United Nations University

Displaying 201-235 of 235 results

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Knowledge Base Determinants Of Technology Sourcing In The Clean Development Mechanism Projects

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the three greenhouse gas emission reduction and trading instruments of the Kyoto Protocol (KP). The CDM allows governments and business entities from developed countries to offset their emissions liabilities by reducing or avoiding emissions in developing countries, where it is often cheaper...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Are International Market Demands Compatible With Serving Domestic Social Needs? Challenges In Strengthening Innovation Capacity In Kenya?s Horticulture Industry

    Agrifood stakeholders across the world are under ever-increasing pressure with globalization and new market demands - together with changing quality and safety requirements. The ability to respond to new challenges and opportunities is important not just for producers but also for industries in developing countries. This paper explores the horticulture...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Growth Of Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship In India, 1991 - 2007

    There is enough consensus to show that India's economic performance since 1991 is a direct result of the economic liberalization measures that have been put in place. One of the outcomes of this improved performance is the growth of innovations in the country. This was accompanied by or caused by...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship And Development

    Industrialization has long been seen as the answer to underdevelopment and poverty. First this led countries to follow protectionist import substitution policies but as these failed developing countries have opened up to trade and FDI and tried to follow strategies of export driven industrialization. If the authors consider the share...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Types Of Entrepreneurship And Economic Growth

    In this paper, the authors empirically investigate the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth at the country level. They use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which provides comparative data on entrepreneurship from a wide range of countries. An important element of this paper is that they compare the effects...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Is That Innovation? Assessing Examples Of Revitalized Economic Dynamics Among Clusters Of Small Producers In Northern Vietnam

    This paper addresses the question whether innovation is within reach for small enterprises in developing economies by studying four cases of new technologies, products and business practices in traditional craft in Northern Vietnam. The paper starts with reviewing definitions of innovation since Schumpeter. It concludes that newness, value creation and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technology Frontier, Labor Productivity And Economic Growth: Evidence From OECD Countries

    The authors use 29 OECD countries data spanning over 1960-2000 to study the growth strategy when countries are close to the technology frontier. Relying on a semi-parametric generalized additive model, they estimate labor productivity equations. They find that the number of agents enrolled in higher education is a determinant of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation Policy, Entrepreneurship, And Development: A Finnish View

    This paper first reviews the economic rationales for innovation policy. It then describes the Finnish innovation policy and policy making environment. The Finnish policy is evaluated from the point of view of fostering entrepreneurship. R&D subsidies, the main tool of Finnish innovation policy, may not be a very effective way...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation And Microenterprises Growth In Ethiopia

    This paper addresses two prominent issues on the development of small enterprises in Africa. Which factors inhibit or foster innovation activities in small enterprises? Do innovators create more jobs? The authors use a large set of microenterprises survey data from Ethiopia that comprise 1000 observations with ten and fewer workers....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Brazil's Growth Performance

    This paper reviews Brazil's growth performance over the last quarter of a century and discusses the main determinants of a pick-up in growth since the mid-1990s. Emphasis is placed on the policy pay-offs associated with a consolidation of macroeconomic adjustment, which is a pre-condition for sustained growth. Structural reform based...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Inactions And Spikes Of Investment In Ethiopian Manufacturing Firms: Empirical Evidence On Irreversibility And Non-Convexities

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the effect of irreversibility and non-convexities in adjustment costs on firm investment decision based on 1996-2002 firm level data from the Ethiopian manufacturing. It relies on a rich census based panel data set that gives the advantage of disaggregating investment into different types of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Incubators As Tools For Entrepreneurship Promotion In Developing Countries

    This paper reviews the literature on incubators in developed and developing countries. The authors show that the concept of incubators has evolved in time according to market and firm needs. Contemporary successful incubators are profit-oriented, provide a wide range of services, focus more on intangible business services, and employ qualified...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Firm Ownership, FOEs, And POEs

    Where the theory of free competition reigns, developing countries should open their arms to investments from all types of enterprises in order to maximize jobs. Ownership, measured by votes of shareholders or boards of directors, is immaterial to performance. Matters change drastically, though, when competition depends on monopolistic assets and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Inertia, Interaction And Clustering In Demand

    The authors present a discrete choice model of consumption that incorporates two empirically validated aspects of consumer behaviour: inertia in consumption and interaction among consumers. They specify the interaction structure as a regular lattice with consumers interacting only with immediate neighbours. They investigate the equilibrium behaviour of the resulting system...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Persistence Of And Interrelation Between Horizontal And Vertical Technology Alliances

    The authors examine how and to what extent the propensity to be engaged in alliances with different partner types (suppliers, customers and competitors) depends on prior alliance engagement with partner firms of the same type (persistence) and prior engagement in alliances with the other partner types (interrelation). They derive hypotheses...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Fits And Misfits: Technological Matching And R&D Networks

    This paper presents an economic model of R&D network formation through the creation of strategic alliances. Firms are randomly endowed with knowledge elements. They base their alliance decisions purely on the technological fit of potential partners, ignoring social capital considerations and indirect benefits on the network. This is sufficient to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Revisiting The Global Food Architecture: Lessons From The 2008 Food Crisis

    The 2008 episode of food price explosion, political turmoil, and human suffering revealed important flaws in the current global food architecture. In 2008, the world saw food prices explode, causing havoc in developed and developing countries alike. Poor people were hit especially hard1 and many more became poor. Malnutrition among...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Entrepreneurship Is Not A Binding Constraint On Growth And Development In The Poorest Countries

    It is often claimed that entrepreneurship is indispensable for economic growth and development. These claims are mostly generated by scholars working in the field of entrepreneurship and management studies. In contrast, development economics scholars seem to be less concerned about entrepreneurship in the development process who is right? The author...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Trading Inequality? Insights From The Two Globalizations In Latin America

    Trade flows among countries have increased dramatically during the last globalization episode creating new winners and losers between and within countries. This paper revisits the contested topic of the impact of globalization on within-country inequality in Latin America from a historical perspective. By comparing the two globalization waves (1870 -...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Note On Testing For Complementarity And Substitutability In The Case Of Multiple Practices

    Recent empirical studies of firm-level performance have tested complementarity in the case of multiple practices. These papers have drawn conclusions using potentially biased estimates of pair-wise interaction effects. The authors develop a consistent and simple testing framework and test it against alternatives. Researchers in the fields of industrial organization and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Does Excellence In Academic Research Attract Foreign R&D?

    The authors examine the role of host countries' academic research strengths in global R&D location decisions by multinational firms. While they expect that a firm's propensity to perform R&D in a host country increases with the strength of local academic research, firms are expected to be heterogeneously positioned to benefit...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Innovation And Economic Development

    Is innovation important for development? And if so, how? One popular perception of innovation, that one meets in media every day, is that has to do with developing brand new, advanced solutions for sophisticated, well-off customers, through exploitation of the most recent advances in knowledge. Such innovation is normally seen...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Resolving The World's Twin Debts Problem Simultaneously

    The decade of the 1980s has witnessed the emergence of a historically unprecedented world twin debt problem. On the one hand, the key currency country, the U.S., incurred deficits averaging $150 billion annually on current account in 1986 - 87, and at the end of 1987, the U.S. net external...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Innovative Sales, R&D And Total Innovation Expenditures: Panel Evidence On Their Dynamics

    This paper studies the dynamic relationship between input and output of innovation in Dutch manufacturing using an unbalanced panel of enterprise data from five waves of the Com-munity Innovation Survey during 1994-2004. The authors estimate by maximum likelihood a dynamic panel data bivariate to bit with double-index sample selection accounting...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Growth With Imported Resources: On The Sustainability Of U.S. Growth And Foreign Debt

    The authors provide a growth model with imported resources and foreign debt accumulation providing the basis for two questions and regression equations. Under what conditions do growth rates of per capita income remain positive if imported inputs such as oil have increasing real prices? Is accumulation of foreign debt driven...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    External Debt, Informal Economy And Growth

    The authors develop an endogenous growth model with overlapping generations taking into account important characteristics of the developing countries: high public external debt and large informal sector. They show that an increasing of the public external debt has two opposite effects. On the one hand, it enhances growth through a...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Foreign Direct Investment In Times Of Global Economic Crisis: Spotlight On New Europe

    This paper examines the potential impact of the economic crisis - started in 2008 - on the dynamics global foreign direct investment, especially in the new member states of the European Union. The global economic crisis that hit the world in 2008 has forced scholars and policy makers alike to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Global Economic Crisis: Towards Syndrome-free Recovery For Africa

    This paper outlines the impact of the global economic crisis on Africa. Recovery requires coordinated and consistent efforts to assist individual countries in mitigating (reducing) the risk, coping with the impact, and reducing risk over the longer term. Care should be exercised to maintain and improve good governance, which is...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Global Economic Crisis

    This paper outlines the impact of the global economic crisis on Africa. Recovery requires coordinated and consistent efforts to assist individual countries in mitigating the risk, coping with the impact, and reducing risk over the longer term. Care should be exercised to maintain and improve good governance, which is essential...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Finnish Developmental State And Its Growth Regime

    This paper reviews Finland's growth strategy in the postwar decades. Finland was able to initiate an impressive mobilization of resources during this period, reflected mostly in a high rate of capital accumulation for manufacturing industries. This was achieved by an unorthodox combination of dirigiste means and a basic commitment to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2009

    The Impact Of The Credit Crisis On Poor Developing Countries: Growth, Worker Remittances, Accumulation And Migration

    The credit crisis of OECD countries has a negative impact on the growth of the world economy according to a simple error correction model. This causes negative growth effects in poor developing countries. The reduced growth has a direct or indirect impact on the convergence issue, aid, remittances, labour force...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Impact Internet and E-Commerce on the Labour Market

    As the impact of e-commerce becomes more widely felt through the community, its implications are becoming apparent to all sectors of society even those which have hitherto tended to see the new economy as irrelevant to their activities. Impact of computers and ICTs on business and economic growth and productivity...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2007

    The Geographical Location Of Manufacturing Exporters In South Africa

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the location of export-oriented manufacturing firms in Africa (South Africa), and on how the patterns of location has changed over the past decade after the country embarked on trade liberalization. It is found that the proximity to a port is an important consideration in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    The Role Of Noncognitive Skills In Explaining Cognitive Test Scores

    This paper examines whether noncognitive skills - measured both by personality traits and economic preference parameters - influence cognitive tests performance. The basic idea is that noncognitive skills might affect the effort people put into a test to obtain good results. The authors experimentally varied the rewards for questions in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    Women And Food Security In South Asia: Current Issues And Emerging Concerns

    The food security scenario in South Asia has witnessed rapid progress over the last few decades, yet nutrition outcomes, especially those related to women and children, have failed to keep pace. This paper contends that the role of women in providing food and nutrition security at the household and individual...

    Provided By United Nations University