United Nations University

Displaying 41-80 of 234 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Measuring And Interpreting Trends In The Division Of Labour In The Netherlands

    This paper introduces indicators about the division of labour to measure and interpret recent trends in employment in the Netherlands. The authors show that changes in the division of labour occur at three different levels: the level of the individual worker, the level of the industry and the spatial level....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Impact Of ICT In The Transformation And Production Of Knowledge In Sudan

    This paper focuses on the impact of ICT in the transformation and production of knowledge, notably in Sudan, and discusses the importance of the use of ICT in Khartoum University. It considers how the use of ICT, in particular the Internet, facilitates connections, networks and communication within knowledge institutions in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Assessment Of Science And Technology Indicators In Sudan

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's definition of Science and Technology (S&T) indicators (OECD, 1997) to discuss S&T development in Sudan. The authors find that the low level and the insufficient financial and human resources devoted to S&T...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Mitigating Anticommons Harms To Research In Science And Technology

    There are three analytically distinct layers of the phenomenon that has been labeled "The anticommons" and indicted as a potential impediment to innovation resulting from patenting and enforcement of IPR obtained on academic research results. This paper distinguishes among "Search costs", "Transactions costs", and "Multiple marginalization" effects in the pricing...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Telemedicine And Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed "The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Global Financial Crisis And Development: Whither Africa?

    The global economic crisis beginning in 2008 has come at a very inopportune time for Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) appeared to be on a march toward real economic and human progress, following the dismal performance of the 1980s and early 1990s. Economic growth had resurged since the mid-1990s, and was...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Making Your Own Future. Expectations And Occupation Choice

    The choice of a university career has a major saying in the future earnings and career opportunities of the individuals. In turn, prospective university students make their decisions mainly motivated by expectations of future rewards. Hence, understanding career choices requires, first, to be able to understand the expectations that students...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Interrupted Innovation: Innovation System Dynamics In Latecomer Aerospace Industries

    In this paper the authors analyse the role of sectoral innovation systems in the emergence and catch-up of aerospace industries in latecomer economies. They argue that the aerospace sector is characterized by a process of interrupted innovation. Competitive pressures and the cyclical nature of the industry not only require shifts...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    New Organisational And Institutional Vehicles For Managing Innovation In South Asia: Opportunities For Using Research For Technical Change And Social Gain

    This paper sets out to explore the nature of new organisational and institutional vehicles for managing innovation in order to put research into use for social gain. There no longer remains any doubt that innovation is the means through which societies achieve their economic and social aspirations. The recent understanding...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Determinants Of PRO-Industry Interactions In Pharmaceutical R&D: The Case Of Mexico

    Interactive learning, particularly between firms and Public Research Organizations (PRO), nurtures the dynamics of systems of innovation. Limited interaction contributes to explain poor performance in R&D and ultimately, in innovation by developing countries. But why this is so? Based on evidence from the pharmaceutical industry in Mexico, this paper identifies...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Global Excellence At The Expense Of Local Relevance, Or A Bridge Between Two Worlds? Research In Science And Technology In The Developing World

    Do world-leading researchers from developing countries contribute to upgrading locally, or do they disengage from the local context? The paper investigates the scientific collaborations of university-based science and technology researchers in the database of the South African National Research Foundation (NRF), and analyses the co-authorships of researchers who were ranked...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Innovation Strategy, Firm Survival And Relocation: The Case Of Hong Kong-Owned Manufacturing In Guangdon Province, China

    Based on a survey adapted from the Fourth European Community Innovation Survey (CIS-4), this paper finds that, in the changing manufacturing environment of Guangdong province in China, Hong Kong-owned businesses that generate a higher share in new product sales as a percentage of total sales or engage in R&D or...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Nordic Development And Growth Models

    The Nordic countries are often bundled together, as representatives of a 'Model' which combines high living standards and an open market economy with social insurance and ambitious public services. Yet, the economic and political development of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden towards this model has taken quite different roads. Sweden's...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Bridging The Financing Gap For Pro-Poor Innovation: Towards A Framework

    In many developing countries, pro-poor entrepreneurship and innovation is facing a financing gap. Such innovation suffers from a lack of finance especially from the mainstream (or core) of the financial system. Instead, the little support that exists comes from alternative sources at the periphery of the financial system. This substantial...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The R&D Activity Of Multinational Enterprises In Peripheral Economies: Evidence From The EU New Member States

    This paper explores the impact of MNEs on innovation systems and the policy options available for peripheral economies to attract and embed the R&D activities of MNEs. After developing the conceptual and policy framework, the authors discuss the case of the new member states from Central and Eastern Europe that...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Global Institutional Frameworks And The Diffusion Of Renewable Energy Technologies In The BRICS Countries

    This paper examines the role of the global institutional frameworks on the national processes of innovation diffusion. The authors focus on the influence of the Kyoto mechanisms on the diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the BRICS countries i.e. Brazil, China India, Russia and South Africa. The preliminary analysis suggests...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Localisation Strategies Of Firms In Wind Energy Technology Development

    The paper looks at the localisation strategies of multinational companies in wind energy sector in the emerging countries of China and India. It seeks to explain why western multinationals are localising new manufacturing and R&D facilities in emerging economies such as China and India, and how local knowledge and capabilities...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Impact Of The Global Commodity And Financial Crises On Poverty In Vietnam

    Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. The authors develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate distributional outcomes....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Mozambique's Elite - Finding Its Way In A Globalized World And Returning To Old Development Models

    What makes elites developmental instead of predatory? The authors argue that Mozambique's elite was developmental at independence 35 years ago. With pressure and encouragement from international forces, it became predatory. It has now partly returned to its developmental roots and is trying to use the state to promote the creation...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Aid, Growth, And Development

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program evaluation literature, the authors re-examine key hypotheses. In their...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Role Of Patent Protection In (Clean/Green) Technology Transfer

    Global climate change mitigation will require the development and diffusion of a large number and variety of new technologies. How will patent protection affect this process? In this paper, the authors first review the evidence on the role of patents for innovation and international technology transfer in general. The literature...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Public R&D Subsidies And Productivity: Evidence From Firm-Level Data In Quebec

    This paper analyses empirically the impacts of public R&D grants on private R&D investments and on the productivity growth of the manufacturing firms in a context where fiscal incentives are present. Using the conditional semiparametric difference-indifferences estimator on longitudinal data from Quebec the authors show that firms that use public...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Efficient Development Portfolio Design For Sub Saharan Africa

    The Stiglitz report published in September 2009 has brought back to the attention of policy makers and researchers that measuring a country's development solely on the basis of GDP or GDP per capita is not sufficient. An early attempt at multidimensional measurement is the Human Development Index (HDI) developed by...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Income Distribution And Growth's Ability To Reduce Poverty

    The present paper examines the degree to which income distribution affects the ability of economic growth to reduce poverty, based on 1990s data for a sample of rural and urban sectors of African economies. Using the basic needs approach, an analysis-of-covariance model is derived and estimated, with the headcount, gap...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Inequality, Income And Poverty

    Analysing a large sample of 1980 - 2004 unbalanced panel data, the current paper presents comparative global evidence on the role of (income) inequality in poverty reduction. The evidence involves both an indirect channel via the tendency of high inequality to decrease the rate at which income is transformed to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    How Effective Are Level-Based R&D Tax Credits? Evidence From The Netherlands

    This paper examines the impact of the R&D fiscal incentive program on R&D by Dutch firms. Taking a factor-demand approach the authors measure the elasticity of firm R&D capital accumulation to its user cost. Econometric models are estimated using a rich unbalanced panel of firm data covering the period 1996-2004...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Entrepreneurship Development And The Role Of Economic Transition In Entrepreneurial Activities In China

    This paper aims to elaborate on the entrepreneurship development in China and the role of China's economic transition in Chinese entrepreneurial activities. The authors address China's institutional transition environment, which is argued as the necessary condition of entrepreneurship development and the 'Incubator' of three generations of entrepreneurial activities. They make...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    India's Rural Financial System: Does It Support Pro-Poor Innovation?

    From the perspective of poverty alleviation, socially relevant, or pro?]poor, rural innovation is of particular interest in a country like India since it is in rural areas that most of the poor live. Pro?]poor innovation in rural areas is more likely to occur through small?]scale ventures and entrepreneurs than industrial...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Component-Based Software Engineering - The Need to Link Methods and Their Theories

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties and significant issues that authors need to consider when developing a formal method for component-based software engineering. Authors argue that to deal with the challenges, there is a need in research to link existing theories and methods of programming for effective support to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    On Indias Plunge Into Nanotechnology: What Are Good Ways To Catch-up?

    The present paper examines how a developing country like India is competing in the nanotechnology race. The authors' study shows that both upstream scientific and technological capabilities and downstream regulatory capabilities are being strengthened. India has clearly made a dent in terms of scientific publications (with the main focus being...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Research Into Use: Investigating The Relationship Between Agricultural Research And Innovation

    This paper sets out an analytical framework for doing research on the question of how to use agricultural research for innovation and impact. Its focus is the Research Into Use programme sponsored by the UK's Department For International Development (DFID). This is one example of a new type of international...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Bottom-Up, Bottom-Line: Development-Relevant Enterprises In East Africa And Their Significance For Agricultural Innovation

    Over the last 10 years much has been written about the role of the private sector as part of a more widely-conceived notion of agricultural sector capacity for innovation and development. This paper discusses the emergence of a new class of private enterprise in East Africa that would seem to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Globalizing Shanghai

    Cities are the focal point for the mobility of talents, located between the nations and firms, states and educational institutions. Shanghai, being regarded as the 'Ultimate poster-child for the effects of globalization on cities and regions' by the BBC (2007), the city is argued as the best candidate for China's...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    ICT Sector, Globalization And Urban Economic Growth

    This paper aims at economic analysis of economic globalization and urban growth of Bangalore, the Silicon Valley of India, as they are related to ICT sector. Overall analyses offer new insights and evidences for ICT sector as a major contributor for degree of economic globalization and urban economic growth, mainly...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Assessing Innovations In International Research And Development Practice

    This paper integrates two distant bodies of literature - the literature on impact assessment of research and development interventions, and the literature on social psychology of assessing learning and innovations. Based on case studies of a series of projects implemented in India and Nepal under DFID's 11-year Renewable Natural Resources...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Pro-Poor, Entrepreneur-Based Innovation And It's Role In Rural Development

    Innovation spurs economic growth and development. Pro-poor innovation in rural areas is more likely to occur through small-scale ventures and entrepreneurs than industrial research and development. Whilst previous rural development policies have focused on small-holder agriculture, the fact is that most rural poor are landless poor and therefore unlikely to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Financing Pro-Poor Entrepreneur-Based Innovation: A Review Of Existing Literature

    That innovation and entrepreneurship are important for poverty alleviation and development is well established. However, despite a general agreement that finance affects growth and development by supporting innovative activities in the economy, little has been written specifically on how pro-poor entrepreneur-based innovation in rural areas should be financed. This review...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    When Unstable, Growth Is Less Pro-poor

    Macroeconomic instability has been increasingly considered as a factor lowering average income growth and, in this way, is a factor slowing down poverty reduction. But it can also result in slower poverty reduction for a given average rate of growth, due to poverty traps, often examined at the microeconomic level....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalization And Exclusionary Urban Growth In Asian Countries

    This paper overviews the debate on the relationship between the measures of globalization, economic growth and pace of urbanization, and speculates on its impact on the quality of life and poverty in the context of Asian countries. After experiencing moderate to high urban growth for three to four decades since...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalizing Households And Multi-Ethnic Community Building In Japan

    The East Asian countries are currently experiencing declining fertility rates and aging of their populations. The demographic transition is beginning to affect various societal functions, and increasing international migrants are becoming one of the responses to the transition, despite the historical reliance of these countries on their own domestic populations...

    Provided By United Nations University