United Nations University

Displaying 1-40 of 260 results

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Political Connections And Investment In Rural Vietnam

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers' agricultural investment decisions. The authors' main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement as a result of relatives moving...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Institutional Reforms, Private Sector, And Economic Growth In Africa

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of institutional reforms on the revival of African economies. The authors study the impact of positive changes in business environment indicators of the Doing Business project and the Economic Freedom Index of the Heritage Foundation on the private sector development...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    The When And Where Of Research In Agricultural Innovation Trajectories: Evidence And Implications From Rius South Asia Projects

    The question of how agricultural research can best be used for developmental purposes is a topic of some debate in developmental circles. The idea that this is simply a question of better transfer of ideas from research to farmers has been largely discredited. Agricultural innovation is a process that takes...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Dynamics Of Biosciences Regulation And Opportunities For Biosciences Innovation In Africa: Exploring Regulatory Policy Brokering

    Knowledge brokering has been explored in the innovation literature to understand how different innovation tasks are organised toward technological development. This paper reflects upon the role of different organisations as knowledge brokers in regulatory policy processes towards putting biosciences research into use. It identifies a practical function-based typology that describes...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Beyond Knowledge Brokerage: An Exploratory Study Of Innovation Intermediaries In An Evolving Smallholder Agricultural System In Kenya

    The recognition that innovation occurs in networks of heterogeneous actors and requires broad systemic support beyond knowledge brokering has resulted in a changing landscape of the intermediary domain in an increasingly market-driven agricultural sector in developing countries. This paper presents findings of an explorative case study that looked at 22...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Emerging Country MNEs And The Role Of Home Countries: Separating Fact From Irrational Expectations

    This paper takes a look at the research on Emerging country MultiNational Enterprises (EMNEs) over the last 25 years, and argues that growth in EMNE activity over the last 10 years continues to be dominated by Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs), and to a lesser extent by Brazil, Russia, India...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Innovation Pathways And Policy Challenges At The Regional Level: Smart Specialisation

    This paper highlights the great diversity in development pathways and trajectories of innovation across European regions. A regional knowledge-based economy has multidimensional aspects. It includes a variety of knowledge activities and multiple interactions among a range of actors including universities, research institutes, enterprises, knowledge workers and institutions. The spatial patterns...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Technology Alliances In Emerging Economies: Persistence And Interrelation In European Firms Alliance Formation

    The authors analyze patterns and determinants of technology alliance formation with partner firms from emerging economies, with a focus on European firms' alliance strategies. They examine to what extent European firms' alliance formation with partners based in emerging economies is persistent, that is: to what extent prior collaborative experience determines...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Innovation And Diffusion Of Clean/Green Technology: Can Patent Commons Help?

    This paper explores the characteristics of 238 patents on 94 "Inventions" contributed by major multinational innovators to the "Eco-Patent Commons", which provides royalty-free access to third parties to patented climate change related innovations. By comparing the pledged patents to other patents in the same technologies or held by the same...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Are Health Care Payments In Albania Catastrophic? Evidence Form ALSMS 2002, 2005 And 2008

    The absent or poorly functioning risk pooling mechanisms and high amounts of out-of-pocket payments for health care expose households to financial risks associated with major illnesses or accidents. The aim of this paper is to analyse the extent to which out-of-pocket health spending impoverish the households in Albania. The paper...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    The Elusive Quest For The Golden Standard: Concepts, Policies And Practices Of Accountability In Development Cooperation

    Promoting public accountability plays an ever increasing role in the recent discourse on development cooperation. It is said to encourage a more efficient use of public funds, to decrease corruption, add to more legitimate, responsive and democratic institutions including government and therefore to enhance aid effectiveness (OECD/DAC, 2005). To realize...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Strengthening The Roles Of Political Parties In Public Accountability - A Case Study Of A New Approach In Political Party Assistance

    Donors in development cooperation increasingly emphasize the importance of public accountability in developing countries for the good functioning of democratic institutions, governance and the effectiveness of their aid. Political parties are prime actors in a democratic society that have essential roles to fulfill in public accountability. However, only few donors...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Voluntary Agreements And Community Development As CSR In Innovation Strategies

    The present paper examines how an innovating firm decides between two forms of Voluntary Agreements (VA) in a context, where a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) rather than a regulator watches over citizens' interests. The innovation generates profit and consumer surplus as well as environmental damage. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Promoting Return And Circular Migration Of The Highly Skilled

    Migration of skilled workers from developing countries has increased substantially in recent years. Traditionally, such patterns raised fears on the ground of the associated 'Brain drain' as human capital formation is considered to be of central importance to the development and reduction of poverty levels. Therefore, any loss of skilled...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    A Historical Perspective On Immigration And Social Protection In The Netherlands

    Immigrant access to social protection in the Netherlands has changed quite markedly over time. This paper discusses the changes from an historical perspective and introduces a theoretical framework (the Welfare Pentagon) explaining how immigrants cope with (economic) hardship when they do not have access to formal social protection. The relationship...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State-led Technological Development: A Case Of Chinas Nanotechnology Development

    The authors analyze the nanotechnology patent applications filed in China from 1998 to 2008 and find that the extraordinary nanotechnology development in China has been primarily promoted by the public sector but not driven by industry and market force. This finding implies that developing countries such as China with public...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Immigration And Growth In An Ageing Economy

    This paper argues that immigration can help to alleviate the burden ageing presents for the welfare states of most Western Economies. The authors develop a macroeconomic framework which deals with the impact of both ageing and immigration on economic growth. This is combined with a detailed model of the labour...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Microeconomic Analysis Of Rural Nonfarm Activities In The Kyrgyz Republic: What Determines Participation And Returns?

    This paper uses two representative household budget surveys from the Kyrgyz Republic to analyze factors influencing participation and returns from different types of nonfarm activities in 2005 and 2006. Nonfarm activities are found to be most important for the poor, who are pushed out of agriculture due to limited and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    How Does Colonial Origin Matter For Economic Performance In Sub- Saharan Africa?

    This paper investigates some of the existing hypotheses regarding the transmission of different colonial legacies to modern day economic growth. The fact that different colonial strategies were pursued by different colonizers in various territories suggests possible ramifications for current development paths. This paper attempts to understand why economic growth performance...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Aid And Growth

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of the growth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Terms Of Trade And Growth Of Resource Economies

    The current paper demonstrates a dichotomy of the growth response to changes in the barter terms of trade, employing as case studies the two African countries, Botswana and Nigeria. Using distributed-lag analysis, the paper finds that the effect of terms of trade on output is positive and negative for the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Absorptive Capacity In Technological Learning In Clean Development Mechanism Projects

    Technology transfer in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects of the Kyoto Protocol has become one of the important issues addressed both in policy agenda and by academic scholars. In many CDM project host countries, technology transfer is among the key provisions of sustainable development objectives of the CDM projects. This...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Social Impacts Of The Development Of Science, Technology And Innovation Indicators

    This paper examines the social impacts of the development of science, technology and innovation indicators. The approach deals separately with the development process and with the use of the indicators that result. Underlying the discussion is an assumption that indicators are a technology, a product, which governs behaviour, is modified...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Growth And Recovery In A Time Of Default

    International narratives on Argentina's recovery from the crisis of 2001-02 tend to emphasize the role of rising commodity prices and growing demand from China. Argentina is said to have been 'Lucky', saved by global demand for its agricultural exports. The international narrative has also been used by local agricultural exporters...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Exchange Rate Regimes And Trade

    This paper revisits the link between exchange rate regimes and trade in the context of Africa's exchange rate arrangements. Applying an augmented gravity model that includes measures of currency unions and pegged regimes, the paper compares Africa's experience with that of the world. The authors' results suggest that both currency...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Globalization Crises, Trade, And Development In Vietnam

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises - the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterization as an example of export-led growth and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    User Innovation And The Market

    This paper proposes a way of including in official statistics consumers as user innovators who modify or develop products for their own use. The issue addressed is the role of the market in the definition of innovation in the OECD/Eurostat Oslo Manual and the exclusion by the definition of consumers...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Assessing Risk Discourses: Nano S&T In The Global South

    Nano Science and Technology (Nano S&T) has potential to change our lives for the better, but at the same time, it causes also a significant amount of concern in terms of related health, environmental, ethical and societal risks. It is increasingly recognized that addressing these concerns requires appropriate governance of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Net-Immigration Of Developing Countries: The Role Of Economic Determinants, Disasters, Conflicts, And Political Instability

    The authors provide regressions for the net immigration flows of developing countries. They show that savings finance emigration and worker remittances serve to make staying rather than migrating possible; lagged dependent migration flows have a negative sign in the presence of migration stock variables; stocks of migrants in six OECD...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On Developing Countries' Terms Of Trade

    This paper first shows that important economic arguments in favor of the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis of falling terms of trade of developing countries have implicitly relied on the role of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment. As of yet, the relationship between the latter and terms of trade has not been...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Russia's Emerging Multinational Companies Amidst The Global Economic Crisis

    Internationalisation of Russian companies has become a distinctive phenomenon and has drawn attention of scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike. Newly emerged Russian companies have extended their presence from the nearest former Soviet republics to the advanced markets of Western Europe and Northern America. As most companies in the world, in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Sensitivity Of Loan Size To Lending Rates: Evidence From Ghana's Microfinance Sector

    This paper examines the combined effect of interest rates and poverty levels of microfinance clients on loan size. Cross section data on 2,691 clients and non-clients households from Ghana is used to test the hypothesis of loan price inelasticity. Quantile regression and variants of least squares methods that explore endogeneity...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Thailand's Development Strategy And Growth Performance

    Thailand's development strategy has been strongly market-oriented and open to trade and investment flows with the rest of the world. Since the late 1950s, its growth performance has been outstanding. Poverty incidence has declined dramatically, but economic inequality has increased. Economic progress has been reflected in very significant improvement in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Growth, Inequality, And Poverty Reduction In Developing Countries

    The paper presents recent global evidence on the transformation of economic growth to poverty reduction in developing countries, with emphasis on the role of income inequality. The focus is on the period since the early/mid-1990s when growth in these countries as a group has been relatively strong, surpassing that of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Assessment Of Gender Gap In Sudan

    This paper examines the gender gap in education and investigates the related implications on labour market and returns to education in Sudan. The results confirm two stylized facts: first, the incidence of significant gender gap in education in Sudan and second, the incidence of gender inequalities and gap in skill...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Assessment Of Effectiveness Of China Aid In Financing Development In Sudan

    This paper fills the gap in the Sudanese literature and discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. The authors find that the share of China in total loans and grants offered to Sudan greatly increased from 17% in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Labour Market And Unemployment In Sudan

    This paper examines the structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of the analysis in this paper is that the authors explain several stylized facts on labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fifth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Business Groups, Foreign Direct Investment, And Capital Goods Trade: The Import Behavior Of Japanese Affiliates

    The authors examine the impact of buyer-supplier relationships within business group on capital goods trade in the context of foreign direct investment by buyer firms and capital goods producers. A simple model in which cost-reducing relationship specific investments are underlying business group ties suggests that foreign affiliates of business group...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Incidence And Transfer Of Knowledge In The Arab Countries

    In this paper, the authors use the systematic, descriptive and statistical approaches, fill the gap in the Arab literature and present a more comprehensive analysis of the important ways of enhancing the incidence and transfer of knowledge in the Arab countries. Different from the conventional view in the literature that...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Natural Resource Industries, Tragedy Of The Commons And The Case Of Chilean Salmon Farming

    Chilean salmon farming has been considered as an outstanding example of success after growing at two digit rates for more than twenty years. With further insight, the authors now know that such rapid process of expansion came at the expense of sanitary and environmental deterioration. The outbreak of ISA -...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Linkages, Access To Finance And The Performance Of Small-Scale Enterprises In Kenya

    Micro- and Small-scale Enterprises (MSEs) have become important players in the Kenyan economy, but at the same time they continue to face constraints that limit their development. Lack of access to financial services is one of the main constraints, and a number of factors have been identified to explain this...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    The Financial Crisis Of 2008 And The Developing Countries

    Following the financial crisis that broke in the US and other Western economies in late 2008, there is now serious concern about its impact on the developing countries. The world media almost daily reports scenarios of gloom and doom, with many predicting a deep global recession. This paper critically discusses...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2006

    Women And Food Security In South Asia: Current Issues And Emerging Concerns

    The food security scenario in South Asia has witnessed rapid progress over the last few decades, yet nutrition outcomes, especially those related to women and children, have failed to keep pace. This paper contends that the role of women in providing food and nutrition security at the household and individual...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Political Regime, Private Investment, And Foreign Direct Investment In Developing Countries

    This paper uses annual aggregate data for 36 low or middle income countries covering the period 1995-2001 to investigate the effect of FDI on private investment. It also explores if the relationship between FDI and private investment is influenced by the nature of the political regime, using four governance measures...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Structural Change, Technology, And Economic Growth: Brazil And The CIBS In A Comparative Perspective

    Schumpeterian growth theory stresses the role of structural change in long run growth. Countries which increase the share of technology-intensive sectors in their economic structures benefit more from technological learning and innovation. In addition, the authors are more able to respond to changes in the international markets and to enter...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Trade With China And India And Manufacturing Labour Demand In Argentina

    For many in Latin America, the increasing participation of China and India in international markets is seen as a looming shadow of two 'Mighty giants' on the region's manufacturing sector. Are they really mighty giants when it comes to their impact on manufacturing employment? This paper attempts to answer this...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Brazil's Growth Performance

    This paper reviews Brazil's growth performance over the last quarter of a century and discusses the main determinants of a pick-up in growth since the mid-1990s. Emphasis is placed on the policy pay-offs associated with a consolidation of macroeconomic adjustment, which is a pre-condition for sustained growth. Structural reform based...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    The Danish Model And The Globalizing Learning Economy

    Although Denmark shares with the other four Nordic countries certain attributes, such as pragmatic protestant religion, small and homogenous population, strong social democratic parties and ambitious welfare states, it also has its own characteristics. High degree of specialization in the so-called low-tech sectors, combined with high mobility and income security...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Early International Entrepreneurship In China

    The authors use data on 3,948 Chinese firms obtained from the World Bank's Investment Climate Private Enterprise Survey to investigate early international entrepreneurship (international new ventures) in China. The extent of early international entrepreneurship in China is significant: 65 per cent of the exporting firms start export operations within three...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Entrepreneurship, Economic Growth And Policy In Emerging Economies

    Entrepreneurship has emerged as an important element in the organization of economies. This emergence did not occur simultaneously in all developed countries. Differences in growth rates are often attributed to differences in the speed with which countries embrace entrepreneurial energy. This led to the political mandate to promote entrepreneurship. Hence,...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Entrepreneurship Is Not A Binding Constraint On Growth And Development In The Poorest Countries

    It is often claimed that entrepreneurship is indispensable for economic growth and development. These claims are mostly generated by scholars working in the field of entrepreneurship and management studies. In contrast, development economics scholars seem to be less concerned about entrepreneurship in the development process who is right? The author...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Finnish Developmental State And Its Growth Regime

    This paper reviews Finland's growth strategy in the postwar decades. Finland was able to initiate an impressive mobilization of resources during this period, reflected mostly in a high rate of capital accumulation for manufacturing industries. This was achieved by an unorthodox combination of dirigiste means and a basic commitment to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Source Of Finance, Growth And Firm Size - Evidence From China

    Using a comprehensive firm-level dataset spanning the period 1998-2005, this paper provides a thorough investigation of the relationship between firm size, total factor productivity growth and financial structure in China, controlling for the endogeneity of the latter. Generally, it finds financing source matters for firms of different size, and the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Trading Inequality? Insights From The Two Globalizations In Latin America

    Trade flows among countries have increased dramatically during the last globalization episode creating new winners and losers between and within countries. This paper revisits the contested topic of the impact of globalization on within-country inequality in Latin America from a historical perspective. By comparing the two globalization waves (1870 -...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2007

    The Geographical Location Of Manufacturing Exporters In South Africa

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the location of export-oriented manufacturing firms in Africa (South Africa), and on how the patterns of location has changed over the past decade after the country embarked on trade liberalization. It is found that the proximity to a port is an important consideration in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalizing Households And Multi-Ethnic Community Building In Japan

    The East Asian countries are currently experiencing declining fertility rates and aging of their populations. The demographic transition is beginning to affect various societal functions, and increasing international migrants are becoming one of the responses to the transition, despite the historical reliance of these countries on their own domestic populations...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Resolving The World's Twin Debts Problem Simultaneously

    The decade of the 1980s has witnessed the emergence of a historically unprecedented world twin debt problem. On the one hand, the key currency country, the U.S., incurred deficits averaging $150 billion annually on current account in 1986 - 87, and at the end of 1987, the U.S. net external...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Sensitivity Of Loan Size To Lending Rates: Evidence From Ghana's Microfinance Sector

    This paper examines the combined effect of interest rates and poverty levels of microfinance clients on loan size. Cross section data on 2,691 clients and non-clients households from Ghana is used to test the hypothesis of loan price inelasticity. Quantile regression and variants of least squares methods that explore endogeneity...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    How Does Colonial Origin Matter For Economic Performance In Sub- Saharan Africa?

    This paper investigates some of the existing hypotheses regarding the transmission of different colonial legacies to modern day economic growth. The fact that different colonial strategies were pursued by different colonizers in various territories suggests possible ramifications for current development paths. This paper attempts to understand why economic growth performance...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Political Connections And Investment In Rural Vietnam

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers' agricultural investment decisions. The authors' main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement as a result of relatives moving...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Into The Void: Governing Finance In Central And Eastern Europe

    Twenty years after the fall of the iron curtain - which for decades had separated East from West - most countries of Central and Eastern Europe are now members of the European Union; some have even adopted the euro. Nonetheless, these countries have also remained exceptionally vulnerable to upset, including...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Growth And Trade Horizons For Asia

    Economic emergence of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and India has fundamentally altered the economic landscape of Asia and its relation to the global economy. Using the new dynamic global model, the authors present forecasts for Asian expansion over 2025. These baseline growth forecasts elucidate shifting patterns of regional...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Inequality And The Impact Of Growth On Poverty: Comparative Evidence For Sub-Saharan Africa

    This paper explores the extent to which inequality affects the impact of income growth on the rates of poverty changes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) comparatively with non-SSA, based on a global sample of 1977-2004 unbalanced panel data. For both regions and all three measures of poverty - headcount, gap, and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    A Structural Nonparametric Reappraisal Of The CO2 Emissions-Income Relationship

    Relying on a structural nonparametric estimation, the authors show that CO2 emissions clearly increase with income at low income levels. For higher income levels, they observe a decreasing relationship, though not significant. They also find that CO2 emissions monotonically increase with energy use at a decreasing rate. The concept of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Assessing Risk Discourses: Nano S&T In The Global South

    Nano Science and Technology (Nano S&T) has potential to change our lives for the better, but at the same time, it causes also a significant amount of concern in terms of related health, environmental, ethical and societal risks. It is increasingly recognized that addressing these concerns requires appropriate governance of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Inactions And Spikes Of Investment In Ethiopian Manufacturing Firms: Empirical Evidence On Irreversibility And Non-Convexities

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the effect of irreversibility and non-convexities in adjustment costs on firm investment decision based on 1996-2002 firm level data from the Ethiopian manufacturing. It relies on a rich census based panel data set that gives the advantage of disaggregating investment into different types of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    From Quantity To Quality: Challenges For Investment Promotion Agencies

    Most investment promotion agencies worldwide are now placing a higher emphasis on attracting high 'Quality' FDI, including R&D centers and headquarters functions as well as knowledge-intensive industries such as information and communication technologies, biotechnology or nanotechnology. The authors argue that this requires a different approach than policies focused on the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    R&D Behaviour And The Emergence Of Fat-Tailed Firm Size Distributions

    This paper presents a simple boundedly rational model of a firm and consumer behaviour. The authors formulate an entry game, where every firm decides on investing in R&D for inventing a new product that will appeal to certain group of consumers. The success depends on the amount of funds available...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Incubators As Tools For Entrepreneurship Promotion In Developing Countries

    This paper reviews the literature on incubators in developed and developing countries. The authors show that the concept of incubators has evolved in time according to market and firm needs. Contemporary successful incubators are profit-oriented, provide a wide range of services, focus more on intangible business services, and employ qualified...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Firm Ownership, FOEs, And POEs

    Where the theory of free competition reigns, developing countries should open their arms to investments from all types of enterprises in order to maximize jobs. Ownership, measured by votes of shareholders or boards of directors, is immaterial to performance. Matters change drastically, though, when competition depends on monopolistic assets and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Inertia, Interaction And Clustering In Demand

    The authors present a discrete choice model of consumption that incorporates two empirically validated aspects of consumer behaviour: inertia in consumption and interaction among consumers. They specify the interaction structure as a regular lattice with consumers interacting only with immediate neighbours. They investigate the equilibrium behaviour of the resulting system...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Explaining The Lack Of Dynamics In The Diffusion Of Small Stationary Fuel Cells

    Using the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to water in order to produce electricity and heat, promises a high electrical efficiency even in small devices which can be installed close to the consumer. This approach seems to be an impressive idea to contribute to a viable future energy supply under...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Fits And Misfits: Technological Matching And R&D Networks

    This paper presents an economic model of R&D network formation through the creation of strategic alliances. Firms are randomly endowed with knowledge elements. They base their alliance decisions purely on the technological fit of potential partners, ignoring social capital considerations and indirect benefits on the network. This is sufficient to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Internationalization Of Chinese Firms In Europe

    Since end of the 1990s, the world has been witnessing a phenomenon of internationalisation of Chinese companies. This internationalisation is often understood through FDI inflows, whereby multinational companies establish their presence in a form of subsidiaries overseas. However, lately many companies (and Chinese firms in particular) started to use strategic...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Alliance-Based Network View On Chinese Firms? Catching-Up: Case Study Of Huawei Technologies Co.Ltd

    With China's rapid economic growth in recent years, many Chinese firms especially in high-tech industries have started to technically lead in the international market. In this paper, the authors aim to uncover the root causes that lead to Chinese firms' catching up from network perspective. By taking Huawei Technologies Co....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Reverse Knowledge Transfer And Its Implications For European Policy

    There is a growing international dispersion of R&D activities by MNEs for the purposes of maintaining and augmenting their knowledge assets. Firms need to tap into alternative knowledge sources, as home countries are rarely able to meet all their technological needs. However, accessing to foreign knowledge implies integration with the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Attracting And Embedding R&D By Multinational Firms: Policy Recommendations For EU New Member States

    This paper asks: what can governments of new member states do to encourage MNEs to invest in R&D? There are two types of MNE R&D. Innovation can be undertaken in order to adapt its existing products and services to local stimuli. This is 'Demand-driven R&D'. Innovation can also be in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Preparing For The Next, Very Long Crisis: Towards A ?Cool? Science And Technology Policy Agenda For A Globally Warming Economy

    This short paper on a very big subject deals with a worry - a worry that the present economic crisis is likely to contribute to the already-existing temptations of governmental and private actors alike to behave in a time-inconsistent fashion when responding to the challenge of climate change. The specific...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Designing Plans For Organizational Development, Lessons From Three Large-Scale SME-Initiatives

    This paper reflects upon the way that the authors balanced design and development in three specific case projects in order to contribute to creating and accumulating knowledge that is both relevant to practitioners and academics. More specifically, it is shown how learning within one project was used to improve the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2009

    The Impact Of The Credit Crisis On Poor Developing Countries: Growth, Worker Remittances, Accumulation And Migration

    The credit crisis of OECD countries has a negative impact on the growth of the world economy according to a simple error correction model. This causes negative growth effects in poor developing countries. The reduced growth has a direct or indirect impact on the convergence issue, aid, remittances, labour force...

    Provided By United Nations University