United Nations University

Displaying 161-200 of 268 results

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Importance Of Technological Innovation For SME Growth

    This paper probes the drivers, dimensions, achievements, and outcomes of technological innovations carried out by SMEs in the auto components, electronics, and machine tool sectors of Bangalore in India. Further, it ascertains the growth rates of innovative SMEs vis-?-vis non-innovative SMEs in terms of sales turnover, employment, and investment. Thereafter,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Adversity And Entrepreneurship-Led Growth

    It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, the authors draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Globalization And The Emergence Of A Transnational Oligarchy

    The aim of this paper is to examine the evolution of recruitment of elites due to globalization. In the last century, the main change that occurred in the way the Western world trained its elites is that meritocracy became the basis for their recruitment. Although meritocratic selection should result in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The Challenges Of Global Environmental Change For Urban Africa

    Cities - especially those with substantial poor populations - will face increasingly severe challenges in tackling the impacts of Global Environmental Change (GEC). As economic dynamos and increasingly important population concentrations, cities both contribute substantially, and often are very vulnerable, to the impacts of GEC. This applies strongly in Africa,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign Banks And Credit Volatility

    Foreign bank presence has substantially increased in Latin America during the second half of the 1990s, which has prompted an intense debate on its banking and macroeconomic consequences. In this paper, the authors apply ARCH techniques to jointly estimate the impact of foreign bank presence on the level and volatility...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Moderating Urbanization And Managing Growth

    This paper examines urbanization trends, the growth of Colombo and its present state of development. It looks at the approaches to the planned interventions in the city and demonstrates how a uni-directional urban development has had a detrimental impact upon healthy growth and quality of life in a city where...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalization And Exclusionary Urban Growth In Asian Countries

    This paper overviews the debate on the relationship between the measures of globalization, economic growth and pace of urbanization, and speculates on its impact on the quality of life and poverty in the context of Asian countries. After experiencing moderate to high urban growth for three to four decades since...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Globalizing Shanghai

    Cities are the focal point for the mobility of talents, located between the nations and firms, states and educational institutions. Shanghai, being regarded as the 'Ultimate poster-child for the effects of globalization on cities and regions' by the BBC (2007), the city is argued as the best candidate for China's...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    ICT Sector, Globalization And Urban Economic Growth

    This paper aims at economic analysis of economic globalization and urban growth of Bangalore, the Silicon Valley of India, as they are related to ICT sector. Overall analyses offer new insights and evidences for ICT sector as a major contributor for degree of economic globalization and urban economic growth, mainly...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Income Distribution And Growth's Ability To Reduce Poverty

    The present paper examines the degree to which income distribution affects the ability of economic growth to reduce poverty, based on 1990s data for a sample of rural and urban sectors of African economies. Using the basic needs approach, an analysis-of-covariance model is derived and estimated, with the headcount, gap...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Inequality, Income And Poverty

    Analysing a large sample of 1980 - 2004 unbalanced panel data, the current paper presents comparative global evidence on the role of (income) inequality in poverty reduction. The evidence involves both an indirect channel via the tendency of high inequality to decrease the rate at which income is transformed to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Aid, Growth, And Development

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program evaluation literature, the authors re-examine key hypotheses. In their...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Impact Of The Global Commodity And Financial Crises On Poverty In Vietnam

    Economic growth in Vietnam has been fairly resilient to the global commodity and financial crises, but it is unclear why. In addition, the impact of the crises on employment and poverty is in dispute. The authors develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to decompose impacts and estimate distributional outcomes....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Mozambique's Elite - Finding Its Way In A Globalized World And Returning To Old Development Models

    What makes elites developmental instead of predatory? The authors argue that Mozambique's elite was developmental at independence 35 years ago. With pressure and encouragement from international forces, it became predatory. It has now partly returned to its developmental roots and is trying to use the state to promote the creation...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Nordic Development And Growth Models

    The Nordic countries are often bundled together, as representatives of a 'Model' which combines high living standards and an open market economy with social insurance and ambitious public services. Yet, the economic and political development of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden towards this model has taken quite different roads. Sweden's...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Global Economic Crisis

    This paper outlines the impact of the global economic crisis on Africa. Recovery requires coordinated and consistent efforts to assist individual countries in mitigating the risk, coping with the impact, and reducing risk over the longer term. Care should be exercised to maintain and improve good governance, which is essential...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Revisiting The Global Food Architecture: Lessons From The 2008 Food Crisis

    The 2008 episode of food price explosion, political turmoil, and human suffering revealed important flaws in the current global food architecture. In 2008, the world saw food prices explode, causing havoc in developed and developing countries alike. Poor people were hit especially hard1 and many more became poor. Malnutrition among...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Understanding The African Growth Record: The Importance Of Policy Syndromes And Governance

    The current paper, first, finds that although the post-independence growth of African economies has fallen substantially below that of other regions, this comparative evidence is less than uniform across time and countries. Second, it uncovers total factor productivity as the primary culprit underlying the generally dismal growth record. Third, reflecting...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Beyond Knowledge Brokerage: An Exploratory Study Of Innovation Intermediaries In An Evolving Smallholder Agricultural System In Kenya

    The recognition that innovation occurs in networks of heterogeneous actors and requires broad systemic support beyond knowledge brokering has resulted in a changing landscape of the intermediary domain in an increasingly market-driven agricultural sector in developing countries. This paper presents findings of an explorative case study that looked at 22...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Emerging Country MNEs And The Role Of Home Countries: Separating Fact From Irrational Expectations

    This paper takes a look at the research on Emerging country MultiNational Enterprises (EMNEs) over the last 25 years, and argues that growth in EMNE activity over the last 10 years continues to be dominated by Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs), and to a lesser extent by Brazil, Russia, India...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    On Indias Plunge Into Nanotechnology: What Are Good Ways To Catch-up?

    The present paper examines how a developing country like India is competing in the nanotechnology race. The authors' study shows that both upstream scientific and technological capabilities and downstream regulatory capabilities are being strengthened. India has clearly made a dent in terms of scientific publications (with the main focus being...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Are Health Care Payments In Albania Catastrophic? Evidence Form ALSMS 2002, 2005 And 2008

    The absent or poorly functioning risk pooling mechanisms and high amounts of out-of-pocket payments for health care expose households to financial risks associated with major illnesses or accidents. The aim of this paper is to analyse the extent to which out-of-pocket health spending impoverish the households in Albania. The paper...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    The Elusive Quest For The Golden Standard: Concepts, Policies And Practices Of Accountability In Development Cooperation

    Promoting public accountability plays an ever increasing role in the recent discourse on development cooperation. It is said to encourage a more efficient use of public funds, to decrease corruption, add to more legitimate, responsive and democratic institutions including government and therefore to enhance aid effectiveness (OECD/DAC, 2005). To realize...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Strengthening The Roles Of Political Parties In Public Accountability - A Case Study Of A New Approach In Political Party Assistance

    Donors in development cooperation increasingly emphasize the importance of public accountability in developing countries for the good functioning of democratic institutions, governance and the effectiveness of their aid. Political parties are prime actors in a democratic society that have essential roles to fulfill in public accountability. However, only few donors...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Voluntary Agreements And Community Development As CSR In Innovation Strategies

    The present paper examines how an innovating firm decides between two forms of Voluntary Agreements (VA) in a context, where a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) rather than a regulator watches over citizens' interests. The innovation generates profit and consumer surplus as well as environmental damage. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Promoting Return And Circular Migration Of The Highly Skilled

    Migration of skilled workers from developing countries has increased substantially in recent years. Traditionally, such patterns raised fears on the ground of the associated 'Brain drain' as human capital formation is considered to be of central importance to the development and reduction of poverty levels. Therefore, any loss of skilled...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    A Historical Perspective On Immigration And Social Protection In The Netherlands

    Immigrant access to social protection in the Netherlands has changed quite markedly over time. This paper discusses the changes from an historical perspective and introduces a theoretical framework (the Welfare Pentagon) explaining how immigrants cope with (economic) hardship when they do not have access to formal social protection. The relationship...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State-led Technological Development: A Case Of Chinas Nanotechnology Development

    The authors analyze the nanotechnology patent applications filed in China from 1998 to 2008 and find that the extraordinary nanotechnology development in China has been primarily promoted by the public sector but not driven by industry and market force. This finding implies that developing countries such as China with public...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Immigration And Growth In An Ageing Economy

    This paper argues that immigration can help to alleviate the burden ageing presents for the welfare states of most Western Economies. The authors develop a macroeconomic framework which deals with the impact of both ageing and immigration on economic growth. This is combined with a detailed model of the labour...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Microeconomic Analysis Of Rural Nonfarm Activities In The Kyrgyz Republic: What Determines Participation And Returns?

    This paper uses two representative household budget surveys from the Kyrgyz Republic to analyze factors influencing participation and returns from different types of nonfarm activities in 2005 and 2006. Nonfarm activities are found to be most important for the poor, who are pushed out of agriculture due to limited and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Absorptive Capacity In Technological Learning In Clean Development Mechanism Projects

    Technology transfer in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects of the Kyoto Protocol has become one of the important issues addressed both in policy agenda and by academic scholars. In many CDM project host countries, technology transfer is among the key provisions of sustainable development objectives of the CDM projects. This...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    User Innovation And The Market

    This paper proposes a way of including in official statistics consumers as user innovators who modify or develop products for their own use. The issue addressed is the role of the market in the definition of innovation in the OECD/Eurostat Oslo Manual and the exclusion by the definition of consumers...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Assessment Of Gender Gap In Sudan

    This paper examines the gender gap in education and investigates the related implications on labour market and returns to education in Sudan. The results confirm two stylized facts: first, the incidence of significant gender gap in education in Sudan and second, the incidence of gender inequalities and gap in skill...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Telemedicine And Primary Health: The Virtual Doctor Project Zambia

    This paper is a commentary on a project application of telemedicine to alleviate primary health care problems in Lundazi district in the Eastern province of Zambia. The project dubbed "The Virtual Doctor Project' will use hard body vehicles fitted with satellite communication devices and modern medical equipment to deliver primary...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Mitigating Anticommons Harms To Research In Science And Technology

    There are three analytically distinct layers of the phenomenon that has been labeled "The anticommons" and indicted as a potential impediment to innovation resulting from patenting and enforcement of IPR obtained on academic research results. This paper distinguishes among "Search costs", "Transactions costs", and "Multiple marginalization" effects in the pricing...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Technological Activities And Their Impact On The Financial Performance Of The Firm: Exploitation And Exploration Within And Between Firms

    This paper analyzes the consequences for financial performance of technology strategies categorized along two dimensions: explorative versus exploitative and solitary versus collaborative. The financial performance implications of firms' positioning along these two dimensions has important managerial implications, but has received only limited attention in prior studies. Drawing on organizational learning...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Does Excellence In Academic Research Attract Foreign R&D?

    The authors examine the role of host countries' academic research strengths in global R&D location decisions by multinational firms. While they expect that a firm's propensity to perform R&D in a host country increases with the strength of local academic research, firms are expected to be heterogeneously positioned to benefit...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Persistence Of And Interrelation Between Horizontal And Vertical Technology Alliances

    The authors examine how and to what extent the propensity to be engaged in alliances with different partner types (suppliers, customers and competitors) depends on prior alliance engagement with partner firms of the same type (persistence) and prior engagement in alliances with the other partner types (interrelation). They derive hypotheses...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Direct Investment And Firm Level Productivity A Panel Data Analysis

    This paper uses panel data to examine the effect of foreign presence on firm level productivity in the Kenyan manufacturing industry employing "Traditional" and "Recent" methodologies both based on production function framework. A detailed comparative behaviour between foreign and local indigenous firms showed that foreign firms dominated in virtually all...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Redefining Foreign Direct Investment Policy: A Two Dimensional Framework

    Many countries in the world have adopted policies to attract Foreign Direct investment (FDI), placing the traditional focus on the maximisation of FDI flows, what can be labelled as a quantitative approach. Recently it has been argued that the FDI policy should be more selective, promoting good quality FDI inflows....

    Provided By United Nations University