United Nations University

Displaying 81-120 of 286 results

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Impact Of Government Support On R&D And Innovation

    This paper evaluates whether public support from innovation from the central government or the European Union spurs innovation in Austrian firms. The effect is estimated separately on R&D expenditures and the output side of innovation, measured by the share of total sales due to new or substantially modified products. A...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Economic Restructuring And Total Factor Productivity Growth: Tunisia Over The Period 1983-2001

    In this paper, the authors aim to measure and decompose the growth of frontier Total Factor Productivity (TFP) in Tunisia over the period 1983-2001. They define frontier TFP growth as the shift of the economy's production frontier, which they obtain by solving for each year a linear program, a sort...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Brazilian Aerospace Manufacturing In Comparative Perspective: A Brazil/USA Comparison Of Output And Productivity

    A comparison of the performance of the Brazilian aerospace industry with that of the world leader in aerospace production, the USA, requires appropriate conversion rates. Following the methodology of the International Comparisons of Output and Productivity project (ICOP), the authors calculate unit value ratios for the aerospace industry based on...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Sure Bet Or Scientometric Mirage? An Assessment Of Chinese Progress In Nanotechnology

    After launching its national strategy to promote nanotechnology development in 2001, China has devoted an increasing amount of R&D investment from government and industry to the field, produced a soaring number of scientific publications, established several new specialized institutions, and expanded its postgraduate programs in related subjects. The hope that...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Into The Void: Governing Finance In Central And Eastern Europe

    Twenty years after the fall of the iron curtain - which for decades had separated East from West - most countries of Central and Eastern Europe are now members of the European Union; some have even adopted the euro. Nonetheless, these countries have also remained exceptionally vulnerable to upset, including...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The Challenges Of Global Environmental Change For Urban Africa

    Cities - especially those with substantial poor populations - will face increasingly severe challenges in tackling the impacts of Global Environmental Change (GEC). As economic dynamos and increasingly important population concentrations, cities both contribute substantially, and often are very vulnerable, to the impacts of GEC. This applies strongly in Africa,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign Banks And Credit Volatility

    Foreign bank presence has substantially increased in Latin America during the second half of the 1990s, which has prompted an intense debate on its banking and macroeconomic consequences. In this paper, the authors apply ARCH techniques to jointly estimate the impact of foreign bank presence on the level and volatility...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Moderating Urbanization And Managing Growth

    This paper examines urbanization trends, the growth of Colombo and its present state of development. It looks at the approaches to the planned interventions in the city and demonstrates how a uni-directional urban development has had a detrimental impact upon healthy growth and quality of life in a city where...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Entrepreneurship, Structural Change And A Global Economic Crisis

    Building on a Lewis-type model of structural change and entrepreneurship the authors show how a global economic crisis consisting of a financial and a trade shock can undermine structural change in developing countries via the start-up and innovation activities of entrepreneurs. The model analytics identifies a number of challenges for...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Concepts And Operationalization Of Pro-poor Growth

    Growth that reduces poverty is often considered pro-poor regardless of whether the poor benefit from it more than the non-poor. Such growth could simply be termed poverty-reducing growth. This paper argues that for growth to be pro-poor it should disproportionally benefit the poor. The paper proposes an operational definition of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Entrepreneurship And The National System Of Innovation What Is Missing In Turkey?

    Although very dynamic and flexible, Turkish SMEs are less innovative than their European counterparts. The analysis undertaken in this paper allows assessing whether this low level of innovative activities is related to a lack of entrepreneurial behaviour and/or to the weaknesses of the Turkish innovation system. Exploring a unique firm...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    How Firms Innovate: R&D, Non-R&D, And Technology Adoption

    Non-R&D innovation is a common economic phenomenon, though R&D has been the central focus of policy making and scholarly research in the field of innovation. An analysis of the third European Community Innovation Survey (CIS-3) results for 15 countries finds that almost half of innovative European firms did not perform...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    CSR And Market Changing Product Innovations: Indian Case Studies

    Do firms need to sacrifice profit while innovating in order to further social objectives, as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) would seem to suggest? To answer this question, the paper compiles a classification of innovations according to market impact and CSR potential. Then it details case studies of two Market Changing...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    From Trends In Commodities And Manufactures To Country Terms Of Trade

    The debate about the Prebisch-Singer thesis has focused on primary commodities with some extensions to manufactures. As the authors think that the link between the terms of trade and long-run development, growth and convergence is the ability of exports to enhance investment through importing capital goods they analyse trends in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Much Ado About Nothing, Or Sirens Of A Brave New World? MNE Activity From Developing Countries And Its Significance For Development

    This paper examines the evidence on developing country MNEs and outward FDI activity. The authors do not find evidence of an across-the-board growth in outward FDI from developing countries, either in magnitude, or geographically. Such growth is a narrow phenomenon, limited to a small group of home countries with relatively...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Catching Up In Pharmaceuticals: A Comparative Study Of India And Brazil

    Since the mid-twentieth century, the national objective of India and Brazil has been to develop industrial capabilities in essential sectors such as pharmaceuticals. At the outset, they shared some common features: a considerable period of lax intellectual property rights regimes, large internal market and a reasonably strong cadre of scientists...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Global Players From Brazil: Drivers And Challenges In The Internationalization Process Of Brazilian Firms

    This paper discusses general patterns of internationalization of Brazilian firms. It highlights the main determinants for internationalization, the main destinations, as well as the modes of entry that Brazilian firms employ overseas. The paper also discusses some aspects related to the technological capabilities of Brazilian firms that are related to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    How Novel Is Social Capital: Three Cases From The British History That Reflect Social Capital

    Social capital increases efficiency by reducing transaction costs, creating new forms of information exchange and by inducing change in individual attitudes. How Royal Society of London, the Media and the Private Prosecution Societies functioned in the 17th and 18th century Britain display astonishing similarities with these three elements that have...

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  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    What Does Innovation In Emerging Economies Have To Offer Other Low Income Economies?

    Between 1970 and 2000 the proportion of global R&D occurring in low income economies rose from two percent to more than 20 percent. However, this rising commitment to R&D does not easily translate into the emergence of a family of innovations meeting the needs of low income consumers "At the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Using Innovation Surveys For Econometric Analysis

    After presenting the history, the evolution and the content of innovation surveys, the authors discuss the characteristics of the data they contain and the challenge they pose to the analyst and the econometrician. They document the two uses that have been made of these data: the construction of scoreboards for...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Drivers Of Brazilian Foreign Investments - Technology Seeking And Technology Exploiting As Determinants Of Emerging FDI

    The paper uses data from a recent survey on Brazilian firms to investigate the role of technology in the internationalization of firms, and whether if affects the destination of foreign investments. Emerging markets FDI is a much-debated topic these days, and their technology-seeking purpose is a strong driver for the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Convergence Of European Regions: A Reappraisal

    The authors provide a reappraisal of income convergence across European regions over the period 1990-2005 by using a semiparametric partially linear model to approximate the relationship between the average growth rate of GDP per capita and the initial GDP per capita. Estimation results point out both country heterogeneity and non-linearity...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Choosing A Career In Science And Technology

    Student choice is at the center of many discussions about higher education policy. At the same time, and regardless of the emphasis put on achieving an important endowment of graduates trained in science and engineering, participation in these fields is stagnated or declining. Evidence suggests that the provision of additional...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Occupation Choice: Family, Social And Market Influences

    The advance of knowledge-based societies has modified the labor markets and qualification requirements. In this sense, and considering that individual choices about careers and occupations have pervasive social effects, there is a growing interest from both academics and policy makers in understanding and influencing the process of education choice. Specifically,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On The Delivery Of Pro-Poor Innovations: Managerial Lessons From Sanitation Activists In India

    There is an emerging body of literature that examines how pro-poor product innovations should be created and what business models should accompany them. However, there is little on actual implementation practises and the present paper attempts to fill this void by analyzing the findings of the literature and confronting them...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    The Bumpy Road Of Technology Partnerships: Understanding Causes And Consequences Of Partnership Mal-Functioning

    Research on technological partnerships has traditionally sought explanation of their high failure rates in partner characteristics and relationship features. This paper introduces the notion of a 'Bumpy road' in technology partnerships which refers to undesired outcomes such as 'Partnership mal-functioning' and 'Instability' to the degree to which innovation activities are...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Impact Of The Credit Crisis On Poor Developing Countries And The Role Of China In Pulling And Crowding Us Out

    The authors show that the credit crisis of OECD countries has a negative impact on the growth of the world economy according to an error correction model including China and Australia. This causes negative growth effects in poor developing countries. The reduced growth has a direct or indirect impact on...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Measuring The Returns To R&D

    The authors review the econometric literature on measuring the returns to R&D. The theoretical frameworks that have been used are outlined, followed by an extensive discussion of measurement and econometric issues that arise when estimating the models. They then provide a series of tables summarizing the major results that have...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Is There Complementarity Or Substitutability Between Internal And External R&D Strategies?

    The mixed picture of extant research on the relationship between internal and external R&D prompts the authors to ask such a question: under what conditions is there complementarity or substitutability between different R&D strategies? The goal of this paper is to contribute to the empirical literature by advancing and testing...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Understanding Multilevel Interactions In Economic Development

    National framework conditions mediate the effect of technological capabilities of firms on their productivity. Although this has been recognized in the literature for a long time, a quantitative test that explicitly considers this hypothesis has been lacking. Using a World Bank datasets of about 19,000 firms in 42 countries, most...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Human Resource Management And Learning For Innovation: Pharmaceuticals In Mexico

    This paper investigates the influence of human resource management on learning from internal and external sources of knowledge. Learning for innovation is a key ingredient of catching-up processes. The analysis builds on survey data about pharmaceutical firms in Mexico. Results show that the influence of human resource management is contingent...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Global Capitalism Theory And The Emergence Of Transnational Elites

    The class and social structure of developing nations has undergone profound transformation in recent decades as each nation has incorporated into an increasingly integrated global production and financial system. National elites have experienced a new fractionation. Emergent transnationally-oriented elites grounded in globalized circuits of accumulation compete with older nationally-oriented elites...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Importance Of Technological Innovation For SME Growth

    This paper probes the drivers, dimensions, achievements, and outcomes of technological innovations carried out by SMEs in the auto components, electronics, and machine tool sectors of Bangalore in India. Further, it ascertains the growth rates of innovative SMEs vis-?-vis non-innovative SMEs in terms of sales turnover, employment, and investment. Thereafter,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Adversity And Entrepreneurship-Led Growth

    It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, the authors draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Globalization And The Emergence Of A Transnational Oligarchy

    The aim of this paper is to examine the evolution of recruitment of elites due to globalization. In the last century, the main change that occurred in the way the Western world trained its elites is that meritocracy became the basis for their recruitment. Although meritocratic selection should result in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Triple Crisis And The Global Aid Architecture

    The global economy is passing through a period of profound change. The immediate concern is with the financial crisis, originating in the North. The South is affected via reduced demand and lower prices for their exports, reduced private financial flows, and falling remittances. This is the first crisis. Simultaneously, climate...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Adversity And Entrepreneurship-Led Growth Lessons From The Indian Software Sector

    It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, the authors draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Importance Of Technological Innovation For SME Growth Evidence From India

    This paper probes the drivers, dimensions, achievements, and outcomes of technological innovations carried out by SMEs in the auto components, electronics, and machine tool sectors of Bangalore in India. Further, it ascertains the growth rates of innovative SMEs vis-?-vis no innovative SMEs in terms of sales turnover, employment, and investment....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Technological Activities And Their Impact On The Financial Performance Of The Firm: Exploitation And Exploration Within And Between Firms

    This paper analyzes the consequences for financial performance of technology strategies categorized along two dimensions: explorative versus exploitative and solitary versus collaborative. The financial performance implications of firms' positioning along these two dimensions has important managerial implications, but has received only limited attention in prior studies. Drawing on organizational learning...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    A Structural Nonparametric Reappraisal Of The CO2 Emissions-Income Relationship

    Relying on a structural nonparametric estimation, the authors show that CO2 emissions clearly increase with income at low income levels. For higher income levels, they observe a decreasing relationship, though not significant. They also find that CO2 emissions monotonically increase with energy use at a decreasing rate. The concept of...

    Provided By United Nations University