United Nations University

Displaying 121-160 of 254 results

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    What Do Complex Adaptive Systems Look Like And What Are The Implications For Innovation Policy?

    This paper explores the use of complex adaptive systems theory in development policy analysis using a case study drawn from recent events in Uganda. It documents the changes that took place in the farming system in Soroti district during an outbreak of African Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease (ACMVD) and the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Environmental Innovation: Using Qualitative Models To Identify Indicators For Policy

    Environmental innovation is an essential part of a knowledge based economy, as environmental innovation makes economies more efficient by encouraging and facilitating the use of fewer material or energy inputs per unit of output. In this respect, environmental innovation replaces material inputs with knowledge. Environmental innovation should also result in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Types Of Entrepreneurship And Economic Growth

    In this paper, the authors empirically investigate the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth at the country level. They use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which provides comparative data on entrepreneurship from a wide range of countries. An important element of this paper is that they compare the effects...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation Policy, Entrepreneurship, And Development: A Finnish View

    This paper first reviews the economic rationales for innovation policy. It then describes the Finnish innovation policy and policy making environment. The Finnish policy is evaluated from the point of view of fostering entrepreneurship. R&D subsidies, the main tool of Finnish innovation policy, may not be a very effective way...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Growth Of Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship In India, 1991 - 2007

    There is enough consensus to show that India's economic performance since 1991 is a direct result of the economic liberalization measures that have been put in place. One of the outcomes of this improved performance is the growth of innovations in the country. This was accompanied by or caused by...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship And Development

    Industrialization has long been seen as the answer to underdevelopment and poverty. First this led countries to follow protectionist import substitution policies but as these failed developing countries have opened up to trade and FDI and tried to follow strategies of export driven industrialization. If the authors consider the share...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation And Microenterprises Growth In Ethiopia

    This paper addresses two prominent issues on the development of small enterprises in Africa. Which factors inhibit or foster innovation activities in small enterprises? Do innovators create more jobs? The authors use a large set of microenterprises survey data from Ethiopia that comprise 1000 observations with ten and fewer workers....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Is That Innovation? Assessing Examples Of Revitalized Economic Dynamics Among Clusters Of Small Producers In Northern Vietnam

    This paper addresses the question whether innovation is within reach for small enterprises in developing economies by studying four cases of new technologies, products and business practices in traditional craft in Northern Vietnam. The paper starts with reviewing definitions of innovation since Schumpeter. It concludes that newness, value creation and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Tacit Knowledge And Innovation Capacity: Evidence From The Indian Livestock Sector

    To cope and compete in this rapidly-changing world, organisations need to access and apply new knowledge. While explicit knowledge is important, what is often critical is an organisation's ability to create access, share and apply the tacit or un-codified knowledge that exists among its members, its network and the wider...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technology Frontier, Labor Productivity And Economic Growth: Evidence From OECD Countries

    The authors use 29 OECD countries data spanning over 1960-2000 to study the growth strategy when countries are close to the technology frontier. Relying on a semi-parametric generalized additive model, they estimate labor productivity equations. They find that the number of agents enrolled in higher education is a determinant of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    A Different Look At Inward FDI Into Mainland China

    This paper aims to find out the relationship between inward FDI into China and China's economic development. According to the descriptive analysis of FDI data from 1980 till 2007, the authors found that there is a sectoral and regional biased distribution with regard to the inward FDI into China; they...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Systems Of Innovation

    The authors review the literature on national innovation systems. They first focus on the emergence of the concept of innovation systems, reviewing its historical origins and three main flavours (associated to three "Founding fathers" of the concept). After this, they discuss how the notion of innovation systems filled a need...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Drivers And Barriers Of Innovation Dynamics In Healthcare Towards A Framework For Analyzing Innovation In Tuberculosis Control In India

    Tuberculosis remains the biggest infectious killer in India and worldwide, and it has recently regained substantial international attention with its come-back in drug resistant forms. The environment, the disease and the societal response to it are changing and with it challenges and opportunities to control the disease. Innovation in a...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Standards As A Platform For Innovation And Learning In The Global Economy: A Case Study Of Chilean Salmon Farming Industry

    Conventionally, standards are considered as a governance tool in the production system in a one-directional and hierarchical relationship between foreign Trans-National Corporations (TNCs) or global buyers on one hand and subsidiaries and producers on the other. They were considered as transmitting necessary specifications of goods - codified knowledge - to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Rough Road To Market: Institutional Barriers To Innovations In Africa

    Translating R&D and inventive efforts into a market product is characterized by significant financial skills, and the ability to overcome technical and institutional barriers. Research into and translation of new technologies such as biotechnology products to the market requires even greater resources. This paper aims to understand the key factors...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Worker Remittances And Growth: The Physical And Human Capital Channels

    Remittances may have an impact on economic growth through channels to physical and human capital. The authors estimate two variants of an open economy model of these two channels consisting of seven equations using the General Method of Moments with Heteroscedasticity and Autocorrelation Correction (GMM-HAC) with pooled data for four...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Empirical Studies Of Innovation In The Knowledge Driven Economy

    This introduction to a special issue of EINT surveys a collection of ten papers that study various aspects of innovation and knowledge management and their impact on performance at the firm level for a number of countries. These studies have been conducted using data drawn from innovation surveys combined with...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Ownership, Technological Capabilities And Exports: Evidence From 205 Clothing Firms In Sri Lanka

    Sri Lanka was the earliest South Asian economy to introduce economic reforms to attract export-oriented FDI. The rise of clothing production for export, apparently mainly driven by foreign firms, is regarded as a major outcome of the reforms. This paper seeks to examine a range of factors underlying firm-level export...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Employment, Innovation, And Productivity: Evidence From Italian Microdata

    Italian manufacturing firms have been losing ground with respect to many of their European competitors. This paper presents some empirical evidence on the effects of innovation on employment growth and therefore on firms' productivity with the goal of understanding the roots of such poor performance. The authors use firm level...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Thailand's Development Strategy And Growth Performance

    Thailand's development strategy has been strongly market-oriented and open to trade and investment flows with the rest of the world. Since the late 1950s, its growth performance has been outstanding. Poverty incidence has declined dramatically, but economic inequality has increased. Economic progress has been reflected in very significant improvement in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Growth, Inequality, And Poverty Reduction In Developing Countries

    The paper presents recent global evidence on the transformation of economic growth to poverty reduction in developing countries, with emphasis on the role of income inequality. The focus is on the period since the early/mid-1990s when growth in these countries as a group has been relatively strong, surpassing that of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On Developing Countries' Terms Of Trade

    This paper first shows that important economic arguments in favor of the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis of falling terms of trade of developing countries have implicitly relied on the role of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment. As of yet, the relationship between the latter and terms of trade has not been...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Growth And Recovery In A Time Of Default

    International narratives on Argentina's recovery from the crisis of 2001-02 tend to emphasize the role of rising commodity prices and growing demand from China. Argentina is said to have been 'Lucky', saved by global demand for its agricultural exports. The international narrative has also been used by local agricultural exporters...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Exchange Rate Regimes And Trade

    This paper revisits the link between exchange rate regimes and trade in the context of Africa's exchange rate arrangements. Applying an augmented gravity model that includes measures of currency unions and pegged regimes, the paper compares Africa's experience with that of the world. The authors' results suggest that both currency...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Globalization Crises, Trade, And Development In Vietnam

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises - the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterization as an example of export-led growth and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Aid And Growth

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of the growth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Terms Of Trade And Growth Of Resource Economies

    The current paper demonstrates a dichotomy of the growth response to changes in the barter terms of trade, employing as case studies the two African countries, Botswana and Nigeria. Using distributed-lag analysis, the paper finds that the effect of terms of trade on output is positive and negative for the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Institutional Reforms, Private Sector, And Economic Growth In Africa

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of institutional reforms on the revival of African economies. The authors study the impact of positive changes in business environment indicators of the Doing Business project and the Economic Freedom Index of the Heritage Foundation on the private sector development...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Global Capitalism Theory And The Emergence Of Transnational Elites

    The class and social structure of developing nations has undergone profound transformation in recent decades as each nation has incorporated into an increasingly integrated global production and financial system. National elites have experienced a new fractionation. Emergent transnationally-oriented elites grounded in globalized circuits of accumulation compete with older nationally-oriented elites...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Importance Of Technological Innovation For SME Growth

    This paper probes the drivers, dimensions, achievements, and outcomes of technological innovations carried out by SMEs in the auto components, electronics, and machine tool sectors of Bangalore in India. Further, it ascertains the growth rates of innovative SMEs vis-?-vis non-innovative SMEs in terms of sales turnover, employment, and investment. Thereafter,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Adversity And Entrepreneurship-Led Growth

    It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, the authors draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Globalization And The Emergence Of A Transnational Oligarchy

    The aim of this paper is to examine the evolution of recruitment of elites due to globalization. In the last century, the main change that occurred in the way the Western world trained its elites is that meritocracy became the basis for their recruitment. Although meritocratic selection should result in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The Challenges Of Global Environmental Change For Urban Africa

    Cities - especially those with substantial poor populations - will face increasingly severe challenges in tackling the impacts of Global Environmental Change (GEC). As economic dynamos and increasingly important population concentrations, cities both contribute substantially, and often are very vulnerable, to the impacts of GEC. This applies strongly in Africa,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign Banks And Credit Volatility

    Foreign bank presence has substantially increased in Latin America during the second half of the 1990s, which has prompted an intense debate on its banking and macroeconomic consequences. In this paper, the authors apply ARCH techniques to jointly estimate the impact of foreign bank presence on the level and volatility...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Moderating Urbanization And Managing Growth

    This paper examines urbanization trends, the growth of Colombo and its present state of development. It looks at the approaches to the planned interventions in the city and demonstrates how a uni-directional urban development has had a detrimental impact upon healthy growth and quality of life in a city where...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalization And Exclusionary Urban Growth In Asian Countries

    This paper overviews the debate on the relationship between the measures of globalization, economic growth and pace of urbanization, and speculates on its impact on the quality of life and poverty in the context of Asian countries. After experiencing moderate to high urban growth for three to four decades since...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Globalizing Shanghai

    Cities are the focal point for the mobility of talents, located between the nations and firms, states and educational institutions. Shanghai, being regarded as the 'Ultimate poster-child for the effects of globalization on cities and regions' by the BBC (2007), the city is argued as the best candidate for China's...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    ICT Sector, Globalization And Urban Economic Growth

    This paper aims at economic analysis of economic globalization and urban growth of Bangalore, the Silicon Valley of India, as they are related to ICT sector. Overall analyses offer new insights and evidences for ICT sector as a major contributor for degree of economic globalization and urban economic growth, mainly...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Income Distribution And Growth's Ability To Reduce Poverty

    The present paper examines the degree to which income distribution affects the ability of economic growth to reduce poverty, based on 1990s data for a sample of rural and urban sectors of African economies. Using the basic needs approach, an analysis-of-covariance model is derived and estimated, with the headcount, gap...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Inequality, Income And Poverty

    Analysing a large sample of 1980 - 2004 unbalanced panel data, the current paper presents comparative global evidence on the role of (income) inequality in poverty reduction. The evidence involves both an indirect channel via the tendency of high inequality to decrease the rate at which income is transformed to...

    Provided By United Nations University