United Nations University

Displaying 121-160 of 277 results

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Technology Alliances In Emerging Economies: Persistence And Interrelation In European Firms Alliance Formation

    The authors analyze patterns and determinants of technology alliance formation with partner firms from emerging economies, with a focus on European firms' alliance strategies. They examine to what extent European firms' alliance formation with partners based in emerging economies is persistent, that is: to what extent prior collaborative experience determines...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Innovation And Diffusion Of Clean/Green Technology: Can Patent Commons Help?

    This paper explores the characteristics of 238 patents on 94 "Inventions" contributed by major multinational innovators to the "Eco-Patent Commons", which provides royalty-free access to third parties to patented climate change related innovations. By comparing the pledged patents to other patents in the same technologies or held by the same...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    The When And Where Of Research In Agricultural Innovation Trajectories: Evidence And Implications From Rius South Asia Projects

    The question of how agricultural research can best be used for developmental purposes is a topic of some debate in developmental circles. The idea that this is simply a question of better transfer of ideas from research to farmers has been largely discredited. Agricultural innovation is a process that takes...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Dynamics Of Biosciences Regulation And Opportunities For Biosciences Innovation In Africa: Exploring Regulatory Policy Brokering

    Knowledge brokering has been explored in the innovation literature to understand how different innovation tasks are organised toward technological development. This paper reflects upon the role of different organisations as knowledge brokers in regulatory policy processes towards putting biosciences research into use. It identifies a practical function-based typology that describes...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Human Resource Management And Learning For Innovation: Pharmaceuticals In Mexico

    This paper investigates the influence of human resource management on learning from internal and external sources of knowledge. Learning for innovation is a key ingredient of catching-up processes. The analysis builds on survey data about pharmaceutical firms in Mexico. Results show that the influence of human resource management is contingent...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Endogenous Economic Growth Through Connectivity

    In this paper the authors show the benefits of regional connectivity and specialization to growth. Starting with one region they show how welfare measured by utility per head increases as the number of connected regions increase. They assume a common connectivity infrastructure implemented by satellite, through which the 'Great Connector'...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Thinking Locally: Exploring The Importance Of A Subsidiary-Centered Model Of FDI-Related Spillovers In Brazil

    This paper investigates FDI-related spillovers in Brazil for the period 1996-2005. In contrast to most previous recent studies, which have failed to identify any significant effects in emerging economies, the authors found that horizontal spillovers did arise in Brazil. However, they did not arise simply as a consequence of general...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Habit Formation, Demand And Growth Through Product Innovation

    Growth theory has mainly focused on process innovation, either through an increase in quality of the product or a reduction on the cost. The main contribution in growth theory that includes product innovation has been done in the Dixit and Stiglitz framework. This framework works with oversimplifying restrictions on the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Diffusion Of Informal Knowledge And Innovation Performance: A Sectoral Approach

    This paper tries to quantify the effect of diffusion of informal knowledge on the innovative performance of European firms using data derived from the 3rd Community Innovation Survey. When firms are asked whether or not they have introduced new products or processes, they were also asked to which degree such...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Foreign Direct Investment In Times Of Global Economic Crisis: Spotlight On New Europe

    This paper examines the potential impact of the economic crisis - started in 2008 - on the dynamics global foreign direct investment, especially in the new member states of the European Union. The global economic crisis that hit the world in 2008 has forced scholars and policy makers alike to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Growth With Imported Resources: On The Sustainability Of U.S. Growth And Foreign Debt

    The authors provide a growth model with imported resources and foreign debt accumulation providing the basis for two questions and regression equations. Under what conditions do growth rates of per capita income remain positive if imported inputs such as oil have increasing real prices? Is accumulation of foreign debt driven...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Innovative Sales, R&D And Total Innovation Expenditures: Panel Evidence On Their Dynamics

    This paper studies the dynamic relationship between input and output of innovation in Dutch manufacturing using an unbalanced panel of enterprise data from five waves of the Com-munity Innovation Survey during 1994-2004. The authors estimate by maximum likelihood a dynamic panel data bivariate to bit with double-index sample selection accounting...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Innovation And Economic Development

    Is innovation important for development? And if so, how? One popular perception of innovation, that one meets in media every day, is that has to do with developing brand new, advanced solutions for sophisticated, well-off customers, through exploitation of the most recent advances in knowledge. Such innovation is normally seen...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation For The Base Of The Pyramid: Critical Perspectives From Development Studies On Heterogeneity And Participation

    This paper criticises current BoP approaches for under-appreciating two issues that play vital roles in projects targeting the poor at the BoP: heterogeneity among the poor, and the intricacies of participatory partnerships between TNCs, the non-profit sector (NGOs) and local poor communities in the global south. The main contention is...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation Dynamics In Tuberculosis Control In India: The Shift To New Partnerships

    Tuberculosis remains the biggest infectious killer in India and worldwide, and it has recently regained substantial international attention with its come-back in drug resistant forms. The environment, the disease and the societal response to it are changing and with it challenges and opportunities to control the disease. Innovation in a...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    What Do Complex Adaptive Systems Look Like And What Are The Implications For Innovation Policy?

    This paper explores the use of complex adaptive systems theory in development policy analysis using a case study drawn from recent events in Uganda. It documents the changes that took place in the farming system in Soroti district during an outbreak of African Cassava Mosaic Virus Disease (ACMVD) and the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Environmental Innovation: Using Qualitative Models To Identify Indicators For Policy

    Environmental innovation is an essential part of a knowledge based economy, as environmental innovation makes economies more efficient by encouraging and facilitating the use of fewer material or energy inputs per unit of output. In this respect, environmental innovation replaces material inputs with knowledge. Environmental innovation should also result in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Types Of Entrepreneurship And Economic Growth

    In this paper, the authors empirically investigate the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth at the country level. They use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which provides comparative data on entrepreneurship from a wide range of countries. An important element of this paper is that they compare the effects...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation Policy, Entrepreneurship, And Development: A Finnish View

    This paper first reviews the economic rationales for innovation policy. It then describes the Finnish innovation policy and policy making environment. The Finnish policy is evaluated from the point of view of fostering entrepreneurship. R&D subsidies, the main tool of Finnish innovation policy, may not be a very effective way...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Growth Of Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship In India, 1991 - 2007

    There is enough consensus to show that India's economic performance since 1991 is a direct result of the economic liberalization measures that have been put in place. One of the outcomes of this improved performance is the growth of innovations in the country. This was accompanied by or caused by...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship And Development

    Industrialization has long been seen as the answer to underdevelopment and poverty. First this led countries to follow protectionist import substitution policies but as these failed developing countries have opened up to trade and FDI and tried to follow strategies of export driven industrialization. If the authors consider the share...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation And Microenterprises Growth In Ethiopia

    This paper addresses two prominent issues on the development of small enterprises in Africa. Which factors inhibit or foster innovation activities in small enterprises? Do innovators create more jobs? The authors use a large set of microenterprises survey data from Ethiopia that comprise 1000 observations with ten and fewer workers....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Is That Innovation? Assessing Examples Of Revitalized Economic Dynamics Among Clusters Of Small Producers In Northern Vietnam

    This paper addresses the question whether innovation is within reach for small enterprises in developing economies by studying four cases of new technologies, products and business practices in traditional craft in Northern Vietnam. The paper starts with reviewing definitions of innovation since Schumpeter. It concludes that newness, value creation and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Tacit Knowledge And Innovation Capacity: Evidence From The Indian Livestock Sector

    To cope and compete in this rapidly-changing world, organisations need to access and apply new knowledge. While explicit knowledge is important, what is often critical is an organisation's ability to create access, share and apply the tacit or un-codified knowledge that exists among its members, its network and the wider...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technology Frontier, Labor Productivity And Economic Growth: Evidence From OECD Countries

    The authors use 29 OECD countries data spanning over 1960-2000 to study the growth strategy when countries are close to the technology frontier. Relying on a semi-parametric generalized additive model, they estimate labor productivity equations. They find that the number of agents enrolled in higher education is a determinant of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    A Different Look At Inward FDI Into Mainland China

    This paper aims to find out the relationship between inward FDI into China and China's economic development. According to the descriptive analysis of FDI data from 1980 till 2007, the authors found that there is a sectoral and regional biased distribution with regard to the inward FDI into China; they...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Systems Of Innovation

    The authors review the literature on national innovation systems. They first focus on the emergence of the concept of innovation systems, reviewing its historical origins and three main flavours (associated to three "Founding fathers" of the concept). After this, they discuss how the notion of innovation systems filled a need...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Drivers And Barriers Of Innovation Dynamics In Healthcare Towards A Framework For Analyzing Innovation In Tuberculosis Control In India

    Tuberculosis remains the biggest infectious killer in India and worldwide, and it has recently regained substantial international attention with its come-back in drug resistant forms. The environment, the disease and the societal response to it are changing and with it challenges and opportunities to control the disease. Innovation in a...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Standards As A Platform For Innovation And Learning In The Global Economy: A Case Study Of Chilean Salmon Farming Industry

    Conventionally, standards are considered as a governance tool in the production system in a one-directional and hierarchical relationship between foreign Trans-National Corporations (TNCs) or global buyers on one hand and subsidiaries and producers on the other. They were considered as transmitting necessary specifications of goods - codified knowledge - to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Rough Road To Market: Institutional Barriers To Innovations In Africa

    Translating R&D and inventive efforts into a market product is characterized by significant financial skills, and the ability to overcome technical and institutional barriers. Research into and translation of new technologies such as biotechnology products to the market requires even greater resources. This paper aims to understand the key factors...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Worker Remittances And Growth: The Physical And Human Capital Channels

    Remittances may have an impact on economic growth through channels to physical and human capital. The authors estimate two variants of an open economy model of these two channels consisting of seven equations using the General Method of Moments with Heteroscedasticity and Autocorrelation Correction (GMM-HAC) with pooled data for four...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Empirical Studies Of Innovation In The Knowledge Driven Economy

    This introduction to a special issue of EINT surveys a collection of ten papers that study various aspects of innovation and knowledge management and their impact on performance at the firm level for a number of countries. These studies have been conducted using data drawn from innovation surveys combined with...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Ownership, Technological Capabilities And Exports: Evidence From 205 Clothing Firms In Sri Lanka

    Sri Lanka was the earliest South Asian economy to introduce economic reforms to attract export-oriented FDI. The rise of clothing production for export, apparently mainly driven by foreign firms, is regarded as a major outcome of the reforms. This paper seeks to examine a range of factors underlying firm-level export...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Employment, Innovation, And Productivity: Evidence From Italian Microdata

    Italian manufacturing firms have been losing ground with respect to many of their European competitors. This paper presents some empirical evidence on the effects of innovation on employment growth and therefore on firms' productivity with the goal of understanding the roots of such poor performance. The authors use firm level...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    China's Trade Imbalances: The Role Of FDI

    China has been running a large trade surplus with the rest of the world, particularly with the USA and EU. This has caused considerable diplomatic tensions and tremendous pressure on the Chinese currency. Existing analytical studies, however, mostly focus on real exchange rate and income as determinants of China's trade...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    FDI Liberalization As A Source Of Comparative Advantage In China

    Three features of China's trade patterns suggest that elements beyond factor abundance explain its export performance. The high penetration in world markets of labour-intensive products has been accompanied by: a high share in exports of productivity-advanced Foreign-owned Enterprises (FIEs), a high penetration of FIEs in labour-intensive sectors, and a relative...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Thailand's Development Strategy And Growth Performance

    Thailand's development strategy has been strongly market-oriented and open to trade and investment flows with the rest of the world. Since the late 1950s, its growth performance has been outstanding. Poverty incidence has declined dramatically, but economic inequality has increased. Economic progress has been reflected in very significant improvement in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Growth, Inequality, And Poverty Reduction In Developing Countries

    The paper presents recent global evidence on the transformation of economic growth to poverty reduction in developing countries, with emphasis on the role of income inequality. The focus is on the period since the early/mid-1990s when growth in these countries as a group has been relatively strong, surpassing that of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On Developing Countries' Terms Of Trade

    This paper first shows that important economic arguments in favor of the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis of falling terms of trade of developing countries have implicitly relied on the role of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment. As of yet, the relationship between the latter and terms of trade has not been...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Growth And Recovery In A Time Of Default

    International narratives on Argentina's recovery from the crisis of 2001-02 tend to emphasize the role of rising commodity prices and growing demand from China. Argentina is said to have been 'Lucky', saved by global demand for its agricultural exports. The international narrative has also been used by local agricultural exporters...

    Provided By United Nations University