Scientific Research

Displaying 41-80 of 766 results

  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Cloud Computing and Big Data: A Review of Current Service Models and Hardware Perspectives

    Big data applications are pervading more and more aspects of the people life, encompassing commercial and scientific uses at increasing rates as they move towards exascale analytics. Examples of big data applications include storing and accessing user data in commercial clouds, mining of social data, and analysis of large-scale simulations...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Keystroke Authentication on Enhanced Needleman Alignment Algorithm

    An important point for computer systems is the identification of users for authentication. One of these identification methods is keystroke dynamics. The keystroke dynamics is a biometric measurement in terms of keystroke press duration and keystroke latency. However, several problems are arisen like the similarity between users and identification accuracy....

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Semantic Recognition of a Data Structure in Big-Data

    Data governance is a subject that is becoming increasingly important in business and government. In fact, good governance data allows improved interactions between employees of one or more organizations. Data quality represents a great challenge because the cost of non-quality can be very high. Therefore, the use of data quality...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Tree-Based Revocation for Certificateless Authentication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    In this paper, the authors propose authentication based on identity as a way to increase the efficiency and security of communications in vehicular ad-hoc networks. When using identity-based cryptography to achieve certificate-less authentication, membership revocation is not a trivial problem. Thus, in order to improve the performance of revocation in...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Adaptive Mobile Applications to Dynamic Context

    As mobile devices continue to become more resource-rich in terms of their processing power, memory, and display, they can support sophisticated applications ranging from browsing and messaging to navigation and gaming. Context-aware computing is a mobile computing paradigm in which applications can discover and take advantage of contextual information, such...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Design of Reconfigurable Band Notches Antenna for Cognitive Radio Applications

    In this paper, an antenna with reconfigurable band notches, for cognitive radio applications, is proposed. The antenna can be operated as ultra wideband, and is reconfigurable in terms of the ability to select a notched band in the SRR resonant frequency. The reconfigurable band notches are induced using a band-stop...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    An Efficient Billing Scheme for Trusted Nodes Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Extending the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), where recharging sensors is not always possible, has been a major concern for researchers for the past decade. In this paper, the authors study the cooperation between nodes in wireless sensor networks in forwarding packets to others, and they propose a...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Dual Band MIMO Antenna Composed of Two Low Profile Unbalanced Fed Inverted L Antennas for Wireless Communications

    The dual band antennas have been investigated with the development of wireless communication systems in recent years. Most of these dual or multiple band antennas have an omnidirectional radiation pattern. A low profile dual-band Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna system is proposed. The proposed MIMO antenna consists of two low profiles unbalanced...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    FOTool: Modelling Indigenous Community Cultures in Sarawak

    Formal-Object Tool (FOTool) is a software modeling approach that integrates formal specification and object oriented model. FOTool integrates the rigour of formal methods and the ease of use of Object Oriented (OO) techniques. The idea of FOTool is to provide an easy interface by allowing the application developer to develop...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Open-Access Framework for Efficient Object-Oriented Development of Video Analysis Software

    The increasing use of digital video everyday in a multitude of electronic devices, including mobile phones, tablets and laptops, poses the need for quick development of cross-platform video software. However current approaches to this direction usually require a long learning curve and their development lacks standardization. This results in software...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Security and Audit Trail Capabilities of a Facilitated Interface Used to Populate a Database System With Text and Graphical Data Using Widely Available Software

    In this paper, the authors described techniques used to capture, store, and retrieve narrative data forms from a database using widely available off the shelf software. This concept makes use of the security and versioning features of database architecture together with those of image-supported electronic document information capture. They present...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Requirement Change Management in Global Software Environment Using Cloud Computing

    The successful implementation of any software project depends upon the requirements. Change in requirements at any stage during the life cycle of software development is taken as a healthy process. However, making out this change in a co-located environment is somewhat easier than the distributed environment where stakeholders are scattered...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Formal Methods for Commercial Applications Issues vs. Solutions

    It was advocated that in 21st century, most of software will be developed with benefits of formal methods. The benefits include faults found in earlier stage of software development, automating, checking the certain properties and minimizing rework. In spite of their recognition in academic world and these claimed advantages, formal...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Software Frameworks, Architectural and Design Patterns

    Software systems can be among the most complex constructions in engineering disciplines and can span into years of development. Most software systems though implement in part what has already been built and tend to follow known or nearly known architectures. Although most software systems are not of the size of...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Refining Use/Misuse/Mitigation Use Cases for Security Requirements

    The authors investigate security at the same time as the functional requirements by refining and integrating use, misuse, and mitigation use cases. Security requirements rely on the interactions among normal system execution (use cases), attacks (misuse cases), and necessary security strategies (mitigation use cases), but previous approaches only use a...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Regression Testing in Developer Environment for Absence of Code Coverage

    The techniques of test case prioritization schedule the execution order of test cases to attain respective target, such as enhanced level of forecasting the fault. The requirement of the prioritization can be viewed as the en-route for deriving an order of relation on a given set of test cases which...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2014

    Fine-Grained Work Element Standardization for Project Effort Estimation

    Traditional project effort estimation utilizes development models that span the entire project life cycle and thus culminates estimation errors. This paper is the first attempt to break each project activity down to smaller work elements. There are eight work elements, each of which is being defined and symbolized with visually...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Connectivity-Based Data Gathering with Path-Constrained Mobile Sink in Wireless Sensor Networks

    The design of an effective and robust data gathering algorithm is crucial to the overall performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). However, using traditional routing algorithms for data gathering is energy-inefficient for sensor nodes with limited power resources and multi-hop communication protocols. Data gathering with mobile sinks provided an effective...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Differentially-Keyed IR-UWB Signals for MA with Differential-Detection Receiver

    Non-coherent communication receivers (differential-detectors) have simple design, however, they always incur Bit Error Rate (BER) performance loss up to 3dB compared to coherent receivers. In this paper, a differential-detector is proposed for Impulse Radio Ultra WideBand (IR-UWB) communication systems. The system employs bit-level Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) combined with...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Analysis of Hops Length in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Wireless sensor networks are provided with a limited source of power. The lifetime of such networks is an overwhelming matter in most network applications. This lifetime depends strongly on how efficiently such energy is distributed over the nodes especially during transmitting and receiving data. Each node may route messages to...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Performance of WSNs Under the Effect of Collisions and Interference

    In this paper, the authors propose a methodology for calculating the energy consumed by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) as well as its throughput under the effect of a jamming node modeling interference to account for collisions and retransmissions. Accordingly, the proposed methodology takes into consideration retransmissions and data dropped...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Smart Location-Based Mobile Shopping Android Application

    In the paper, a smart location-based mobile shopping application for Android devices is proposed. The Geo-position of the user's mobile device is utilized to produce location information in shopping application. The flow of the application is that user searches a product, and then SAGO identifies the location and searches the...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Reliability Estimation of Services Oriented Systems Using Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

    In order to make system reliable, it should inhibit guarantee for basic service, data flow, composition of services, and the complete workflow. In Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), the entire software system consists of an interacting group of autonomous services. Some soft computing approaches have been developed for estimating the reliability of...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    An Analytical Framework for Disconnection Prediction in Wireless Networks

    The stability and reliability of links in wireless networks is dependent on a number of factors such as the topology of the area, inter-base station or inter-mobile station distances, weather conditions and so on. Link instability in wireless networks has a negative impact on the data throughput and thus, the...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Multilayer Authentication for Communication Systems Based on Physical-Layer Attributes

    In this paper, a multilayer security solution is introduced, in order to accord the required end-to-end security blanket to the heterogeneous networks by considering the properties used by authentication at the physical-layer in transport-layer authentication. In particular, after achieving an authentication level based on the estimated Channel Impulse Response (CIR)...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Creation of Virtual Wi-Fi Access Point and Secured Wi-Fi Pairing, through NFC

    The growing ubiquity of Wi-Fi networks combined with the integration of low-cost Wi-Fi chipsets in all devices makes Wi-Fi as the wireless technology the most used for accessing to internet. This means that the development of a Wi-Fi strategy has become an imperative for almost all operators worldwide. In this...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Multi-Cultural Dynamics on Social Networks Under External Random Perturbations

    In this paper, the authors deal with the development of multi-cultural network-centric dynamic models under the influence of personal intra- and inter-members, as well as community. Each individual member of a society is influenced by the user interactions with fellow members of the family, neighborhood, region and the universe. The...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Practical Security Approaches Against Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Session Hijacking Attacks Between Autonomous Systems

    The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the default inter domain routing protocol used on the internet for exchanging information between autonomous systems. Available literature suggests that BGP is vulnerable to session hijacking attacks. There are a number of proposals aimed at improving BGP security which have not been fully implemented....

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    A Survey of SQL Injection Attack Detection and Prevention

    Structured Query Language Injection Attack (SQLIA) is the most exposed to attack on the Internet. From this attack, the attacker can take control of the database therefore be able to interpolate the data from the database server for the website. Hence, the big challenge became to secure such website against...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Iterative Soft Decoding of Multiple Description Image over Wireless Channel

    Motivated by recent results in multiple description images coding over wireless networks, the authors propose a scheme for transmission of multiple descriptions through hybrid packet loss and additive white Gaussian noise channel. Each description is coded into multiple bit-streams by applying SPIHT coding on wavelet trees along spatial orientations and...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Apple's Lion vs Microsoft's Windows 7: Comparing Built-In Protection Against ICMP Flood Attacks

    With the increase in the number of computers connected to Internet, the number of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks has also been increasing. A DDoS attack consumes the computing resources of a computer or a server, by degrading its computing performance or by preventing legitimate users from accessing its...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2014

    Computer Aided Call for Tenders: A Tool for Software Bidding

    Under a broad comprehension of software engineering, it is preferred the term software life cycle instead of just software production. The reason is that cycle starts at software conception and stops when the software is relegated. Given contemporary companies' market strategies of focusing on their competitive advantages, most of them...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    Analysis of Different Call Admission Control Strategies and Its Impact on the Performance of LTE-Advanced Networks

    The Call Admission Control (CAC) optimizes the use of allocated channels against offered traffic maintaining the required Quality of Service (QoS). Provisioning QoS to user at cell-edge is a challenge where there is limitation in cell resources due to Inter-Cell Interference (ICI). Soft Frequency Reuse is ICI mitigation scheme that...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    On the Development of Realistic Cross Layer Communication Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Traditional protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) follow the strict layering techniques which lead to the degradation in performance of the QoS (Quality of Service) parameters. Battery powered tiny sensor nodes with constraints of energy and guaranteed time require the efficient communication protocols with innovative and optimized approach to attain...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    Cognitive Software Engineering: A Research Framework and Roadmap

    The work of software engineers is inherently cognitive. Integral to their duties is understanding and developing several artifacts. Each one is based on a specific model and a given level of abstraction. What distinguishes software engineering is the logical complexity of some artifacts (especially programs), the high dependency among them,...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    Challenges for Software Engineering in Automation

    In this paper, the authors give an introduction to the essential challenges of software engineering and requirements that software has to fulfill in the domain of automation. Besides, the functional characteristics, specific constraints and circumstances are considered for deriving requirements concerning usability, the technical process, the automation functions, used platform...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    A Survey of Concepts Location Enhancement for Program Comprehension and Maintenance

    When correcting a fault, adding a new concept or feature, or adapting a system to conform to a new platform, software engineers must first find the relevant parts of the code that correspond to a particular change. This is termed as concept or feature location process. Several techniques have been...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    Bandwidth Constrained Priority-Based Routing Algorithm for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    A Mobile Ad hoc NETwork (MANET) is a dynamically formed self-configured network by an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. With the advancements of wireless technology, the necessity of Quality of Service (QoS) is increasing rapidly. Developing QoS constraint routing protocol for MANETs is still a challenging...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    Application of Machine-Learning Based Prediction Techniques in Wireless Networks

    Wireless networks are key enablers of ubiquitous communication. With the evolution of networking technologies and the need for these to inter-operate and dynamically adapt to user requirements, intelligent networks are the need of the hour. Use of machine learning techniques allows these networks to adapt to changing environments and enables...

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  • White Papers // May 2014

    Community Detection in Dynamic Social Networks

    There are many community detection algorithms for discovering communities in networks, but very few deal with networks that change structure. The SCANs (Structural Clustering Algorithm for Networks) algorithm is one of these algorithms that detect communities in static networks. To make SCAN more effective for the dynamic social networks that...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2012

    Radar Signal Recognition by CWD Picture Features

    In this paper, a system for automatic recognition of radar waveform is introduced. This technique is used in many spectrum management, surveillance and cognitive radio and radar applications. For instance the transmitted radar signal is coded into six codes based on pulse compression waveform such as Linear Frequency Modulation (LFM),...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Hardware Design for Low Power Integrated Sensor System

    An integrated sensor system is implemented using Inter-Integrated Circuit mode (I2C) software, utilizing the PIC182585 MPLAB embedded control system utilizing hardware. The hardware implementation features high level of integration, reliability, high precision, and high speed communications. The system was demonstrated by temperature and CO2 sensors. An extension for Zigbee system...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    A Comparison Between Theoretical and Experimental Coverage Analysis in 3G Cellular Networks

    In this paper, the authors shows a comparison between theoretical and experimental coverage analysis. Theoretical work is based on Okumura-Hata propagation model, which are compared with the measured data obtained through an experimental analysis en M?xico City. It is important because all the network designers and managers have to take...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Cryptanalysis of a Substitution-Permutation Network Using Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    In this paper, the authors provide a novel approach for breaking a significant class of block ciphers, the so-called SPN ciphers, using the process of gene assembly in ciliates. Their proposed scheme utilizes, for the first time, the Turing-powerful potential of gene assembly procedure of ciliated protozoa into the real...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Formal Verification of Secrecy in Group Key Protocols Using Event-B

    Group key security protocols play an important role in today's communication systems. Their verification, however, remains a great challenge because of the dynamic characteristics of group key construction and distribution protocols. Security properties that are well defined in normal two-party protocols have different meanings and different interpretations in group key...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Accuracy Analysis in Fingerprint Authentication Using the Fractional Fourier Transform without Misalignment Correction of Scanned Images

    In many fingerprint authentication devices, a frame to insert the fingertip or a hollow to put the fingertip is used to avoid the position or rotation misalignment of a newly scanned genuine fingerprint image, when the fingerprint authentication is conducted. Moreover, the misalignment correction by the numerical calculation is indispensable...

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  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    The Injection Velocity and Apogee Simulation for Transfer Elliptical Satellite Orbits

    Basic resources for communication satellites are communication radio-frequencies and satellite orbits. An orbit is the trajectory followed by the satellite. The communication between the satellite and a ground station is established only when the satellite is consolidated in its own orbit and it is visible from the ground station. Different...

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  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Role of Cross Layer Based Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Domain

    Wireless mesh networks are very common both for organizations and individuals. Many laptops, computers have wireless cards preinstalled for buyer. However a wireless networking has many security issues. An Intrusions Detection System aim to detect the different attacks against network and system. An Intrusion Detection System should be capable for...

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  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Using LDMOS Transistor in Class-F Power Amplifier for WCDMA Applications

    The fundamental operating principle of a Class F power amplifier and the factors aiding or affecting Class F performance were explicated previously. A Class F power amplifier design which satisfies WCDMA specifications is explained in this paper. The Class F amplifier was designed by employing Motorola's LDMOS (Laterally Diffused Metal...

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  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Route Optimization for Network Mobility Based Aeronautical Network Using Correspondent Router

    The future aeronautical network will be based on IPv6 and the services over the aeronautical network will be classified into 3 domains: Air Traffic Services (ATS), Airline Operational Services (AOS) and Passenger Information and Entertainment Services (PIES), among which the ATS and AOS domains are important for aircraft safety and...

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  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    A LEACH-Head Expected Frequency Appraisal Algorithm for Water-Environment Monitoring Networks

    Water-environment Monitoring Network (WMN) is a Wireless Sensor Network based real-time system, which collects, transmits, analyzes and processes water-environment parameters in large area. Both cluster selection mechanisms and energy saving strategies play an important role on designing network routing protocols for the WMN. Since those existing routing algorithms can not...

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  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    A Simple Symbol Estimation for Soft Information Relaying in Cooperative Relay Channels

    In this paper, the authors proposes Symbol-based Soft Forwarding (SSF) protocol for coded transmissions which is based on a simple proposed soft symbol estimation at relay nodes. They present a simple strategy of forwarding soft information based on a simple linear summation of likelihood functions of each symbol. Specifically, with...

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  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    The Range and Horizon Plane Simulation for Ground Stations of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) Satellites

    Communication via satellite begins when the satellite is positioned in the desired orbital position. Ground stations can communicate with LEO (Low Earth Orbiting) satellites only when the satellite is in their visibility region. The ground station's ideal horizon plane is in fact the visibility region under 0? of elevation angle....

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  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Measurement Process of MOSFET Device Parameters with VEE Pro Software for DP4T RF Switch

    To design a Double-Pole Four-Throw (DP4T) RF switch, measurement of device parameters is required. In this DP4T RF switch CMOS is a unit cell, so with a thin oxide layer of thickness 628 ? which is measured optically. Some of the material parameters were found by the curve drawn between...

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  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    TCP-R with EPDN: Handling out of Order Packets in Error Prone Satellite Networks

    In this paper, the authors have shown that packet reordering is common, especially in satellite networks where there are link level retransmissions and multipath routing. Moreover, traditional satellite networks exhibit high corruption rates causing packet losses. Reordering and corruption of packets decrease the TCP performance of a network, mainly because...

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  • White Papers // May 2009

    Cooperative Self Encoded Spread Spectrum in Fading Channels

    Self-Encoded Spread Spectrum (SESS) is a unique realization of random spread spectrum. SESS eliminates the need for the traditional transmitting and receiving PN code generators. Instead, the time varying, random spreading sequence is obtained from the data source. Cooperative Diversity (CD) has been attracting increasing attention as a novel and...

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  • White Papers // May 2009

    MATLAB Simulink Simulation Platform for Photonic Transmission Systems

    High speed and ultra-high capacity optical communications have emerged as the essential techniques for backbone global information transmission networks. As the bit rate of the transmission system gets higher and higher 40 Gb/s to 100 Gb/s the modeling of proposed modulation techniques is very important so as to avoid costly...

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  • White Papers // May 2009

    Geospatial Information Service Based on Ad Hoc Network

    With the development of electronic technology, especially in the fields of computer and internet technology, mobile communication has made a rapid progress in recent years. More and more mobile phones with powerful functions have emerged in users daily life. The mobile geospatial information service involves the domain of mobile communication,...

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  • White Papers // May 2009

    Hierarchical Hypercube Based Pairwise Key Establishment Scheme for Sensor Networks

    Security schemes of pairwise key establishment, which enable sensors to communicate with each other securely, play a fundamental role in research on security issue in wireless sensor networks. A general framework for key predistribution is presented, based on the idea of KDC (Key Distribution Center) and polynomial pool schemes. By...

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  • White Papers // May 2009

    Adaptive Processing Gain Data Services in Cellular CDMA in Presence of Soft Handoff with Truncated ARQ

    An adaptive data transmission scheme based on Variable Spreading Gain (VSG) is studied in cellular CDMA network in presence of soft Hand-Off (HO). The processing gain is varied according to traffic intensity meeting a requirement on data Bit Error Rate (BER). The overall performance improvement due to processing gain adaptation...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Enhanced Uplink Scheduling for Continuous Connectivity in High Speed Packet Access Systems

    The efficiency of High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) systems is mainly based on Channel Quality Information (CQI) reports transmitted by User Equipment (UE) to Node B. In this paper, the authors propose an improved CQI prediction scheme based on a Finite State Markov Chain (FSMC) model for wireless channel, in...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Is Faster Necessarily Better? 3G Take-Up Rates and the Implications for Next Generation Services

    Most countries have allocated 3G spectrum and are in the process of allocating advanced wireless services and 4G spectrum, both of which promise subscribers significantly faster broadband speeds. Operators anticipate that subscribers will adopt these services swiftly thereby justifying the large investments. Yet, why is it the case that only...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Cognitive Congestion Control for Data Portals with Variable Link Capacity

    Network congestion, one of the challenging tasks in communication networks, leads to queuing delays, packet loss or the blocking of new connections. In this paper, a data portal is considered as an application-based network and a cognitive method is proposed to deal with congestion in this kind of network. Unlike...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    MeshMS: Ad Hoc Data Transfer within Mesh Network

    File and data distribution can be easily classified as one of the basic uses of networks. With uses ranging from Short Message Service (SMS) to program updates, from micro-blogging to social networking, every network today must support some type of file and data dissemination method. Infrastructure networks have already implemented...

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  • White Papers // Aug 2012

    Network Access Control Technology-Proposition to Contain New Security Challenges

    Traditional products working independently are no longer sufficient, since threats are continually gaining in complexity, diversity and performance; In order to proactively block such threats, users need more integrated information security solution. To achieve this objective, the authors will analyze a real-world security platform and focus on some key components...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    Channel Estimation for Powerline MC-CDMA System

    Successful development of broadband over powerline is obviously a potential solution for wired communication systems with the existence of the powerline network. From past research, it is known that the powerline channel suffers from multipath fading, frequency selectivity and also impulsive noise. Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) is...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    Terminal-Modality-Based Joint Call Admission Control Algorithm for Fair Radio Resource Allocation in Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    There is a problem of unfairness in allocation of radio resources among heterogeneous mobile terminals in heterogeneous wireless networks. Low-capability mobile terminals (such as single-mode terminals) suffer high call blocking probability whereas high-capability mobile terminals (such as quad-mode terminals) experience very low call blocking probability, in the same heterogeneous wireless...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    Energy Efficient Content Based Image Retrieval in Sensor Networks

    The presence of increased memory and computational power in imaging sensor networks attract researchers to exploit image processing algorithms on distributed memory and computational power. In this paper, a typical perimeter is investigated with a number of sensors placed to form an image sensor network for the purpose of content...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    A Solution for Fighting Spammer's Resources and Minimizing the Impact of Spam

    Spam or unsolicited emails constitute a major threat to the Internet, the corporations, and the end-users. Statistics show that about 70% - 80% of the emails are spam. There are several techniques that have been implemented to react to the spam on its arrival. These techniques consist in filtering the...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    Efficient Information Set Decoding Based on Genetic Algorithms

    In this paper, the authors describe a Hard-decision Decoding technique based on Genetic Algorithms (HDGA), which is applicable to the general case of error correcting codes where the only known structure is given by the generating matrix G. Then they present a new Soft-decision Decoding based on HDGA and the...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2012

    Semi-Blind Reception Using Joint Channel Estimation in IDMA Systems

    In this paper, a bidirectional system based on linear channel estimation and data detection using turbo detection algorithm is proposed. By combining channel estimation with an iterative chip-by-chip detection process (inner loop) in an iterative way (outer loop), communications performance can be further increased. The authors present results on blind...

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  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Hybrid Uplink-Time Difference of Arrival and Assisted-GPS Positioning Technique

    A hybrid positioning system is merely one in which multiple systems are used for positioning purposes. This virtually always, though not necessarily, includes Global Positioning System (GPS) as it is the only global positioning network currently. Combination of mobile network and GPS positioning techniques provide a higher accuracy of mobile...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    Employing Power Allocation to Enhance Zero Forcing Scheme Advantages over Multi-Antenna Multiple Relay Networks

    A Multi-Antenna Multiple Relay (MAMR) network is considered and a variation of two-hop zero-forcing amplify-forward relaying method is proposed. Deploying ZF method together with application of diagonal power allocation matrices at the relays, it is shown that the overall MAMR network is simplified to M independent Single Antenna Multiple Relay...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    Improving Inter-Domain Fast Handover Using MIH Services in Mobile WiMAX

    Recently, the IP connectivity during the Mobile Node (MN) movement between Base Stations (BSs) belonging to different Internet Service Providers (ISPs) is still a key issue to be tackled. In this paper, therefore, the authors develop a new scheme to improve the performance of inter-domain fast handover over mobile WiMAX...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    Dynamic 3-D Indoor Radio Propagation Model and Applications with Radios from 433 MHZ to 2.4 GHz

    Proliferation of indoor sensor infrastructure has created a new niche for mobile communications, yet research in indoor radio propagation still has not generated a definite model that is able to precisely capture radio signatures in 3-D environments and effectively apply to radios at a wide range of frequency bands. This...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    Simulation and Measurements of VSWR for Microwave Communication Systems

    Now-a-days, microwave frequency systems, in many applications are used. Regardless of the application, all microwave communication systems are faced with transmission line matching problem, related to the load or impedance connected to them. The mismatching of microwave lines with the load connected to them generates reflected waves. Mismatching is identified...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    On the Computing of the Minimum Distance of Linear Block Codes by Heuristic Methods

    The evaluation of the minimum distance of linear block codes remains an open problem in coding theory and it is not easy to determine its true value by classical methods, for this reason the problem has been solved in the literature with heuristic techniques such as genetic algorithms and local...

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  • White Papers // Nov 2012

    AZR-LEACH: An Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Reducing the energy consumption of available resources is still a problem to be solved in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Many types of existing routing protocols are developed to save power consumption. In these protocols, cluster-based routing protocols are found to be more energy efficient. A cluster head is selected to...

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  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Structural Properties of Optimal Scheduling Policies for Wireless Data Transmission

    The authors analyze a cell with a fixed number of users in a time period network. The base station schedules to serve at most one user in a given time period based on information about the available data rates and other parameter(s) for all the users in the cell. They...

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  • White Papers // Oct 2012

    Distributed Relay Beamforming in Cognitive Two-Way Networks: SINR Balancing Approach

    In this paper, the authors study the problem of distributed relay beamforming for a bidirectional cognitive relay network which consists of two secondary transceivers and K ognitive relay nodes and a primary network with a transmitter and receiver, using underlay model. For effective use of spectrum, they propose a Multiple...

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