. The scheduled users...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Energy-Aware Path Selection in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: A Dynamic Bayesian Game Approach

    Sensors are energy constrained, which leads to possible selfishness as the sensor may decline to forward packets for other nodes. Sensors also face the problem of unfair depletion of their energy if communication protocols were energy-unaware. To address the above concern, the authors propose the dynamic Bayesian game approach: their...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Livestock As Insurance And Social Status. Evidence From Reindeer Herding In Norway

    The theory of livestock as a buffer stock predicts that agropastoralists facing substantial risks typically will use liquid assets, such as livestock, for self-insurance to smooth consumption. This paper examines this hypothesis for reindeer herders in Norway where the herders, in contrast to pastoralists in, say, Sub-Saharan Africa, face well...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Aggregation of Document Frequencies in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Peer-To-Peer (P2P) systems have been recently proposed for providing search and information retrieval facilities over distributed data sources, including web data. Terms and their document frequencies are the main building blocks of retrieval and as such need to be computed, aggregated, and distributed throughout the system. This is a tedious...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Quantifying the Uncertainty in Measurements for MBAC

    In Measurement Based Admission Control (MBAC), the decision of accepting or rejecting a new flow is based on measurements of the current traffic situation. An in-depth understanding of the measurement error and its uncertainty is vital for the design of a robust MBAC. In this paper, the authors study the...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Stochastic Service Guarantee Analysis Based on Time-Domain Models

    Stochastic network calculus is a theory for stochastic service guarantee analysis of computer communication networks. In the current stochastic network calculus literature, its traffic and server models are typically defined based on the cumulative amount of traffic and cumulative amount of service respectively. However, there are network scenarios where the...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Basic Theorems on the Backoff Process in 802.11

    Since its introduction, the performance of IEEE 802.11 has attracted a lot of research attention and the center of the attention has been the throughput. For throughput analysis, in the seminal paper by Kumar et al., they axiomized several remarkable observations based on a Fixed Point Equation (FPE). Above all,...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Trade Barriers To Growth In South Africa: Endogenous Investment-Productivity-Trade Interaction

    The relationship between foreign trade openness and growth is a challenge for economic analysis. Econometric approaches struggle with endogeneity of foreign trade and trade policy and endogenous interaction between investment and productivity. The authors offer an alternative route to identification and quantification of channels of effects based on calibration of...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    A Quantitative Study of Memory System Interference in Chip Multiprocessor Architectures

    The potential for destructive interference between running processes is increased as Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs) share more on-chip resources. The authors believe that understanding the nature of memory system interference is vital to achieve good fairness/complexity/performance trade-offs in CMPs. Their goal in this work is to quantify the latency penalties due...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Industrial Labor Productivities And Tariffs In South Africa: Identification Based On Multilateral Liberalization Reform

    The analysis of the effect of tariffs for labor productivity faces the challenge of tariff policy endogeneity. Tariff policy is designed to promote economic development and the industrial sector tariff structure may reflect characteristics of the industries protected. The authors seek to identify the effect of tariffs by taking advantage...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Is Constitutional Symmetry Enough? Social Models & Market Integration In The US And Europe

    For many, Europe is the home of tame capitalism: the EU seems to have facilitated market integration and monetary union while allowing members states to hold on to their elaborate corporate arrangements and welfare safety nets. This popular impression is bolstered by an arsenal of empirical studies that have documented...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Threat Assessment of Wireless Patient Monitoring Systems

    The authors address issues related to threat assessment of mobile patient monitoring systems using a wireless infrastructure including body area biomedical sensor networks. Several user scenarios are presented. Patient sensitive data, mobile and wireless infrastructure, and resource-constraint sensor nodes provide a challenging task of fulfilling some minimum requirements for security,...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    On a Family of Minimal Candidate One-Way Functions and One-Way Permutations

    The concept of one-way function is the fundamental concept in the modern cryptography and was first introduced by Diffie and Hellman in their seminal paper. Since then, many designed cryptographic primitives that claim that are cryptographically strong, actually suppose that they have implemented the concept of one-wayness in some proper...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Edon-R, An Infinite Family of Cryptographic Hash Functions

    Cryptographic hash functions are used in a wide range of applications including message integrity, authentication, digital signature and public key encryption. A cryptographic hash function takes an input of arbitrary size and produces an output, also called the hash value, of a fixed, predetermined size. The important properties of a...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Secure Socket SCTP: A Multi-Layer End-to-End Security Solution

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a rather new full-fledged transport protocol with a rich set of functionalities. In SCTP, transport layer multi-homing for enhanced network fault tolerance is provided. The concept of multi-streaming is also included to reduce the impact of head-of-line blocking of unrelated data. In addition, enhanced...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Cloud Computing for Linguists

    The system presented is a web application designed to aid linguistic research with data collection and online publishing. It is a service mainly for linguists and language experts working with language description of less-documented and less-resourced languages. When the central concern is in-depth linguistic analysis, maintaining and administering software can...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Is Constitutional Symmetry Enough? Social Models & Market Integration In The US And Europe

    For many, Europe is the home of tame capitalism: the EU seems to have facilitated market integration and monetary union while allowing members states to hold on to their elaborate corporate arrangements and welfare safety nets. This popular impression is bolstered by an arsenal of empirical studies that have documented...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    A Survey on Random Number Generators(RNG) for Cryptographic Application

    Random numbers are used in different purposes, such as sampling from a large data set, simulating and modeling a complex phenomena. It also plays a very important role in information security and cryptography. Random numbers are used for PIN, password, creating cryptographic keys and challenges for authentication etc. When discussing...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Delay Constrained Throughput Analysis of a Correlated MIMO Wireless Channel

    The maximum traffic arrival rate at the network for a given delay guarantee (delay constrained throughput) has been well studied for wired channels. However, few results are available for wireless channels, especially when multiple antennas are employed at the transmitter and receiver. In this work, the authors analyze the network...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Stochastic Service Guarantee Analysis Based on Time-Domain Models

    Stochastic network calculus is a theory for stochastic service guarantee analysis of computer communication networks. In the current stochastic network calculus literature, its traffic and server models are typically defined based on the cumulative amount of traffic and cumulative amount of service respectively. However, there are network scenarios where the...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Fundamentals of the Backoff Process in 802.11: Dichotomy of the Aggregation

    Since its introduction, the performance of IEEE 802.11 has attracted a lot of research attention and the center of the attention has been the throughput. Recently, other critical performance aspects of 802.11 also burst onto the scene, which include short-term fairness and delay. It goes without saying that there has...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Accumulation Of Education And Regional Income Growth: Limited Human Capital Effects In Norway

    Accumulation of education and geographic concentration of educated people in cities are expected to generate urban income growth. New economic geography predicts income divergence across regions. The authors investigate the dynamic process of accumulating tertiary education and regional income growth in Norway during the past four decades. The expansion of...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    The Multivariate Probabilistic Encryption Scheme MQQ-ENC

    The authors propose a new multivariate probabilistic encryption scheme with decryption errors MQQ-ENC that belongs to the family of MQQ-based public key schemes. Similarly to MQQ-SIG, the trapdoor is constructed using quasigroup string transformations with multivariate quadratic quasigroups, and a minus modifier with relatively small and fixed number of removed...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Scheduling Techniques in an Integrated Hybrid Node With Electronic Buffers

    Integrated hybrid optical packet/circuit switched architectures enable networks with the Guaranteed Service Transport (GST) of circuit switching and the statistical multiplexing known from packet switching. The utilization of the optical light-paths is increased by inserting low priority Statistically Multiplexed (SM) traffic in the guaranteed circuit switched traffic gaps. Previous studies...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Metric-based Similarity Search in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Systems

    Peer-To-Peer systems constitute a promising solution for deploying novel applications, such as distributed image retrieval. Efficient search over widely distributed multimedia content requires techniques for distributed retrieval based on generic metric distance functions. In this paper, the authors propose a framework for distributed metric-based similarity search, where each participating peer...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Hybrid Approach for Estimating Document Frequencies in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Scalable search and retrieval over numerous web document collections distributed across different sites can be achieved by adopting a Peer-To-Peer (P2P) communication model. Terms and their document frequencies are the main components of text information retrieval and as such need to be computed, aggregated, and distributed throughout the system. This...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Aggregation of Document Frequencies in Unstructured P2P Networks

    Peer-To-Peer (P2P) systems have been recently proposed for providing search and information retrieval facilities over distributed data sources, including web data. Terms and their document frequencies are the main building blocks of retrieval and as such need to be computed, aggregated, and distributed throughout the system. This is a tedious...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Smart Grid Software Applications as an Ultra-Large-Scale System: Challenges for Evolution

    Software applications play a major role to support the smartness in Smart Grid. Such applications are in a never-ending state of flux due to rapidly changing expectations from the users and stakeholders. Hence, evolution is an important matter for development of Smart Grid software applications and the challenging factors of...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Timing Failures Caused by Resource Starvation in Virtual Machinesa

    This paper discusses cascading effects of resource starvation in virtual machines, and how that affects end-user experiences in certain cases. The paper presents the occurring issues on an N-tier server system, and the way the starvation causes unexpected delays in a service for an end-user. The initial observations were on...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Digital Signature Scheme MQQ-SIG

    The authors the seven names given in the title of this paper and undersigned on this statement, the authors and designers of MQQ-SIG digital signature scheme, do hereby agree to grant any interested party an irrevocable, royalty free licence to practice, implement and use MQQ-SIG digital signature scheme, provided the...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Logic-BasedWeb Services Composition: From Service Description to Process Model

    This paper introduces a method for automatic composition of Semantic Web services using Linear Logic (LL) theorem proving. The method uses Semantic Web service language (DAML-S) for external presentation of Web services, while, internally, the services are presented by extralogical axioms and proofs in LL. The authors use a process...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Interconnection Between 802.15.4 Devices and IPv6: Implications and Existing Approaches

    The increasing role of home automation in routine life and the rising demand for sensor networks enhanced Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) development, pervasiveness of wireless & wired network, and research. Soon arose the need of implementing the Internet Protocol in these devices in order to WPAN standards, raising the...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Asynchronous CDMA Systems With Random Spreading - Part I: Fundamental Limits

    Spectral efficiency for asynchronous Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) with random spreading is calculated in the large system limit allowing for arbitrary chip waveforms and frequency-flat fading. Signal to Interference and Noise Ratios (SINRs) for suboptimal receivers, such as the linear Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) detectors, are derived. The...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Managing In And Out Of Networks - Forms Of Co-Strategising

    In this paper the authors contend that there is little idiographic empirical research that considers the issue of deliberate networking action in network contexts. The ability of an organisation to manage in a network context involves the three myths of; action, limits to discretion and completeness (Ford et al., 2003)....

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    SIP Mobility Modes: Application Layer and Data Link Layer

    The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is one of the most widely used protocols for Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). Mobility is a very sophisticated service in VoIP. VoIP mobility performance depends on the handoff delay in the Data Link layer. As VoIP is application layer application, application layer mobility support...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Industrial Labor Productivities And Tariffs In South Africa: Identification Based On Multilateral Liberalization Reform

    The analysis of the effect of tariffs for labor productivity faces the challenge of tariff policy endogeneity. Tariff policy is designed to promote economic development and the industrial sector tariff structure may reflect characteristics of the industries protected. The authors seek to identify the effect of tariffs by taking advantage...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Livestock As Insurance And Social Status. Evidence From Reindeer Herding In Norway

    The theory of livestock as a buffer stock predicts that agropastoralists facing substantial risks typically will use liquid assets, such as livestock, for self-insurance to smooth consumption. This paper examines this hypothesis for reindeer herders in Norway where the herders, in contrast to pastoralists in, say, Sub-Saharan Africa, face well...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Migration And Dynamic Agglomeration Economies: Regional Income Growth In Norway

    The existence of agglomeration economies is well established. The authors study dynamic agglomeration effects and expect regional income divergence when people move from the periphery to cities. They use distribution analysis, Kernel density functions and first order Markov chains, to investigate whether data from Norwegian regions 1972-2008 with strong urbanization...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    How Globalization Of Media And Civil Society Are Affecting Contentious Politics

    The globalization of mass media and civil society is creating new resources for political contention. Drawing on a theory of the role of third parties in different forms of contentious politics, the authors argue that the effects of these new resources should be greatest for protest and terrorist attacks, somewhat...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Software Entropy in Agile Product Evolution

    As agile software development principles and methods are being adopted by large software product organizations it is important to understand the role of software entropy. That is, how the maintainability of a system may degrade over time due to continuous change. This may on one side affect the ability to...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Trade Barriers To Growth In South Africa: Endogenous Investment-Productivity-Trade Interaction

    The relationship between foreign trade openness and growth is a challenge for economic analysis. Econometric approaches struggle with endogeneity of foreign trade and trade policy and endogenous interaction between investment and productivity. The authors offer an alternative route to identification and quantification of channels of effects based on calibration of...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Human Capital Investment And Optimal Portfolio Choice

    The authors analyze how an individual should optimally invest in human capital when he also has financial wealth. They treat the individual's possibilities to take more education as expansion options and apply real option analysis. In addition, they characterize the individual's optimal consumption strategy and portfolio weights. The individual has...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Distributed Power Control and Beamforming on MIMO Interference Channels

    This paper considers the so-called Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Interference Channel (MIMO-IC). The authors address the design of precoding (i.e. beamforming) vectors and power control at each data stream with the aim of striking a compromise between beamforming gain at the intended receiver (Egoism) and the mitigation of interference created towards other receivers...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Energy-Optimised Coded Modulation for Short-Range Wireless Communications on Nakagami-M Fading Channels

    When the distance between the transmitter and the receiver of a wireless communication link is sufficiently short, circuit energy consumption and transmission energy consumption become comparable, and substantial energy savings can be achieved by making use of a transmission scheme which takes into account total energy consumption instead of transmission...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Fairness-Enhanced Multiple Control Channels MAC for Ad Hoc Networks

    The throughput in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks can be improved by exploiting the presence of multiple channels and thus allowing multiple nodes to transmit concurrently on different channels. This has been shown by previous work. Some multi-channel MAC protocols use one control channel for exchanging control messages in order...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    On the Usage of Antennas in MIMO and MISO Interference Channels

    The authors investigate the performance of an uncoordinated 2 link MIMO interference channel as a function of the number of antennas and the average channel gains. The channel coefficients are random and uncorrelated, all links undergo Rayleigh fading, and the transmitters have no channel state information. The analysis is done...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Optimal Tradeoff Between Transmission Rate and Packet Duration in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    This paper considers the tradeoff between bursty and continuous transmissions in wireless ad hoc networks. In the authors' network model, packets belonging to specific transmitters arrive randomly in space and time according to a 3-D Poisson point process, and are then transmitted to their intended destinations using a fully-distributed MAC...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    DYFRAM: Dynamic Fragmentation and Replica Management in Distributed Database Systems

    In distributed database systems, tables are frequently fragmented and replicated over a number of sites in order to reduce network communication costs. How to fragment, when to replicate and how to allocate the fragments to the sites are challenging problems that has previously been solved either by static fragmentation, replication...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    E-Collaboration for Maritime Operations using Business Process Modeling

    One of the highly globalized fields such as Marine Industry, shipping operations are hugely dependent on e-collaboration tools that holds potential to provide quick and readily accessible information across ports, organizations and people across nations concerned with industry. Improving operational efficiency is very much dependent on business process transformation by...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Oct 2007

    Performance Effects of a Cache Miss Handling Architecture in a Multi-core Processor

    Multi-core processors, also called Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs), have recently been proposed to counter several of the problems associated with modern superscalar microprocessors: limited Instruction Level Parallelism (ILP), high power consumption and large design complexity. However, the performance gap between a processor core and main memory is large and growing. Consequently,...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    A Quantitative Study of Memory System Interference in Chip Multiprocessor Architectures

    The potential for destructive interference between running processes is increased as Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs) share more on-chip resources. The authors believe that understanding the nature of memory system interference is vital to achieve good fairness/complexity/performance trade-offs in CMPs. Their goal in this work is to quantify the latency penalties due...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Secure Socket SCTP: A Multi-Layer End-to-End Security Solution

    Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) is a rather new full-fledged transport protocol with a rich set of functionalities. In SCTP, transport layer multi-homing for enhanced network fault tolerance is provided. The concept of multi-streaming is also included to reduce the impact of head-of-line blocking of unrelated data. In addition, enhanced...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Apr 2008

    Scheduling in Multiprocessor System Using Genetic Algorithms

    Real-time systems are software systems in which the time at which the result is produced is as important as the logical correctness of the result. Multiprocessors have emerged as a powerful computing means for running real-time applications, especially where a uniprocessor system would not be sufficient enough to execute all...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Data Hiding Techniques Using Prime and Natural Numbers

    In this paper, a few novel data hiding techniques are proposed. These techniques are improvements over the classical LSB data hiding technique and the Fibonacci LSB data-hiding technique proposed by Battisti et al. The classical LSB technique is the simplest, but using this technique it is possible to embed only...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology

  • White Papers // Oct 2006

    On Stochastic Modeling for Integrated Security and Dependability Evaluation

    In this paper, the authors present a new approach to integrated security and dependability evaluation, which is based on stochastic modeling techniques. Their proposal aims to provide operational measures of the trustworthiness of a system, regardless if the underlying failure cause is intentional or not. By viewing system states as...

    Provided By Norwegian University of Science and Technology