United Nations University

Displaying 241-280 of 282 results

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Linkages, Access To Finance And The Performance Of Small-Scale Enterprises In Kenya

    Micro- and Small-scale Enterprises (MSEs) have become important players in the Kenyan economy, but at the same time they continue to face constraints that limit their development. Lack of access to financial services is one of the main constraints, and a number of factors have been identified to explain this...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Stochastic Environmental Effects, Demographic Variation, And Economic Growth

    The authors consider a stochastic environment to study interactions among pollution growth, demographic changes, and economic growth. Drawing on the empirical findings of slow convergence patterns of pollution shocks (viz., with a long-memory); they build an analytical framework where stochastic environmental feedback effects on population changes are reflected upon aggregate...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Industrialisation As An Engine Of Growth In Developing Countries

    This paper examines the emergence of manufacturing in developing countries in the period 1950-2005. It presents new data on structural change in a sample of 63 developing countries and 16 advanced economies. Industrialisation is seen as a single global process of structural change, in which separate countries follow different paths...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Habit Formation, Demand And Growth Through Product Innovation

    Growth theory has mainly focused on process innovation, either through an increase in quality of the product or a reduction on the cost. The main contribution in growth theory that includes product innovation has been done in the Dixit and Stiglitz framework. This framework works with oversimplifying restrictions on the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Consumer Behaviour: Evolution Of Preferences And The Search For Novelty

    Evolution of consumers' preferences has been recognized by many scholars as being key to understanding technological change. However, mainstream economics cannot account for the seemingly irrational behavior of consumers based on changes in taste - consumer theory lacks exibility and accuracy to explain changes in consumer behavior. Adopting a behavioral...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Bridges In Social Capital: A Review Of The Definitions And The Social Capital Of Social Capital Researchers

    There has been a recent surge of interest in social economics and social capital. Articles on social capital that are published in the last five years constitute more than 60 percent of all articles on social capital. Research on social capital is now massive and spans sociology, economics, management, political...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    The Financial Crisis Of 2008 And The Developing Countries

    Following the financial crisis that broke in the US and other Western economies in late 2008, there is now serious concern about its impact on the developing countries. The world media almost daily reports scenarios of gloom and doom, with many predicting a deep global recession. This paper critically discusses...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Source Of Finance, Growth And Firm Size - Evidence From China

    Using a comprehensive firm-level dataset spanning the period 1998-2005, this paper provides a thorough investigation of the relationship between firm size, total factor productivity growth and financial structure in China, controlling for the endogeneity of the latter. Generally, it finds financing source matters for firms of different size, and the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    The Role Of Consumption And The Financing Of Health Investment Under Epidemic Shocks

    The authors study the behavior of consumption and health investment resulting from shocks undermining health capital accumulation. They examine the effects on subsequent life cycle of long-lived shocks undermining health with either an acceleration of health capital deterioration, or a decrease in health investment efficiency. They also address the issue...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    The Role Of Firms In Energy Transformation

    This paper looks at the role of firms in the transformation of fossil fuel based energy systems towards cleaner and greener energy systems. Firms are playing an important role in determining the speed and direction of technical change towards such energy systems. But systemic constraints and negative externalities tend to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Effectiveness Of R&D Tax Incentives In Small And Large Enterprises In Qu?bec

    In this paper, the authors evaluate the effectiveness of R&D tax incentives in Quebec, using manufacturing firm data from 1997 to 2003 originating from R&D surveys, annual surveys of manufactures and administrative data. The estimated price elasticity of R&D is -0.10 in the short run and -0.14 in the long...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Political Regime, Private Investment, And Foreign Direct Investment In Developing Countries

    This paper uses annual aggregate data for 36 low or middle income countries covering the period 1995-2001 to investigate the effect of FDI on private investment. It also explores if the relationship between FDI and private investment is influenced by the nature of the political regime, using four governance measures...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Structural Change, Technology, And Economic Growth: Brazil And The CIBS In A Comparative Perspective

    Schumpeterian growth theory stresses the role of structural change in long run growth. Countries which increase the share of technology-intensive sectors in their economic structures benefit more from technological learning and innovation. In addition, the authors are more able to respond to changes in the international markets and to enter...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Trade With China And India And Manufacturing Labour Demand In Argentina

    For many in Latin America, the increasing participation of China and India in international markets is seen as a looming shadow of two 'Mighty giants' on the region's manufacturing sector. Are they really mighty giants when it comes to their impact on manufacturing employment? This paper attempts to answer this...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Growth And Trade Horizons For Asia

    Economic emergence of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and India has fundamentally altered the economic landscape of Asia and its relation to the global economy. Using the new dynamic global model, the authors present forecasts for Asian expansion over 2025. These baseline growth forecasts elucidate shifting patterns of regional...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Inequality And The Impact Of Growth On Poverty: Comparative Evidence For Sub-Saharan Africa

    This paper explores the extent to which inequality affects the impact of income growth on the rates of poverty changes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) comparatively with non-SSA, based on a global sample of 1977-2004 unbalanced panel data. For both regions and all three measures of poverty - headcount, gap, and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Public Capital And Income Distribution: A Marriage Of Hicks & Newman-Read

    This paper examines how publicly provided inputs could affect income distribution. By applying the Newman-Read production function-a generalized Cobb-Douglas production function-to Hicks's idea of the determinant of factor share, such usually complex dynamics remain analytically tractable. The paper shows that whether public capital has an effect on income distribution dynamics...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Flexibility And Innovation In Response To Emerging Infectious Diseases: Reactions To Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis In India

    Emerging infectious diseases regained substantial international attention in recent years and it has been argued that flexibility and innovation in public health systems is needed in order to react to changing challenges. This paper will take these policy claims as a starting point to examine the case of Multi-Drug Resistant...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Component Trade And China's Global Economic Integration

    China's engagement in the so-called international fragmentation of production - namely 'Cross-border dispersion of component production/assembly within vertically integrated manufacturing industries' - has become an increasingly important form of its economic integration into the regional as well as the global economy. The paper presents the recent trend of trade in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Exchange Rates And Outward Foreign Direct Investment

    The paper investigates the impact of exchange rates on US Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows to a sample of 16 emerging market countries using annual panel data for the period 1990-2002. Three separate exchange rate effects are considered: the value of the local currency (a cheaper currency attracts FDI); expected...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    China's Trade Imbalances: The Role Of FDI

    China has been running a large trade surplus with the rest of the world, particularly with the USA and EU. This has caused considerable diplomatic tensions and tremendous pressure on the Chinese currency. Existing analytical studies, however, mostly focus on real exchange rate and income as determinants of China's trade...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Export Demand Elasticities As Determinants Of Growth: Estimates For Mauritius

    In this paper, the authors combine the export-led and import-led growth hypotheses in a growth model in which the importation of foreign capital goods and the demand elasticities of own export products explain the growth opportunities and the technical progress of developing countries. This model, based on imported capital goods...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Exchange Rates And Outward Foreign Direct Investment: US FDI In Emerging Economies

    The paper investigates the impact of exchange rates on US Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows to a sample of 16 emerging market countries using annual panel data for the period 1990-2002. Three separate exchange rate effects are considered: the value of the local currency (a cheaper currency attracts FDI); expected...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    FDI And Innovation As Drivers Of Export Behaviour: Firm-Level Evidence From East Asia

    This paper examines the links between ownership, innovation and exporting in electronics firms in three late industrializing East Asian countries (China, Thailand and the Philippines) drawing on recent developments in applied international trade and innovation and learning. Technology-based approaches to trade offer a plausible explanation for firm-level exporting behavior. The...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Alliance Block Composition Patterns In The Microelectronics Industry

    In this paper, the authors examine whether a position in a technology alliance block is accessible to everyone. It appears that partners are selected on the basis of distinctive attributes they have, which can inhibit outsiders to join these alliance groups. The findings clearly indicate that alliance blocks are composed...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Interdependencies Between Monetary Policy And Foreign Exchange Intervention Under Inflation Targeting

    The bulk of recent literature on foreign exchange interventions has overlooked the potential interdependencies that may exist between these operations and the conduct of monetary policy. This is the case even under inflation targeting and especially in emerging-market economies, because central banks often explicitly reserve the right to intervene to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    International Trade And Manufacturing Employment Outcomes In India

    The Indian economy has observed significant trade reforms since the mid 1980s, and the Indian manufacturing sector has rapidly increased its integration with the world economy. In this paper, the authors ask the question: did the increased trade integration create or destroy jobs in the Indian manufacturing sector? They attempt...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Can Free Trade Guarantee Gains From Trade?

    Static and dynamic gains from trade are the reasons why countries embark on the path of free trade, expecting this to promote industrialization and development. There is nothing, however, in the conventional theory of international trade that guarantees that these gains will materialize and even if they do, they may...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Export Diversification And Specialization In South Africa: Extent And Impact

    Should developing countries focus on diversifying their export basket or should they instead specialize their exports according to their existing comparative advantage? In this paper, the authors attempt to answer this question by reviewing the literature on export diversification and specialization, by investigating the extent of export diversification and specialization...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Foreign Direct Investment And Trade In The Southern African Development Community

    The authors use a modified gravity model to estimate the relationship between trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). They find evidence of a significant causal relationship from SADC's exports to inward FDI. Distance (reflecting remoteness and transport costs) and political instability are confirmed...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    FDI Liberalization As A Source Of Comparative Advantage In China

    Three features of China's trade patterns suggest that elements beyond factor abundance explain its export performance. The high penetration in world markets of labour-intensive products has been accompanied by: a high share in exports of productivity-advanced Foreign-owned Enterprises (FIEs), a high penetration of FIEs in labour-intensive sectors, and a relative...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    The Innovative Performance Of Alliance Block Members: Evidence From The Microelectronics Industry

    The primary goal of this paper is to improve the understanding of the complex relationship between the positioning of companies in alliance networks and their innovative performance. In particular, the authors expect that a firm's innovative performance depends partly on its position in specific network settings (block membership or nonblock...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Economic Efficiency And Growth: Evidence From Brazil, China, And India

    The authors compare economic efficiencies in Brazil, India, and China, where economic efficiency measures the gap between potential and actual output for a given input combination and technological factor. They use stochastic production frontier models to measure the contributions of factors of production and technology to growth and estimate non-positive...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Public Capital, Income Distribution And Growth

    Public capital investment plays an important role in long run growth through enhancing productivity and complementing the accumulation of private inputs. Under appropriate conditions, public capital could also have important implications for income distribution dynamics. When the credit market is imperfect and there are diminishing returns to private factors, income...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    India?s Outward Foreign Direct Investments In Steel Industry In A Chinese Comparative Perspective

    Indian and Chinese enterprises have emerged as important outward investors in recent times with their involvement in a number of prominent Greenfield investments and acquisitions. The theory of international business posits that the ownership of some unique advantages having a revenue generating potential abroad combined with the presence of internalization...

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  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Internationalization And Technological Catching Up Of Emerging Multinationals: A Case Study Of China?s Haier Group

    In recent years, a number of firms from Asia and Latin America have been internationalizing their businesses to access new markets and to acquire new technology. This follows similar attempts only a few years earlier by leading firms from countries such as Korea and Taiwan. Much research has gone during...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Aid Effectiveness: Looking At The Aid-Social Capital-Growth Nexus

    The authors examine the impact of institutional quality and social capital on aid effectiveness. They find strong evidence that social capital and institutions enhance aid effectiveness. Moreover, once they account for the role of social capital and institutions, the impact of policies tend to disappear. These findings have important policy...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Globalization And Health: Impact Pathways And Recent Evidence

    The last two decades of the twentieth century recorded a slowdown in health gains and widespread increases in health inequality across and within countries. The paper explores the causes of such trends on the basis of five main mortality models. To do so, it regresses IMR/LEB on 15 determinants of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Growth With Endogenous Migration Hump And The Multiple, Dynamically Interacting Effects Of Aid In Poor Developing Countries

    The authors show empirically that aid given to poor developing countries enhances growth and reduces emigration once several dynamically interacting effects of aid are taken into account in a system of equations. They estimate equations for net immigration flows as a share of the labour force and GDP per capita...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2007

    The Geographical Location Of Manufacturing Exporters In South Africa

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the location of export-oriented manufacturing firms in Africa (South Africa), and on how the patterns of location has changed over the past decade after the country embarked on trade liberalization. It is found that the proximity to a port is an important consideration in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Global Financial Crisis And Development: Whither Africa?

    The global economic crisis beginning in 2008 has come at a very inopportune time for Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) appeared to be on a march toward real economic and human progress, following the dismal performance of the 1980s and early 1990s. Economic growth had resurged since the mid-1990s, and was...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Triple Crisis And The Global Aid Architecture

    The global economy is passing through a period of profound change. The immediate concern is with the financial crisis, originating in the North. The South is affected via reduced demand and lower prices for their exports, reduced private financial flows, and falling remittances. This is the first crisis. Simultaneously, climate...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Global Economic Crisis: Towards Syndrome-free Recovery For Africa

    This paper outlines the impact of the global economic crisis on Africa. Recovery requires coordinated and consistent efforts to assist individual countries in mitigating (reducing) the risk, coping with the impact, and reducing risk over the longer term. Care should be exercised to maintain and improve good governance, which is...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Economic Efficiency And Growth: Evidence From Brazil, China, And India

    The authors compare economic efficiencies in Brazil, India, and China, where economic efficiency measures the gap between potential and actual output for a given input combination and technological factor. They use stochastic production frontier models to measure the contributions of factors of production and technology to growth and estimate non-positive...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    External Debt, Informal Economy And Growth

    The authors develop an endogenous growth model with overlapping generations taking into account important characteristics of the developing countries: high public external debt and large informal sector. They show that an increasing of the public external debt has two opposite effects. On the one hand, it enhances growth through a...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    High-growth Entrepreneurial Firms In Africa: A Quantile Regression Approach

    This paper studies the growth performance of a large set of entrepreneurial firms in ten manufacturing sectors of eleven Sub-Saharan African countries. The focus of the paper is on identifying those entrepreneurs' attributes and firm characteristics that tend to generate a significant number of high-growth firms in these countries. To...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Concepts And Operationalization Of Pro-poor Growth

    Growth that reduces poverty is often considered pro-poor regardless of whether the poor benefit from it more than the non-poor. Such growth could simply be termed poverty-reducing growth. This paper argues that for growth to be pro-poor it should disproportionally benefit the poor. The paper proposes an operational definition of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    When Unstable, Growth Is Less Pro-poor

    Macroeconomic instability has been increasingly considered as a factor lowering average income growth and, in this way, is a factor slowing down poverty reduction. But it can also result in slower poverty reduction for a given average rate of growth, due to poverty traps, often examined at the microeconomic level....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Exchange Rates And Outward Foreign Direct Investment: US FDI In Emerging Economies

    The paper investigates the impact of exchange rates on US Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows to a sample of 16 emerging market countries using annual panel data for the period 1990-2002. Three separate exchange rate effects are considered: the value of the local currency (a cheaper currency attracts FDI); expected...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Assessment Of Science And Technology Indicators In Sudan

    This paper employs both the descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development's definition of Science and Technology (S&T) indicators (OECD, 1997) to discuss S&T development in Sudan. The authors find that the low level and the insufficient financial and human resources devoted to S&T...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Natural Resource Industries, Tragedy Of The Commons And The Case Of Chilean Salmon Farming

    Chilean salmon farming has been considered as an outstanding example of success after growing at two digit rates for more than twenty years. With further insight, the authors now know that such rapid process of expansion came at the expense of sanitary and environmental deterioration. The outbreak of ISA -...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Measuring And Interpreting Trends In The Division Of Labour In The Netherlands

    This paper introduces indicators about the division of labour to measure and interpret recent trends in employment in the Netherlands. The authors show that changes in the division of labour occur at three different levels: the level of the individual worker, the level of the industry and the spatial level....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Making Your Own Future. Expectations And Occupation Choice

    The choice of a university career has a major saying in the future earnings and career opportunities of the individuals. In turn, prospective university students make their decisions mainly motivated by expectations of future rewards. Hence, understanding career choices requires, first, to be able to understand the expectations that students...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    The Bumpy Road Of Technology Partnerships: Understanding Causes And Consequences Of Partnership Mal-Functioning

    Research on technological partnerships has traditionally sought explanation of their high failure rates in partner characteristics and relationship features. This paper introduces the notion of a 'Bumpy road' in technology partnerships which refers to undesired outcomes such as 'Partnership mal-functioning' and 'Instability' to the degree to which innovation activities are...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Note On Testing For Complementarity And Substitutability In The Case Of Multiple Practices

    Recent empirical studies of firm-level performance have tested complementarity in the case of multiple practices. These papers have drawn conclusions using potentially biased estimates of pair-wise interaction effects. The authors develop a consistent and simple testing framework and test it against alternatives. Researchers in the fields of industrial organization and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Public R&D Subsidies And Productivity: Evidence From Firm-Level Data In Quebec

    This paper analyses empirically the impacts of public R&D grants on private R&D investments and on the productivity growth of the manufacturing firms in a context where fiscal incentives are present. Using the conditional semiparametric difference-indifferences estimator on longitudinal data from Quebec the authors show that firms that use public...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    New Organisational And Institutional Vehicles For Managing Innovation In South Asia: Opportunities For Using Research For Technical Change And Social Gain

    This paper sets out to explore the nature of new organisational and institutional vehicles for managing innovation in order to put research into use for social gain. There no longer remains any doubt that innovation is the means through which societies achieve their economic and social aspirations. The recent understanding...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Determinants Of PRO-Industry Interactions In Pharmaceutical R&D: The Case Of Mexico

    Interactive learning, particularly between firms and Public Research Organizations (PRO), nurtures the dynamics of systems of innovation. Limited interaction contributes to explain poor performance in R&D and ultimately, in innovation by developing countries. But why this is so? Based on evidence from the pharmaceutical industry in Mexico, this paper identifies...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Global Excellence At The Expense Of Local Relevance, Or A Bridge Between Two Worlds? Research In Science And Technology In The Developing World

    Do world-leading researchers from developing countries contribute to upgrading locally, or do they disengage from the local context? The paper investigates the scientific collaborations of university-based science and technology researchers in the database of the South African National Research Foundation (NRF), and analyses the co-authorships of researchers who were ranked...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Component-Based Software Engineering - The Need to Link Methods and Their Theories

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties and significant issues that authors need to consider when developing a formal method for component-based software engineering. Authors argue that to deal with the challenges, there is a need in research to link existing theories and methods of programming for effective support to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Strategic Partnering With Chinese Companies: Hidden Motives And Treasures

    In this paper the authors aim to investigate the key drivers of international alliance formation from the perspective of Chinese companies. The results indicate that Chinese companies enter into alliances with Western companies mainly to get accesses to international markets and to develop their technological and managerial competences further. Therefore...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    The WTO And Global Governance: Future Directions

    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) had far-reaching objectives: full employment, higher standards of living, growth of real income and expanded production and trade. With the World Trade Organization (WTO) came the added goal of the optimal use of the world's resources in accordance with sustainable development. Taken...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    What Does Innovation In Emerging Economies Have To Offer Other Low Income Economies?

    Between 1970 and 2000 the proportion of global R&D occurring in low income economies rose from two percent to more than 20 percent. However, this rising commitment to R&D does not easily translate into the emergence of a family of innovations meeting the needs of low income consumers "At the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Using Innovation Surveys For Econometric Analysis

    After presenting the history, the evolution and the content of innovation surveys, the authors discuss the characteristics of the data they contain and the challenge they pose to the analyst and the econometrician. They document the two uses that have been made of these data: the construction of scoreboards for...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    CSR And Market Changing Product Innovations: Indian Case Studies

    Do firms need to sacrifice profit while innovating in order to further social objectives, as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) would seem to suggest? To answer this question, the paper compiles a classification of innovations according to market impact and CSR potential. Then it details case studies of two Market Changing...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Entrepreneurship And The National System Of Innovation What Is Missing In Turkey?

    Although very dynamic and flexible, Turkish SMEs are less innovative than their European counterparts. The analysis undertaken in this paper allows assessing whether this low level of innovative activities is related to a lack of entrepreneurial behaviour and/or to the weaknesses of the Turkish innovation system. Exploring a unique firm...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Impact Of Government Support On R&D And Innovation

    This paper evaluates whether public support from innovation from the central government or the European Union spurs innovation in Austrian firms. The effect is estimated separately on R&D expenditures and the output side of innovation, measured by the share of total sales due to new or substantially modified products. A...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Entrepreneurship Development And The Role Of Economic Transition In Entrepreneurial Activities In China

    This paper aims to elaborate on the entrepreneurship development in China and the role of China's economic transition in Chinese entrepreneurial activities. The authors address China's institutional transition environment, which is argued as the necessary condition of entrepreneurship development and the 'Incubator' of three generations of entrepreneurial activities. They make...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Pro-Poor, Entrepreneur-Based Innovation And It's Role In Rural Development

    Innovation spurs economic growth and development. Pro-poor innovation in rural areas is more likely to occur through small-scale ventures and entrepreneurs than industrial research and development. Whilst previous rural development policies have focused on small-holder agriculture, the fact is that most rural poor are landless poor and therefore unlikely to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Financing Pro-Poor Entrepreneur-Based Innovation: A Review Of Existing Literature

    That innovation and entrepreneurship are important for poverty alleviation and development is well established. However, despite a general agreement that finance affects growth and development by supporting innovative activities in the economy, little has been written specifically on how pro-poor entrepreneur-based innovation in rural areas should be financed. This review...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    India's Rural Financial System: Does It Support Pro-Poor Innovation?

    From the perspective of poverty alleviation, socially relevant, or pro?]poor, rural innovation is of particular interest in a country like India since it is in rural areas that most of the poor live. Pro?]poor innovation in rural areas is more likely to occur through small?]scale ventures and entrepreneurs than industrial...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Assessing Innovations In International Research And Development Practice

    This paper integrates two distant bodies of literature - the literature on impact assessment of research and development interventions, and the literature on social psychology of assessing learning and innovations. Based on case studies of a series of projects implemented in India and Nepal under DFID's 11-year Renewable Natural Resources...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Bridging The Financing Gap For Pro-Poor Innovation: Towards A Framework

    In many developing countries, pro-poor entrepreneurship and innovation is facing a financing gap. Such innovation suffers from a lack of finance especially from the mainstream (or core) of the financial system. Instead, the little support that exists comes from alternative sources at the periphery of the financial system. This substantial...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Innovation Strategy, Firm Survival And Relocation: The Case Of Hong Kong-Owned Manufacturing In Guangdon Province, China

    Based on a survey adapted from the Fourth European Community Innovation Survey (CIS-4), this paper finds that, in the changing manufacturing environment of Guangdong province in China, Hong Kong-owned businesses that generate a higher share in new product sales as a percentage of total sales or engage in R&D or...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Interrupted Innovation: Innovation System Dynamics In Latecomer Aerospace Industries

    In this paper the authors analyse the role of sectoral innovation systems in the emergence and catch-up of aerospace industries in latecomer economies. They argue that the aerospace sector is characterized by a process of interrupted innovation. Competitive pressures and the cyclical nature of the industry not only require shifts...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Business Groups, Foreign Direct Investment, And Capital Goods Trade: The Import Behavior Of Japanese Affiliates

    The authors examine the impact of buyer-supplier relationships within business group on capital goods trade in the context of foreign direct investment by buyer firms and capital goods producers. A simple model in which cost-reducing relationship specific investments are underlying business group ties suggests that foreign affiliates of business group...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Social Impacts Of The Development Of Science, Technology And Innovation Indicators

    This paper examines the social impacts of the development of science, technology and innovation indicators. The approach deals separately with the development process and with the use of the indicators that result. Underlying the discussion is an assumption that indicators are a technology, a product, which governs behaviour, is modified...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Labour Market And Unemployment In Sudan

    This paper examines the structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of the analysis in this paper is that the authors explain several stylized facts on labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fifth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On The Delivery Of Pro-Poor Innovations: Managerial Lessons From Sanitation Activists In India

    There is an emerging body of literature that examines how pro-poor product innovations should be created and what business models should accompany them. However, there is little on actual implementation practises and the present paper attempts to fill this void by analyzing the findings of the literature and confronting them...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Drivers Of Brazilian Foreign Investments - Technology Seeking And Technology Exploiting As Determinants Of Emerging FDI

    The paper uses data from a recent survey on Brazilian firms to investigate the role of technology in the internationalization of firms, and whether if affects the destination of foreign investments. Emerging markets FDI is a much-debated topic these days, and their technology-seeking purpose is a strong driver for the...

    Provided By United Nations University