United Nations University

Displaying 1-40 of 225 results

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Political Connections And Investment In Rural Vietnam

    This paper uses household panel data from rural Vietnam to explore the effects of having a relative in a position of political or bureaucratic power on farmers' agricultural investment decisions. The authors' main result is that households significantly increase their investment in land improvement as a result of relatives moving...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Institutional Reforms, Private Sector, And Economic Growth In Africa

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of institutional reforms on the revival of African economies. The authors study the impact of positive changes in business environment indicators of the Doing Business project and the Economic Freedom Index of the Heritage Foundation on the private sector development...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    The When And Where Of Research In Agricultural Innovation Trajectories: Evidence And Implications From Rius South Asia Projects

    The question of how agricultural research can best be used for developmental purposes is a topic of some debate in developmental circles. The idea that this is simply a question of better transfer of ideas from research to farmers has been largely discredited. Agricultural innovation is a process that takes...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Dynamics Of Biosciences Regulation And Opportunities For Biosciences Innovation In Africa: Exploring Regulatory Policy Brokering

    Knowledge brokering has been explored in the innovation literature to understand how different innovation tasks are organised toward technological development. This paper reflects upon the role of different organisations as knowledge brokers in regulatory policy processes towards putting biosciences research into use. It identifies a practical function-based typology that describes...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Beyond Knowledge Brokerage: An Exploratory Study Of Innovation Intermediaries In An Evolving Smallholder Agricultural System In Kenya

    The recognition that innovation occurs in networks of heterogeneous actors and requires broad systemic support beyond knowledge brokering has resulted in a changing landscape of the intermediary domain in an increasingly market-driven agricultural sector in developing countries. This paper presents findings of an explorative case study that looked at 22...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Emerging Country MNEs And The Role Of Home Countries: Separating Fact From Irrational Expectations

    This paper takes a look at the research on Emerging country MultiNational Enterprises (EMNEs) over the last 25 years, and argues that growth in EMNE activity over the last 10 years continues to be dominated by Asian Newly Industrialised Countries (NICs), and to a lesser extent by Brazil, Russia, India...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Innovation Pathways And Policy Challenges At The Regional Level: Smart Specialisation

    This paper highlights the great diversity in development pathways and trajectories of innovation across European regions. A regional knowledge-based economy has multidimensional aspects. It includes a variety of knowledge activities and multiple interactions among a range of actors including universities, research institutes, enterprises, knowledge workers and institutions. The spatial patterns...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Technology Alliances In Emerging Economies: Persistence And Interrelation In European Firms Alliance Formation

    The authors analyze patterns and determinants of technology alliance formation with partner firms from emerging economies, with a focus on European firms' alliance strategies. They examine to what extent European firms' alliance formation with partners based in emerging economies is persistent, that is: to what extent prior collaborative experience determines...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Innovation And Diffusion Of Clean/Green Technology: Can Patent Commons Help?

    This paper explores the characteristics of 238 patents on 94 "Inventions" contributed by major multinational innovators to the "Eco-Patent Commons", which provides royalty-free access to third parties to patented climate change related innovations. By comparing the pledged patents to other patents in the same technologies or held by the same...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Are Health Care Payments In Albania Catastrophic? Evidence Form ALSMS 2002, 2005 And 2008

    The absent or poorly functioning risk pooling mechanisms and high amounts of out-of-pocket payments for health care expose households to financial risks associated with major illnesses or accidents. The aim of this paper is to analyse the extent to which out-of-pocket health spending impoverish the households in Albania. The paper...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    The Elusive Quest For The Golden Standard: Concepts, Policies And Practices Of Accountability In Development Cooperation

    Promoting public accountability plays an ever increasing role in the recent discourse on development cooperation. It is said to encourage a more efficient use of public funds, to decrease corruption, add to more legitimate, responsive and democratic institutions including government and therefore to enhance aid effectiveness (OECD/DAC, 2005). To realize...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Strengthening The Roles Of Political Parties In Public Accountability - A Case Study Of A New Approach In Political Party Assistance

    Donors in development cooperation increasingly emphasize the importance of public accountability in developing countries for the good functioning of democratic institutions, governance and the effectiveness of their aid. Political parties are prime actors in a democratic society that have essential roles to fulfill in public accountability. However, only few donors...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Voluntary Agreements And Community Development As CSR In Innovation Strategies

    The present paper examines how an innovating firm decides between two forms of Voluntary Agreements (VA) in a context, where a Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) rather than a regulator watches over citizens' interests. The innovation generates profit and consumer surplus as well as environmental damage. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) within the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Promoting Return And Circular Migration Of The Highly Skilled

    Migration of skilled workers from developing countries has increased substantially in recent years. Traditionally, such patterns raised fears on the ground of the associated 'Brain drain' as human capital formation is considered to be of central importance to the development and reduction of poverty levels. Therefore, any loss of skilled...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    A Historical Perspective On Immigration And Social Protection In The Netherlands

    Immigrant access to social protection in the Netherlands has changed quite markedly over time. This paper discusses the changes from an historical perspective and introduces a theoretical framework (the Welfare Pentagon) explaining how immigrants cope with (economic) hardship when they do not have access to formal social protection. The relationship...

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  • White Papers // May 2011

    State-led Technological Development: A Case Of Chinas Nanotechnology Development

    The authors analyze the nanotechnology patent applications filed in China from 1998 to 2008 and find that the extraordinary nanotechnology development in China has been primarily promoted by the public sector but not driven by industry and market force. This finding implies that developing countries such as China with public...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Immigration And Growth In An Ageing Economy

    This paper argues that immigration can help to alleviate the burden ageing presents for the welfare states of most Western Economies. The authors develop a macroeconomic framework which deals with the impact of both ageing and immigration on economic growth. This is combined with a detailed model of the labour...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Microeconomic Analysis Of Rural Nonfarm Activities In The Kyrgyz Republic: What Determines Participation And Returns?

    This paper uses two representative household budget surveys from the Kyrgyz Republic to analyze factors influencing participation and returns from different types of nonfarm activities in 2005 and 2006. Nonfarm activities are found to be most important for the poor, who are pushed out of agriculture due to limited and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    How Does Colonial Origin Matter For Economic Performance In Sub- Saharan Africa?

    This paper investigates some of the existing hypotheses regarding the transmission of different colonial legacies to modern day economic growth. The fact that different colonial strategies were pursued by different colonizers in various territories suggests possible ramifications for current development paths. This paper attempts to understand why economic growth performance...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Aid And Growth

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms of the growth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Terms Of Trade And Growth Of Resource Economies

    The current paper demonstrates a dichotomy of the growth response to changes in the barter terms of trade, employing as case studies the two African countries, Botswana and Nigeria. Using distributed-lag analysis, the paper finds that the effect of terms of trade on output is positive and negative for the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Social Impacts Of The Development Of Science, Technology And Innovation Indicators

    This paper examines the social impacts of the development of science, technology and innovation indicators. The approach deals separately with the development process and with the use of the indicators that result. Underlying the discussion is an assumption that indicators are a technology, a product, which governs behaviour, is modified...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Absorptive Capacity In Technological Learning In Clean Development Mechanism Projects

    Technology transfer in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects of the Kyoto Protocol has become one of the important issues addressed both in policy agenda and by academic scholars. In many CDM project host countries, technology transfer is among the key provisions of sustainable development objectives of the CDM projects. This...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Growth And Recovery In A Time Of Default

    International narratives on Argentina's recovery from the crisis of 2001-02 tend to emphasize the role of rising commodity prices and growing demand from China. Argentina is said to have been 'Lucky', saved by global demand for its agricultural exports. The international narrative has also been used by local agricultural exporters...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Exchange Rate Regimes And Trade

    This paper revisits the link between exchange rate regimes and trade in the context of Africa's exchange rate arrangements. Applying an augmented gravity model that includes measures of currency unions and pegged regimes, the paper compares Africa's experience with that of the world. The authors' results suggest that both currency...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Globalization Crises, Trade, And Development In Vietnam

    Vietnam has been among the most successful East Asian economies, especially in weathering the external shocks of recent globalization crises - the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis and the 2008-09 great recession, financial crisis and collapse of global trade. Its success contradicts its characterization as an example of export-led growth and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    User Innovation And The Market

    This paper proposes a way of including in official statistics consumers as user innovators who modify or develop products for their own use. The issue addressed is the role of the market in the definition of innovation in the OECD/Eurostat Oslo Manual and the exclusion by the definition of consumers...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Assessing Risk Discourses: Nano S&T In The Global South

    Nano Science and Technology (Nano S&T) has potential to change our lives for the better, but at the same time, it causes also a significant amount of concern in terms of related health, environmental, ethical and societal risks. It is increasingly recognized that addressing these concerns requires appropriate governance of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Net-Immigration Of Developing Countries: The Role Of Economic Determinants, Disasters, Conflicts, And Political Instability

    The authors provide regressions for the net immigration flows of developing countries. They show that savings finance emigration and worker remittances serve to make staying rather than migrating possible; lagged dependent migration flows have a negative sign in the presence of migration stock variables; stocks of migrants in six OECD...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Foreign Direct Investment On Developing Countries' Terms Of Trade

    This paper first shows that important economic arguments in favor of the Prebisch-Singer hypothesis of falling terms of trade of developing countries have implicitly relied on the role of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment. As of yet, the relationship between the latter and terms of trade has not been...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Russia's Emerging Multinational Companies Amidst The Global Economic Crisis

    Internationalisation of Russian companies has become a distinctive phenomenon and has drawn attention of scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike. Newly emerged Russian companies have extended their presence from the nearest former Soviet republics to the advanced markets of Western Europe and Northern America. As most companies in the world, in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Labour Market And Unemployment In Sudan

    This paper examines the structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of the analysis in this paper is that the authors explain several stylized facts on labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fifth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Thailand's Development Strategy And Growth Performance

    Thailand's development strategy has been strongly market-oriented and open to trade and investment flows with the rest of the world. Since the late 1950s, its growth performance has been outstanding. Poverty incidence has declined dramatically, but economic inequality has increased. Economic progress has been reflected in very significant improvement in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Growth, Inequality, And Poverty Reduction In Developing Countries

    The paper presents recent global evidence on the transformation of economic growth to poverty reduction in developing countries, with emphasis on the role of income inequality. The focus is on the period since the early/mid-1990s when growth in these countries as a group has been relatively strong, surpassing that of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Sensitivity Of Loan Size To Lending Rates: Evidence From Ghana's Microfinance Sector

    This paper examines the combined effect of interest rates and poverty levels of microfinance clients on loan size. Cross section data on 2,691 clients and non-clients households from Ghana is used to test the hypothesis of loan price inelasticity. Quantile regression and variants of least squares methods that explore endogeneity...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Assessment Of Gender Gap In Sudan

    This paper examines the gender gap in education and investigates the related implications on labour market and returns to education in Sudan. The results confirm two stylized facts: first, the incidence of significant gender gap in education in Sudan and second, the incidence of gender inequalities and gap in skill...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Assessment Of Effectiveness Of China Aid In Financing Development In Sudan

    This paper fills the gap in the Sudanese literature and discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. The authors find that the share of China in total loans and grants offered to Sudan greatly increased from 17% in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Business Groups, Foreign Direct Investment, And Capital Goods Trade: The Import Behavior Of Japanese Affiliates

    The authors examine the impact of buyer-supplier relationships within business group on capital goods trade in the context of foreign direct investment by buyer firms and capital goods producers. A simple model in which cost-reducing relationship specific investments are underlying business group ties suggests that foreign affiliates of business group...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Incidence And Transfer Of Knowledge In The Arab Countries

    In this paper, the authors use the systematic, descriptive and statistical approaches, fill the gap in the Arab literature and present a more comprehensive analysis of the important ways of enhancing the incidence and transfer of knowledge in the Arab countries. Different from the conventional view in the literature that...

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  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Natural Resource Industries, Tragedy Of The Commons And The Case Of Chilean Salmon Farming

    Chilean salmon farming has been considered as an outstanding example of success after growing at two digit rates for more than twenty years. With further insight, the authors now know that such rapid process of expansion came at the expense of sanitary and environmental deterioration. The outbreak of ISA -...

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  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Component-Based Software Engineering - The Need to Link Methods and Their Theories

    This paper discusses some of the difficulties and significant issues that authors need to consider when developing a formal method for component-based software engineering. Authors argue that to deal with the challenges, there is a need in research to link existing theories and methods of programming for effective support to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Strategic Partnering With Chinese Companies: Hidden Motives And Treasures

    In this paper the authors aim to investigate the key drivers of international alliance formation from the perspective of Chinese companies. The results indicate that Chinese companies enter into alliances with Western companies mainly to get accesses to international markets and to develop their technological and managerial competences further. Therefore...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Using Innovation Surveys For Econometric Analysis

    After presenting the history, the evolution and the content of innovation surveys, the authors discuss the characteristics of the data they contain and the challenge they pose to the analyst and the econometrician. They document the two uses that have been made of these data: the construction of scoreboards for...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    CSR And Market Changing Product Innovations: Indian Case Studies

    Do firms need to sacrifice profit while innovating in order to further social objectives, as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) would seem to suggest? To answer this question, the paper compiles a classification of innovations according to market impact and CSR potential. Then it details case studies of two Market Changing...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Growth Of Knowledge-Intensive Entrepreneurship In India, 1991 - 2007

    There is enough consensus to show that India's economic performance since 1991 is a direct result of the economic liberalization measures that have been put in place. One of the outcomes of this improved performance is the growth of innovations in the country. This was accompanied by or caused by...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship And Development

    Industrialization has long been seen as the answer to underdevelopment and poverty. First this led countries to follow protectionist import substitution policies but as these failed developing countries have opened up to trade and FDI and tried to follow strategies of export driven industrialization. If the authors consider the share...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Drivers And Barriers Of Innovation Dynamics In Healthcare Towards A Framework For Analyzing Innovation In Tuberculosis Control In India

    Tuberculosis remains the biggest infectious killer in India and worldwide, and it has recently regained substantial international attention with its come-back in drug resistant forms. The environment, the disease and the societal response to it are changing and with it challenges and opportunities to control the disease. Innovation in a...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Standards As A Platform For Innovation And Learning In The Global Economy: A Case Study Of Chilean Salmon Farming Industry

    Conventionally, standards are considered as a governance tool in the production system in a one-directional and hierarchical relationship between foreign Trans-National Corporations (TNCs) or global buyers on one hand and subsidiaries and producers on the other. They were considered as transmitting necessary specifications of goods - codified knowledge - to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Social Impacts Of The Development Of Science, Technology And Innovation Indicators

    This paper examines the social impacts of the development of science, technology and innovation indicators. The approach deals separately with the development process and with the use of the indicators that result. Underlying the discussion is an assumption that indicators are a technology, a product, which governs behaviour, is modified...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On The Delivery Of Pro-Poor Innovations: Managerial Lessons From Sanitation Activists In India

    There is an emerging body of literature that examines how pro-poor product innovations should be created and what business models should accompany them. However, there is little on actual implementation practises and the present paper attempts to fill this void by analyzing the findings of the literature and confronting them...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Importance Of Technological Innovation For SME Growth Evidence From India

    This paper probes the drivers, dimensions, achievements, and outcomes of technological innovations carried out by SMEs in the auto components, electronics, and machine tool sectors of Bangalore in India. Further, it ascertains the growth rates of innovative SMEs vis-?-vis no innovative SMEs in terms of sales turnover, employment, and investment....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Labour Market And Unemployment In Sudan

    This paper examines the structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of the analysis in this paper is that the authors explain several stylized facts on labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fifth...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Drivers Of Brazilian Foreign Investments - Technology Seeking And Technology Exploiting As Determinants Of Emerging FDI

    The paper uses data from a recent survey on Brazilian firms to investigate the role of technology in the internationalization of firms, and whether if affects the destination of foreign investments. Emerging markets FDI is a much-debated topic these days, and their technology-seeking purpose is a strong driver for the...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Economic Adversity And Entrepreneurship-Led Growth Lessons From The Indian Software Sector

    It is commonly believed that the business environment in developing countries does not allow productive technology-based entrepreneurship to flourish. In this paper, the authors draw on the experience of Indian software firms where entrepreneurial growth has belied these predictions. This paper argues that the business models chosen by Indian firms...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Human Resource Management And Learning For Innovation: Pharmaceuticals In Mexico

    This paper investigates the influence of human resource management on learning from internal and external sources of knowledge. Learning for innovation is a key ingredient of catching-up processes. The analysis builds on survey data about pharmaceutical firms in Mexico. Results show that the influence of human resource management is contingent...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Endogenous Economic Growth Through Connectivity

    In this paper the authors show the benefits of regional connectivity and specialization to growth. Starting with one region they show how welfare measured by utility per head increases as the number of connected regions increase. They assume a common connectivity infrastructure implemented by satellite, through which the 'Great Connector'...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Business Groups, Foreign Direct Investment, And Capital Goods Trade: The Import Behavior Of Japanese Affiliates

    The authors examine the impact of buyer-supplier relationships within business group on capital goods trade in the context of foreign direct investment by buyer firms and capital goods producers. A simple model in which cost-reducing relationship specific investments are underlying business group ties suggests that foreign affiliates of business group...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Impact Internet and E-Commerce on the Labour Market

    As the impact of e-commerce becomes more widely felt through the community, its implications are becoming apparent to all sectors of society even those which have hitherto tended to see the new economy as irrelevant to their activities. Impact of computers and ICTs on business and economic growth and productivity...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    A Multilevel Analysis Of Innovation In Developing Countries

    Innovation is a multilevel phenomenon. Not only characteristics of firms but also environment within which firms operate matter. Although this has been for long recognized in the literature, a quantitative test that explicitly concerns the hypothesis that framework conditions affect innovativeness of firms remains lacking. Using a large sample of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Knowledge-Based Productivity In 'Low-Tech' Industries: Evidence From Firms In Developing Countries

    Using firm level data from five countries - Brazil, Ecuador, South Africa, Tanzania and Bangladesh - this paper examines the knowledge-based determinants of productivity of firms active in food processing, textiles, and garments and leather products. In particular, it seeks to investigate the importance of various sources of knowledge in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Crafting Firm Competencies To Improve Innovative Performance

    Recent interdisciplinary research suggests that customer and technological competencies have a direct, unconditional effect on firms' innovative performance. This paper extends this stream of literature by considering the effect of organizational competencies. Results from a survey-research executed in the fast moving consumer goods industry suggest that firms that craft organizational...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Embedding Research In Society: Development Assistance Options For Supporting Agricultural Innovation In A Global Knowledge Economy

    The emergence of a globalised knowledge economy, and the contemporary views of innovation capacity that this trend enables and informs, provides a new context in which development assistance to agricultural research and development needs to be considered. The main argument in this paper, which focuses on The Netherlands, is that...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Entrepreneurship And Innovation Strategies In ICT SMEs In Enlarged Europe (EU25)

    Innovation strategies of entrepreneurs are mapped with growth and performance of their firms in this paper. Findings of the study are based on the data collected from 1238 small ICT firms located in 25 member states of European Union. The survey was conducted during October 2006 and March 2007. Results...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Direct Investment And Firm Level Productivity A Panel Data Analysis

    This paper uses panel data to examine the effect of foreign presence on firm level productivity in the Kenyan manufacturing industry employing "Traditional" and "Recent" methodologies both based on production function framework. A detailed comparative behaviour between foreign and local indigenous firms showed that foreign firms dominated in virtually all...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    A New Nexus Between Foreign Direct Investment, Industrial And Innovation Policies

    This paper deals with the interplay between Foreign Direct investment (FDI) and the industrial and innovation policies of host developing economies. It aims to redefine the nexus between these different, though yet strongly interconnected policy areas, by bringing the affiliates of multinational corporations already established in a host economy to...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Determinants Of The Outward Foreign Direct Investment Of China and India: Whither The Home Country?

    The current paper examines the relationships between several home country-specific macroeconomic factors and the level of the outward FDI of China and India using multiple time-series data from 1982 to 2006 and from 1980 to 2006, respectively. With the use of a vector autoregressive model assessing the causal relationships of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Redefining Foreign Direct Investment Policy: A Two Dimensional Framework

    Many countries in the world have adopted policies to attract Foreign Direct investment (FDI), placing the traditional focus on the maximisation of FDI flows, what can be labelled as a quantitative approach. Recently it has been argued that the FDI policy should be more selective, promoting good quality FDI inflows....

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Voyage Of The Beagle In Innovation Systems Land. Explorations On Sectors, Innovation, Heterogeneity And Selection

    The aim of the paper is to assess heterogeneity of the innovation process. Using exploratory factor analysis on micro data from the third Community Innovation Survey in 13 countries, the authors identify four factors that that can be interpreted as research, user, external and production ingredients of innovation. All too...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Rough Road To Market: Institutional Barriers To Innovations In Africa

    Translating R&D and inventive efforts into a market product is characterized by significant financial skills, and the ability to overcome technical and institutional barriers. Research into and translation of new technologies such as biotechnology products to the market requires even greater resources. This paper aims to understand the key factors...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Impact Of Government Support On R&D And Innovation

    This paper evaluates whether public support from innovation from the central government or the European Union spurs innovation in Austrian firms. The effect is estimated separately on R&D expenditures and the output side of innovation, measured by the share of total sales due to new or substantially modified products. A...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Entrepreneurship Development And The Role Of Economic Transition In Entrepreneurial Activities In China

    This paper aims to elaborate on the entrepreneurship development in China and the role of China's economic transition in Chinese entrepreneurial activities. The authors address China's institutional transition environment, which is argued as the necessary condition of entrepreneurship development and the 'Incubator' of three generations of entrepreneurial activities. They make...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Financing Pro-Poor Entrepreneur-Based Innovation: A Review Of Existing Literature

    That innovation and entrepreneurship are important for poverty alleviation and development is well established. However, despite a general agreement that finance affects growth and development by supporting innovative activities in the economy, little has been written specifically on how pro-poor entrepreneur-based innovation in rural areas should be financed. This review...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Types Of Entrepreneurship And Economic Growth

    In this paper, the authors empirically investigate the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth at the country level. They use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, which provides comparative data on entrepreneurship from a wide range of countries. An important element of this paper is that they compare the effects...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Is That Innovation? Assessing Examples Of Revitalized Economic Dynamics Among Clusters Of Small Producers In Northern Vietnam

    This paper addresses the question whether innovation is within reach for small enterprises in developing economies by studying four cases of new technologies, products and business practices in traditional craft in Northern Vietnam. The paper starts with reviewing definitions of innovation since Schumpeter. It concludes that newness, value creation and...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Technology Frontier, Labor Productivity And Economic Growth: Evidence From OECD Countries

    The authors use 29 OECD countries data spanning over 1960-2000 to study the growth strategy when countries are close to the technology frontier. Relying on a semi-parametric generalized additive model, they estimate labor productivity equations. They find that the number of agents enrolled in higher education is a determinant of...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Systems Of Innovation

    The authors review the literature on national innovation systems. They first focus on the emergence of the concept of innovation systems, reviewing its historical origins and three main flavours (associated to three "Founding fathers" of the concept). After this, they discuss how the notion of innovation systems filled a need...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Tacit Knowledge And Innovation Capacity: Evidence From The Indian Livestock Sector

    To cope and compete in this rapidly-changing world, organisations need to access and apply new knowledge. While explicit knowledge is important, what is often critical is an organisation's ability to create access, share and apply the tacit or un-codified knowledge that exists among its members, its network and the wider...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    A Different Look At Inward FDI Into Mainland China

    This paper aims to find out the relationship between inward FDI into China and China's economic development. According to the descriptive analysis of FDI data from 1980 till 2007, the authors found that there is a sectoral and regional biased distribution with regard to the inward FDI into China; they...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Environmental Innovation: Using Qualitative Models To Identify Indicators For Policy

    Environmental innovation is an essential part of a knowledge based economy, as environmental innovation makes economies more efficient by encouraging and facilitating the use of fewer material or energy inputs per unit of output. In this respect, environmental innovation replaces material inputs with knowledge. Environmental innovation should also result in...

    Provided By United Nations University

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Innovation Policy, Entrepreneurship, And Development: A Finnish View

    This paper first reviews the economic rationales for innovation policy. It then describes the Finnish innovation policy and policy making environment. The Finnish policy is evaluated from the point of view of fostering entrepreneurship. R&D subsidies, the main tool of Finnish innovation policy, may not be a very effective way...

    Provided By United Nations University