United Nations University

Displaying 161-200 of 220 results

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Economic Impact Of AIDS In Sub-Saharan Africa

    In this paper, a simple general equilibrium model a la Solow is developed to capture the impact of AIDS on economic growth. To this end, a benchmark model due to Cuddington and Hancock (1994) is extended in various directions. In particular, the sharply declining life expectancy patterns are clearly reflected...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Cross-Border Investment And Economic Integration: The Case Of Guangdong Province And Hong Kong SAR

    In this paper, the authors undertake a comparative study of the performance of local and foreign competitors' manufacturing firms in a FDI-recipient region - Guangdong Province, China - and analyze the policy implications of the comparison for the advanced, FDI-outflow region - Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). By highlighting...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Developing Internationally Comparable Indicators For The Commercialization Of Publicly-Funded Research

    It is a common perception that European public-funded research fails to commercialize their discoveries, in contrast to the perceived success of their American counterparts. This resulted in policies aimed at improving the commercialization of European publicly-funded research, including the establishment of Technology Transfer Offices (TTOs). Recent surveys on the activities...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Normative Power Is In The Eye Of The Beholder: An Empirical Assessment Of Perceptions Of EU Identity At The WTO

    The concept "Normative power" is developed to grasp the EU's identity, role and concomittant practice in world politics. The EU's ability to "Define the normal in world politics" depends on others' perceptions of it and its external practice. Normative power requires that non-EU states perceive the EU as embodying the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Incubators As Tools For Entrepreneurship Promotion In Developing Countries

    This paper reviews the literature on incubators in developed and developing countries. The authors show that the concept of incubators has evolved in time according to market and firm needs. Contemporary successful incubators are profit-oriented, provide a wide range of services, focus more on intangible business services, and employ qualified...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Firm Ownership, FOEs, And POEs

    Where the theory of free competition reigns, developing countries should open their arms to investments from all types of enterprises in order to maximize jobs. Ownership, measured by votes of shareholders or boards of directors, is immaterial to performance. Matters change drastically, though, when competition depends on monopolistic assets and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Inertia, Interaction And Clustering In Demand

    The authors present a discrete choice model of consumption that incorporates two empirically validated aspects of consumer behaviour: inertia in consumption and interaction among consumers. They specify the interaction structure as a regular lattice with consumers interacting only with immediate neighbours. They investigate the equilibrium behaviour of the resulting system...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Explaining The Lack Of Dynamics In The Diffusion Of Small Stationary Fuel Cells

    Using the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to water in order to produce electricity and heat, promises a high electrical efficiency even in small devices which can be installed close to the consumer. This approach seems to be an impressive idea to contribute to a viable future energy supply under...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Fits And Misfits: Technological Matching And R&D Networks

    This paper presents an economic model of R&D network formation through the creation of strategic alliances. Firms are randomly endowed with knowledge elements. They base their alliance decisions purely on the technological fit of potential partners, ignoring social capital considerations and indirect benefits on the network. This is sufficient to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Internationalization Of Chinese Firms In Europe

    Since end of the 1990s, the world has been witnessing a phenomenon of internationalisation of Chinese companies. This internationalisation is often understood through FDI inflows, whereby multinational companies establish their presence in a form of subsidiaries overseas. However, lately many companies (and Chinese firms in particular) started to use strategic...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Alliance-Based Network View On Chinese Firms? Catching-Up: Case Study Of Huawei Technologies Co.Ltd

    With China's rapid economic growth in recent years, many Chinese firms especially in high-tech industries have started to technically lead in the international market. In this paper, the authors aim to uncover the root causes that lead to Chinese firms' catching up from network perspective. By taking Huawei Technologies Co....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Reverse Knowledge Transfer And Its Implications For European Policy

    There is a growing international dispersion of R&D activities by MNEs for the purposes of maintaining and augmenting their knowledge assets. Firms need to tap into alternative knowledge sources, as home countries are rarely able to meet all their technological needs. However, accessing to foreign knowledge implies integration with the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Attracting And Embedding R&D By Multinational Firms: Policy Recommendations For EU New Member States

    This paper asks: what can governments of new member states do to encourage MNEs to invest in R&D? There are two types of MNE R&D. Innovation can be undertaken in order to adapt its existing products and services to local stimuli. This is 'Demand-driven R&D'. Innovation can also be in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Preparing For The Next, Very Long Crisis: Towards A ?Cool? Science And Technology Policy Agenda For A Globally Warming Economy

    This short paper on a very big subject deals with a worry - a worry that the present economic crisis is likely to contribute to the already-existing temptations of governmental and private actors alike to behave in a time-inconsistent fashion when responding to the challenge of climate change. The specific...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Designing Plans For Organizational Development, Lessons From Three Large-Scale SME-Initiatives

    This paper reflects upon the way that the authors balanced design and development in three specific case projects in order to contribute to creating and accumulating knowledge that is both relevant to practitioners and academics. More specifically, it is shown how learning within one project was used to improve the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Compliance With The Private Standards And Capacity Building Of National Institutions Under Globalization: New Agendas For Developing Countries?

    There are two assumptions regarding regulatory instruments under the globalizing economy. These are: increasing role of private standards in shaping the economic activities of developing countries; and diminishing role of national institutions in "Open" and "Liberal" markets. In other words it was considered that global private standards would eventually replace...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Intra-Firm Technology Transfer And R&D In Foreign Affiliates: Substitutes Or Complements? Evidence From Japanese Multinational Firms

    R&D in foreign affiliates and technology transferred from their parent firms are important potential drivers of productivity in host countries. In this paper, the authors examine the simultaneous impact of local R&D and intra-firm international technology transfer on productivity growth in foreign affiliates. They estimate a dynamic productivity model on...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Challenge Of Measuring Innovation In Emerging Economies~ Firms: A Proposal Of A New Set Of Indicators On Innovation

    The traditional indicators on innovation rely on the linear assumption that research leads to development, centering on the measurement of inputs and outputs. Based on the traditional innovation indicators, recent studies focused on the industrial innovation process at Latin America state that nowadays Latin American firms display a passive role...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Multinational Enterprises, Development And Globalisation: Some Clarifications And A Research Agenda

    This paper revisits an earlier contribution (Narula and Dunning 2000) and considers how economic globalisation has changed the nature of the MNE, MNE motivations, the MNE subsidiary and the modalities by which they interact with domestic economic actors. Most developing countries, however, have responded reactively. The authors discuss how the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Collinearity In Growth Regressions: The Example Of Worker Remittances

    The sign of worker remittances in growth regressions is heavily disputed in the literature. Comparing two growth regressions with different signs for the remittance variable the authors show that collinearity with the lagged dependent variable might indicate that collinearity should be investigated comprehensively and might lead to a change in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Strengthening Agricultural Innovation Capacity: Are Innovation Brokers The Answer?

    This paper examines the role of innovation brokers in stimulating innovation system interaction and innovation capacity building, and illustrates this by taking the case of Dutch agriculture as an example. Subsequently, it reflects upon the potential role of innovation brokers in developing countries' agriculture. It concludes that innovation brokerage roles...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Measuring Eco-Innovation

    In this paper, the authors offer a discussion of eco-innovation and methods for measuring it. Eco-innovation is a new concept of great importance to business and policy makers, covering many innovations of environmental benefit. Past research and measurement activity primarily focused on pollution control and abatement activities or on the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Knowledge Base Determinants Of Technology Sourcing In The Clean Development Mechanism Projects

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the three greenhouse gas emission reduction and trading instruments of the Kyoto Protocol (KP). The CDM allows governments and business entities from developed countries to offset their emissions liabilities by reducing or avoiding emissions in developing countries, where it is often cheaper...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Are International Market Demands Compatible With Serving Domestic Social Needs? Challenges In Strengthening Innovation Capacity In Kenya?s Horticulture Industry

    Agrifood stakeholders across the world are under ever-increasing pressure with globalization and new market demands - together with changing quality and safety requirements. The ability to respond to new challenges and opportunities is important not just for producers but also for industries in developing countries. This paper explores the horticulture...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2007

    The Geographical Location Of Manufacturing Exporters In South Africa

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the location of export-oriented manufacturing firms in Africa (South Africa), and on how the patterns of location has changed over the past decade after the country embarked on trade liberalization. It is found that the proximity to a port is an important consideration in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Global Capitalism Theory And The Emergence Of Transnational Elites

    The class and social structure of developing nations has undergone profound transformation in recent decades as each nation has incorporated into an increasingly integrated global production and financial system. National elites have experienced a new fractionation. Emergent transnationally-oriented elites grounded in globalized circuits of accumulation compete with older nationally-oriented elites...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Importance Of Technological Innovation For SME Growth

    This paper probes the drivers, dimensions, achievements, and outcomes of technological innovations carried out by SMEs in the auto components, electronics, and machine tool sectors of Bangalore in India. Further, it ascertains the growth rates of innovative SMEs vis-?-vis non-innovative SMEs in terms of sales turnover, employment, and investment. Thereafter,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Adversity And Entrepreneurship-Led Growth

    It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, the authors draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Globalization And The Emergence Of A Transnational Oligarchy

    The aim of this paper is to examine the evolution of recruitment of elites due to globalization. In the last century, the main change that occurred in the way the Western world trained its elites is that meritocracy became the basis for their recruitment. Although meritocratic selection should result in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The Challenges Of Global Environmental Change For Urban Africa

    Cities - especially those with substantial poor populations - will face increasingly severe challenges in tackling the impacts of Global Environmental Change (GEC). As economic dynamos and increasingly important population concentrations, cities both contribute substantially, and often are very vulnerable, to the impacts of GEC. This applies strongly in Africa,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On Developing Countries' Terms Of Trade

    This paper first shows that important economic arguments in favor of the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis of falling terms of trade of developing countries have implicitly relied on the role of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment. As of yet, the relationship between the latter and terms of trade has not been...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Growth And Recovery In A Time Of Default

    International narratives on Argentina's recovery from the crisis of 2001-02 tend to emphasize the role of rising commodity prices and growing demand from China. Argentina is said to have been 'Lucky', saved by global demand for its agricultural exports. The international narrative has also been used by local agricultural exporters...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Exchange Rate Regimes And Trade

    This paper revisits the link between exchange rate regimes and trade in the context of Africa's exchange rate arrangements. Applying an augmented gravity model that includes measures of currency unions and pegged regimes, the paper compares Africa's experience with that of the world. The authors' results suggest that both currency...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Globalization Crises, Trade, And Development In Vietnam

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises - the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterization as an example of export-led growth and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Aid And Growth

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of the growth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Terms Of Trade And Growth Of Resource Economies

    The current paper demonstrates a dichotomy of the growth response to changes in the barter terms of trade, employing as case studies the two African countries, Botswana and Nigeria. Using distributed-lag analysis, the paper finds that the effect of terms of trade on output is positive and negative for the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Institutional Reforms, Private Sector, And Economic Growth In Africa

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of institutional reforms on the revival of African economies. The authors study the impact of positive changes in business environment indicators of the Doing Business project and the Economic Freedom Index of the Heritage Foundation on the private sector development...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign Banks And Credit Volatility

    Foreign bank presence has substantially increased in Latin America during the second half of the 1990s, which has prompted an intense debate on its banking and macroeconomic consequences. In this paper, the authors apply ARCH techniques to jointly estimate the impact of foreign bank presence on the level and volatility...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Moderating Urbanization And Managing Growth

    This paper examines urbanization trends, the growth of Colombo and its present state of development. It looks at the approaches to the planned interventions in the city and demonstrates how a uni-directional urban development has had a detrimental impact upon healthy growth and quality of life in a city where...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalization And Exclusionary Urban Growth In Asian Countries

    This paper overviews the debate on the relationship between the measures of globalization, economic growth and pace of urbanization, and speculates on its impact on the quality of life and poverty in the context of Asian countries. After experiencing moderate to high urban growth for three to four decades since...

    Provided By United Nations University