United Nations University

Displaying 161-200 of 236 results

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State-led Technological Development: A Case Of Chinas Nanotechnology Development

    The authors analyze the nanotechnology patent applications filed in China from 1998 to 2008 and find that the extraordinary nanotechnology development in China has been primarily promoted by the public sector but not driven by industry and market force. This finding implies that developing countries such as China with public...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Immigration And Growth In An Ageing Economy

    This paper argues that immigration can help to alleviate the burden ageing presents for the welfare states of most Western Economies. The authors develop a macroeconomic framework which deals with the impact of both ageing and immigration on economic growth. This is combined with a detailed model of the labour...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Microeconomic Analysis Of Rural Nonfarm Activities In The Kyrgyz Republic: What Determines Participation And Returns?

    This paper uses two representative household budget surveys from the Kyrgyz Republic to analyze factors influencing participation and returns from different types of nonfarm activities in 2005 and 2006. Nonfarm activities are found to be most important for the poor, who are pushed out of agriculture due to limited and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Absorptive Capacity In Technological Learning In Clean Development Mechanism Projects

    Technology transfer in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects of the Kyoto Protocol has become one of the important issues addressed both in policy agenda and by academic scholars. In many CDM project host countries, technology transfer is among the key provisions of sustainable development objectives of the CDM projects. This...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    User Innovation And The Market

    This paper proposes a way of including in official statistics consumers as user innovators who modify or develop products for their own use. The issue addressed is the role of the market in the definition of innovation in the OECD/Eurostat Oslo Manual and the exclusion by the definition of consumers...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Assessment Of Gender Gap In Sudan

    This paper examines the gender gap in education and investigates the related implications on labour market and returns to education in Sudan. The results confirm two stylized facts: first, the incidence of significant gender gap in education in Sudan and second, the incidence of gender inequalities and gap in skill...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Telemedicine And Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed "The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Mitigating Anticommons Harms To Research In Science And Technology

    There are three analytically distinct layers of the phenomenon that has been labeled "The anticommons" and indicted as a potential impediment to innovation resulting from patenting and enforcement of IPR obtained on academic research results. This paper distinguishes among "Search costs", "Transactions costs", and "Multiple marginalization" effects in the pricing...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Technological Activities And Their Impact On The Financial Performance Of The Firm: Exploitation And Exploration Within And Between Firms

    This paper analyzes the consequences for financial performance of technology strategies categorized along two dimensions: explorative versus exploitative and solitary versus collaborative. The financial performance implications of firms' positioning along these two dimensions has important managerial implications, but has received only limited attention in prior studies. Drawing on organizational learning...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Does Excellence In Academic Research Attract Foreign R&D?

    The authors examine the role of host countries' academic research strengths in global R&D location decisions by multinational firms. While they expect that a firm's propensity to perform R&D in a host country increases with the strength of local academic research, firms are expected to be heterogeneously positioned to benefit...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Persistence Of And Interrelation Between Horizontal And Vertical Technology Alliances

    The authors examine how and to what extent the propensity to be engaged in alliances with different partner types (suppliers, customers and competitors) depends on prior alliance engagement with partner firms of the same type (persistence) and prior engagement in alliances with the other partner types (interrelation). They derive hypotheses...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Direct Investment And Firm Level Productivity A Panel Data Analysis

    This paper uses panel data to examine the effect of foreign presence on firm level productivity in the Kenyan manufacturing industry employing "Traditional" and "Recent" methodologies both based on production function framework. A detailed comparative behaviour between foreign and local indigenous firms showed that foreign firms dominated in virtually all...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Redefining Foreign Direct Investment Policy: A Two Dimensional Framework

    Many countries in the world have adopted policies to attract Foreign Direct investment (FDI), placing the traditional focus on the maximisation of FDI flows, what can be labelled as a quantitative approach. Recently it has been argued that the FDI policy should be more selective, promoting good quality FDI inflows....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    A New Nexus Between Foreign Direct Investment, Industrial And Innovation Policies

    This paper deals with the interplay between Foreign Direct investment (FDI) and the industrial and innovation policies of host developing economies. It aims to redefine the nexus between these different, though yet strongly interconnected policy areas, by bringing the affiliates of multinational corporations already established in a host economy to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Voyage Of The Beagle In Innovation Systems Land. Explorations On Sectors, Innovation, Heterogeneity And Selection

    The aim of the paper is to assess heterogeneity of the innovation process. Using exploratory factor analysis on micro data from the third Community Innovation Survey in 13 countries, the authors identify four factors that that can be interpreted as research, user, external and production ingredients of innovation. All too...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Knowledge-Based Productivity In 'Low-Tech' Industries: Evidence From Firms In Developing Countries

    Using firm level data from five countries - Brazil, Ecuador, South Africa, Tanzania and Bangladesh - this paper examines the knowledge-based determinants of productivity of firms active in food processing, textiles, and garments and leather products. In particular, it seeks to investigate the importance of various sources of knowledge in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Crafting Firm Competencies To Improve Innovative Performance

    Recent interdisciplinary research suggests that customer and technological competencies have a direct, unconditional effect on firms' innovative performance. This paper extends this stream of literature by considering the effect of organizational competencies. Results from a survey-research executed in the fast moving consumer goods industry suggest that firms that craft organizational...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Embedding Research In Society: Development Assistance Options For Supporting Agricultural Innovation In A Global Knowledge Economy

    The emergence of a globalised knowledge economy, and the contemporary views of innovation capacity that this trend enables and informs, provides a new context in which development assistance to agricultural research and development needs to be considered. The main argument in this paper, which focuses on The Netherlands, is that...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Entrepreneurship And Innovation Strategies In ICT SMEs In Enlarged Europe (EU25)

    Innovation strategies of entrepreneurs are mapped with growth and performance of their firms in this paper. Findings of the study are based on the data collected from 1238 small ICT firms located in 25 member states of European Union. The survey was conducted during October 2006 and March 2007. Results...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    A Multilevel Analysis Of Innovation In Developing Countries

    Innovation is a multilevel phenomenon. Not only characteristics of firms but also environment within which firms operate matter. Although this has been for long recognized in the literature, a quantitative test that explicitly concerns the hypothesis that framework conditions affect innovativeness of firms remains lacking. Using a large sample of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Determinants Of The Outward Foreign Direct Investment Of China and India: Whither The Home Country?

    The current paper examines the relationships between several home country-specific macroeconomic factors and the level of the outward FDI of China and India using multiple time-series data from 1982 to 2006 and from 1980 to 2006, respectively. With the use of a vector autoregressive model assessing the causal relationships of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    EU Enlargement And Consequences For FDI Assisted Industrial Development

    Many of the new member states as well as candidate and accession countries of the EU are confident that membership will result in substantially increased inward Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in manufacturing. This paper discusses the policy issues and challenges that cohesion and accession countries face, applying lessons that by...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Is Inter-Firm Labor Mobility A Channel Of Knowledge Spillovers? Evidence From A Linked Employer-Employee Panel

    An employer-employee panel is used to study whether the movement of workers across firms is a channel of unintended diffusion of R&D-generated knowledge. Somewhat surprisingly, hiring workers from others' R&D labs to one's own does not seem to be a significant spillover channel. Hiring workers previously in R&D to one's...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Assessment Of Effectiveness Of China Aid In Financing Development In Sudan

    This paper fills the gap in the Sudanese literature and discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. The authors find that the share of China in total loans and grants offered to Sudan greatly increased from 17% in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Russia's Emerging Multinational Companies Amidst The Global Economic Crisis

    Internationalisation of Russian companies has become a distinctive phenomenon and has drawn attention of scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike. Newly emerged Russian companies have extended their presence from the nearest former Soviet republics to the advanced markets of Western Europe and Northern America. As most companies in the world, in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Incidence And Transfer Of Knowledge In The Arab Countries

    In this paper, the authors use the systematic, descriptive and statistical approaches, fill the gap in the Arab literature and present a more comprehensive analysis of the important ways of enhancing the incidence and transfer of knowledge in the Arab countries. Different from the conventional view in the literature that...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Impact Of ICT In The Transformation And Production Of Knowledge In Sudan

    This paper focuses on the impact of ICT in the transformation and production of knowledge, notably in Sudan, and discusses the importance of the use of ICT in Khartoum University. It considers how the use of ICT, in particular the Internet, facilitates connections, networks and communication within knowledge institutions in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign-Owned Firms And Technological Capabilities In The Argentinean Manufacturing Industry

    This deals with the technological development implications of the substantial and long-dated presence of foreign-owned affiliates in the Argentinean manufacturing industry. It put forward the argument that the learning process of foreign-owned firms should be central in the analysis of the technological impacts of inward FDI. In other words, FDI...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Productivity Effects Of Internal And External R&D: Evidence From A Dynamic Panel Data Model

    The authors examine the impact of internal and external R&D on labor productivity in a 6-year panel of Dutch manufacturing firms. They apply a dynamic linear panel data model that allows for decreasing or increasing returns to scale in internal and external R&D and for economies of scope. They find...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    ICT Externalities: Evidence From Cross Country Data

    This paper reports the findings of an empirical study on the external effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on economic growth and productivity at an aggregate level. It focuses on possible network effects and spillovers emerging as externalities from investments in ICT. The existence of externalities is well described...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Exploration And Exploitation In Technology-Based Alliance Networks

    Although the literature converges regarding the reasons why and how networks of technology alliances are formed, there is still lack of agreement on what constitutes an optimal network structure, once it has been formed. The aim of this paper is to fill this void and to determine what constitutes an...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technological Capability Building Through Networking Strategies Within High-Tech Industries

    Learning through networks has been considered as an important research topic for several years now. Technological learning is more and more based on a combination of internal and external learning and firms need to develop both technological and social capital for that purpose. This paper analyses the relationship between both...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technological Spillovers From Multinational Presence - Towards A Conceptual Framework

    This paper undertakes a critical review of existing spillover analyses and proposes a unique analytical framework for examining technological spillovers in a manufacturing industry setting. The proposed framework overlaps three different literature strands; cluster and network dynamics, technological innovations; and spillover literature. It enables determination of the extent to which...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technology Supply Chain Or Innovation Capacity?: Contrasting Experiences Of Promoting Small Scale Irrigation Technology In South Asia

    The most effective approach to agricultural technology promotion and innovation is still a source of considerable debate, and nowhere more so than in the context of agricultural engineering hardware. Contemporary perspective on agricultural innovation stress the importance of institutional change and give emphasis to the need to develop innovation capacity...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    States And Firms On The Periphery: The Challenges Of A Globalising World

    A key feature of globalisation has been the growth and spread of MultiNational Enterprises (MNEs), but there is here is considerable evidence that MNEs do not regard all locations as being equivalent. MNE activity both to and from peripheral economies differs from MNE activity associated with core economies. The authors...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Estimations Of US Debt Dynamics: Growth Cum Debt And The Savings Glut In Kouri?s Model

    The authors derive the central differential equation of the neoclassical growth model for the case of a CES (Constant Elasticity of Substitution) production function with perfect capital movement in terms of the debt/GDP ratio and estimate it in several ways for the United States and in a later step the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    The Role Of Noncognitive Skills In Explaining Cognitive Test Scores

    This paper examines whether noncognitive skills - measured both by personality traits and economic preference parameters - influence cognitive tests performance. The basic idea is that noncognitive skills might affect the effort people put into a test to obtain good results. The authors experimentally varied the rewards for questions in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Entrepreneurship, Structural Change And A Global Economic Crisis

    Building on a Lewis-type model of structural change and entrepreneurship the authors show how a global economic crisis consisting of a financial and a trade shock can undermine structural change in developing countries via the start-up and innovation activities of entrepreneurs. The model analytics identifies a number of challenges for...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Global Financial Crisis And Development: Whither Africa?

    The global economic crisis beginning in 2008 has come at a very inopportune time for Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) appeared to be on a march toward real economic and human progress, following the dismal performance of the 1980s and early 1990s. Economic growth had resurged since the mid-1990s, and was...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Triple Crisis And The Global Aid Architecture

    The global economy is passing through a period of profound change. The immediate concern is with the financial crisis, originating in the North. The South is affected via reduced demand and lower prices for their exports, reduced private financial flows, and falling remittances. This is the first crisis. Simultaneously, climate...

    Provided By United Nations University