Universite Catholique de Louvain

Displaying 1-40 of 118 results

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Spectral Estimation of Conditional Random Graph Models for Large-Scale Network Data

    Generative models for graphs have been typically committed to strong prior assumptions concerning the form of the modeled distributions. Moreover, the vast majority of currently available models are either only suitable for characterizing some particular network properties (such as degree distribution or clustering coefficient), or they are aimed at estimating...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Cryptanalysis of the CHES 2009/2010 Random Delay Countermeasure

    Inserting random delays in cryptographic implementations is often used as a countermeasure against side-channel attacks. Most previous works on the topic focus on improving the statistical distribution of these delays. For example, efficient random delay generation algorithms have been proposed at CHES 2009/2010. These solutions increase security against attacks that...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Yet Another Ultralightweight Authentication Protocol That Is Broken

    Eghdamian and Samsudin published at ICIEIS 2011 an ultralight-weight mutual authentication protocol that requires few bitwise operations. The simplicity of the design makes the protocol very suitable to low-cost RFID tags. However, the authors demonstrate in this paper that the long-term key shared by the reader and the tag can...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    The Paths Towards IPv6 Multihoming

    Multihoming, the practice of connecting to multiple providers, is becoming highly popular. Due to the growth of the BGP routing tables in the Internet, the way to get multihomed in IPv6 is required to allow route aggregation in order to preserve the scalability of the interdomain routing system. After several...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Untangling RFID Privacy Models

    This paper investigates privacy in Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) systems. They survey the eight most well-known RFID privacy models. They examine their advantages and drawbacks, and provide a comprehensive comparison of these models. The first conclusion is that none of these models is complete, and the association of all their...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Elliptic Curve Cryptography in JavaScript

    The authors document their development of a library for elliptic curve cryptography in JavaScript. They discuss design choices and investigate optimizations at various levels, from integer multiplication and field selection to various fixed-based EC point multiplication techniques. Relying on a small volume of public precomputed data, their code provides a...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    An Optimal Key Enumeration Algorithm and its Application to Side-Channel Attacks

    Methods for enumerating cryptographic keys based on partial information obtained on key bytes are important tools in cryptanalysis. This paper discusses two contributions related to the practical application and algorithmic improvement of such tools. As a result, cryptographic key sizes for such ciphers typically range between 80 and 128 bits....

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Efficient Methods for Exploiting Faults Induced at AES Middle Rounds

    Faults occurred during the operations in a hardware device cause many problems such as performance deterioration, unreliable output, etc. If a fault occurs in a cryptographic hardware device, the effect can be even serious because an adversary may exploit it to find the secret information stored in the device. More...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Traffic Engineering for Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol in Large Data Centers

    The size of the capacity of data centers have been growing significantly during the last years. Most data centers rely on switched Ethernet networks. A drawback of the Ethernet technology is that it relies on the spanning tree protocol (or variants of it) to select the links that are used...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Univariate Side Channel Attacks and Leakage Modeling

    Differential power analysis is a powerful cryptanalytic technique that exploits information leaking from physical implementations of cryptographic algorithms. During the two last decades numerous variations of the original principle have been published. In particular, the univariate case, where a single instantaneous leakage is exploited, has attracted much research effort. In...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Rectangular Patch Antenna Performances Improvement Employing Slotted Rectangular Shaped for WLAN Applications

    Recently, there has been a growing demand of microwave, and wireless communication systems in various applications resulting in an interest to improve antenna performances. Modern communication systems and instruments such as Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN), mobile handsets require lightweight, small size and low cost. The selection of microstrip antenna...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Generic Side-Channel Distinguishers: Improvements and Limitations

    Mutual Information Analysis (MIA) is a generic side-channel distinguisher. Its goal is to allow key recoveries against any type of implementation, under minimum assumptions on the underlying hardware. Such distinguishers are particularly interesting in view of recent technological advances. Indeed, the traditional leakage models used in side-channel attacks, based on...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    IP Geolocation Databases: Unreliable?

    The most widely used technique for IP geolocation consists in building a database to keep the mapping between IP blocks and a geographic location. Several databases are available and are frequently used by many services and web sites in the Internet. Contrary to widespread belief, geolocation databases are far from...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    How Stochasticity And Emergencies Disrupt The Surgical Schedule

    In health care system, the operating theatre is recognized as having an important role, notably in terms of generated income and cost. Its management, and in particular its scheduling, is thus a critical activity, and has been the subject of many studies. However, the stochasticity of the operating theatre environment...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Fair Allocation Of Indivisible Goods Among Two Agents

    One must allocate a finite set of indivisible goods among two agents without monetary compensation. The authors impose Pareto-efficiency, anonymity, a weak notion of no-envy, a welfare lower bound based on each agent's ranking of the sets of goods, and a monotonicity property relative to changes in agents' preferences. They...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Economics Of Airport Noise: How To Manage Markets For Noise Licenses

    Noise-induced pollution constitutes a hot and topical societal problem for all major airports. This paper discusses various issues in the implementation of a market for noise licenses as a solution to solve the noise externality between the residents located around airports and the aircrafts moving in and to airports. The...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Dynamic Joint Investments In Supply Chains Under Information Asymmetry

    Supply chain management involves the selection, coordination and motivation of independently operated suppliers. However the central planner's perspective in operations management translates poorly to vertically separated chains, where suppliers may have rational myopic reasons to object to full in-formation sharing and centralized decision rights. Particular problems occur when a downstream...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Unions' Relative Concerns And Strikes In Wage Bargaining

    The authors consider a model of wage determination with private information in a duopoly. They investigate the effects of unions having relative concerns on the negotiated wage and the strike activity. They show that an increase of unions' relative concerns has an ambiguous effect on the strike activity. They have...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    A Theory Of Soft Capture

    In this paper, the authors propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to provide a signal for the type of a regulated firm. Only the firm can observe his type...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Influence Networks

    Some behaviors, ideas or technologies spread and become persistent in society, whereas others vanish. This paper analyzes the role of social influence in determining such distinct collective outcomes. Agents are assumed to acquire information from others through certain sampling process that generates an influence network, and they use simple rules...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Voting Over Piece-wise Linear Tax Methods

    The authors analyze the problem of choosing the most appropriate method for apportioning taxes in a democracy. They consider a simple theoretical model of taxation and restrict their attention to piece-wise linear tax methods, which are almost ubiquitous in advanced democracies world-wide. They show that if they allow agents to...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Stability And Fairness In Models With A Multiple Membership

    This paper studies a model of coalition formation for the joint production (and finance) of public projects, in which agents may belong to multiple coalitions. The authors show that, if projects are divisible, there always exists a stable (secession-proof) structure, i.e., a structure in which no coalition would reject a...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Product Innovation And Market Acquisition Of Firms

    The paper explores the incentives for an incumbent firm to acquire an entrant willing to sell a product innovation, rather than openly compete with this entrant and, in case of acquisition, the incentives to sell simultaneously the existing products and the new one, rather than specializing on a single variant....

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Bargaining And Delay In Patent Licensing

    The authors consider a model of licensing of a non-drastic innovation in which the patent holder (an outside innovator) negotiates either up-front fixed fees or per-unit royal-ties with two firms producing horizontally differentiated brands and competing ? la Cournot. They investigate how licensing schemes (fixed fee or per-unit royalty) and...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Success: Talent, Intelligence Or Beauty ?

    The authors analyze the Celebrity 100 annual list of the world's most "Powerful celebrities" compiled and published by Forbes Magazine. The lists provide an interesting collection of people that includes their earnings and the perception of citizens concerning the attributes that made them become celebrities. They analyze the relationship between...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Property Rights With Biological Spillovers: When Hardin Meets Meade

    In an overlapping generations setup the authors address the issue of the optimal number of property rights to allocate over a natural resource when the goal is to maximize the stock of the natural resource at the steady state. They assume that the effect of the property rights regime on...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Optimal Pricing And Capacity Choice For A Public Service Under Risk Of Interruption

    The authors develop rules for pricing and capacity choice for an interruptible service that recognize the interdependence between consumers' perceptions of system reliability and their market behavior. Consumers post ex ante demands, based on their expectations on aggregate demand. Posted demands are met if ex post supply capacity is sufficient....

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Lower Bounds Rule!

    The authors propose two axioms that introduce lower bounds into resource monotonicity requirements for rules for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims suppose the amount to divide increases. The first axiom requires that two claimants whose lower bound changes equally experience an equal change in awards. The second axiom requires...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Fixed-charge Transportation On A Path: Optimization, LP Formulations And Separation

    The fixed-charge transportation problem is an interesting problem in its own right. This paper further motivates its study by showing that it is both a special case and a strong relaxation of the big-bucket multi-item lot-sizing problem. The authors then provide a polyhedral analysis of the polynomially solvable special case...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Measuring The Variability In Supply Chains With The Peakedness

    This paper introduces a novel way to measure the variability of order flows in supply chains, the peakedness. The peakedness can be used to measure the variability assuming the order flow is a general point process. The authors show basic properties of the peakedness, and demonstrate its computation from real-time...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Adaptation And Mitigation In Long-term Climate Policies

    The paper analytically explores the optimal policy mix between mitigation and environmental adaptation against climate change at a macroeconomic level. The constructed economic-environmental model is formulated as a social planner problem with the adaptation and abatement investments as separate decision variables. The authors prove the existence of a unique steady...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Innovation, Antidumping And Retaliation

    The authors study the effect of contingency trade policy in a multi-country oligopoly model with and without R&D opportunities. They show that firms benefit from unilateral protection but initiate AntiDumping (AD) only against the targets domiciled in substantially smaller countries. Also, AD filings are more likely when firms face R&D...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Mixing Sets Linked By Bidirected Paths

    Recently there has been considerable research on simple mixed-integer sets, called mixing sets, and closely related sets arising in incapacitated and constant capacity lot-sizing. This in turn has led to study of more general sets, called network-dual sets, for which it is possible to derive extended formulations whose projection gives...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Benefits Of Cooperation Under Uncertainty: The Case Of Climate Change

    This paper presents an analysis of the behavior of countries defining their climate policies in an uncertain context. The analysis is made using the S-CWS model, a stochastic version of an integrated assessment growth model. The model includes a stochastic definition of the climate sensitivity parameter. The authors show that...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Competitively Neutral Universal Service Obligations

    Universal service obligations impose specific costs on the universal service provider. The measure of these costs and their financing has been studied along two complementary lines of reasoning: is the universal service obligation sustainable? Who should bear its costs? Most often, a two-step procedure is put forward. In a first...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Digital Piracy : Theory

    This paper reviews recent theoretical contributions on digital piracy. It starts by elaborating on the reasons for intellectual property protection, by reporting a few facts about copyright protection, and by examining reasons to become a digital pirate. Next, it provides an exploration of the consequences of digital piracy, using a...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Family Policies : What Does The Standard Endogenous Fertility Model Tell Us ?

    Very few studies have explored the optimality properties of the "standard model" of fertility where parents must determine their optimal trade-off between quality and quantity. The present paper works to fill that gap and find three main results. First, when there exist positive externalities in the accumulation of human capital,...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Optimal Trade-off Between Quality And Quantity With Uncertain Child Survival

    The present paper investigates a standard model of endogenous fertility when child survival to adulthood is uncertain. In this framework, the author first shows that facing the risk their children die before reaching adulthood; parents don't always formulate a precautionary demand for children. Indeed, there exists a non-empty set of...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Tradable Pollution Permits In Dynamic General Equilibrium: Can Optimality And Acceptability Be Reconciled?

    In this paper the authors study the optimal growth path and its decentralization in a two-sector overlapping generations model with pollution. One sector (power generation) is polluting and the other (final good) is not. Pollution is regulated by tradable emission permits. The issue is whether the optimal growth path can...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    A Coalitional Procedure Leading To A Family Of Bankruptcy Rules

    The authors provide a general coalitional procedure that characterizes a family of rules for bankruptcy problems inspired by the Talmud. A bankruptcy problem refers to a situation in which one has to distribute, among a group of agents, a perfectly divisible commodity whose available amount is not enough to cover...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    An Efficient Distance Bounding RFID Authentication Protocol: Balancing False-Acceptance Rate and Memory Requirement

    The Mafia fraud consists in an adversary transparently relaying the physical layer signal during an authentication process between a verifier and a remote legitimate prover. This attack is a major concern for certain RFID systems, especially for payment related applications. Previously proposed protocols that thwart the Mafia fraud treat relaying...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    When Compromised Readers Meet RFID

    RFID-based access control solutions for mobile environments, e.g. ticketing systems for sport events, commonly rely on readers that are not continuously connected to the back-end system. The readers must so be able to perform their tasks even in offline mode, what commonly requires the management by the readers of sensitive...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    When Compromised Readers Meet RFID: Extended Version

    RFID-based access control solutions for mobile environments, e.g. ticketing systems for sport events, commonly rely on readers that are not continuously connected to the back-end system. The readers must so be able to perform their tasks even in offline mode, what commonly requires the management by the readers of sensitive...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Fair Allocation Of Indivisible Goods Among Two Agents

    One must allocate a finite set of indivisible goods among two agents without monetary compensation. The authors impose Pareto-efficiency, anonymity, a weak notion of no-envy, a welfare lower bound based on each agent's ranking of the sets of goods, and a monotonicity property relative to changes in agents' preferences. They...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    The Economics Of Airport Noise: How To Manage Markets For Noise Licenses

    Noise-induced pollution constitutes a hot and topical societal problem for all major airports. This paper discusses various issues in the implementation of a market for noise licenses as a solution to solve the noise externality between the residents located around airports and the aircrafts moving in and to airports. The...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Dynamic Joint Investments In Supply Chains Under Information Asymmetry

    Supply chain management involves the selection, coordination and motivation of independently operated suppliers. However the central planner's perspective in operations management translates poorly to vertically separated chains, where suppliers may have rational myopic reasons to object to full in-formation sharing and centralized decision rights. Particular problems occur when a downstream...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Unions' Relative Concerns And Strikes In Wage Bargaining

    The authors consider a model of wage determination with private information in a duopoly. They investigate the effects of unions having relative concerns on the negotiated wage and the strike activity. They show that an increase of unions' relative concerns has an ambiguous effect on the strike activity. They have...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Success: Talent, Intelligence Or Beauty ?

    The authors analyze the Celebrity 100 annual list of the world's most "Powerful celebrities" compiled and published by Forbes Magazine. The lists provide an interesting collection of people that includes their earnings and the perception of citizens concerning the attributes that made them become celebrities. They analyze the relationship between...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Property Rights With Biological Spillovers: When Hardin Meets Meade

    In an overlapping generations setup the authors address the issue of the optimal number of property rights to allocate over a natural resource when the goal is to maximize the stock of the natural resource at the steady state. They assume that the effect of the property rights regime on...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Optimal Pricing And Capacity Choice For A Public Service Under Risk Of Interruption

    The authors develop rules for pricing and capacity choice for an interruptible service that recognize the interdependence between consumers' perceptions of system reliability and their market behavior. Consumers post ex ante demands, based on their expectations on aggregate demand. Posted demands are met if ex post supply capacity is sufficient....

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Lower Bounds Rule!

    The authors propose two axioms that introduce lower bounds into resource monotonicity requirements for rules for the problem of adjudicating conflicting claims suppose the amount to divide increases. The first axiom requires that two claimants whose lower bound changes equally experience an equal change in awards. The second axiom requires...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Fertility, Human Capital Accumulation, And The Pension System

    This paper provides a unified treatment of externalities associated with fertility and human capital accumulation within pas-as-you-go pension systems. It considers an overlapping generation's model in which every generation consists of high earners and low earners with the proportion of types being determined endogenously. The number of children is deterministically...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Market Coupling And The Organization Of Counter-trading: Separating Energy And Transmission Again?

    The horizontal integration of the energy market and the organization of transmission services remain two open issues in the restructured European electricity sector. The coupling of the French, Belgian and Dutch electricity markets (the trilateral market) in November 2006 was a real success that the inclusion of Germany to the...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Nonparametric Frontier Estimation From Noisy Data

    A new nonparametric estimator of production frontiers is defined and studied when the data set of production units is contaminated by measurement error. The measurement error is assumed to be an additive normal random variable on the input variable, but its variance is unknown. The estimator is a modification of...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Option Pricing With Asymmetric Heteroskedastic Normal Mixture Models

    This paper uses asymmetric heteroskedastic normal mixture models to fit return data and to price options. The models can be estimated straightforwardly by maximum likelihood, have high statistical fit when used on S&P 500 index return data, and allow for substantial negative skewness and time varying higher order moments of...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    The Political Economy Of Derived Pension Rights

    Derived pension rights exist in most Social Security systems but with variable generosity. They are mainly targeted towards non-working wives and widows and are viewed as a means to alleviate poverty among older women living alone. The purpose of this paper is to explain how they can emerge from a...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    School System Evaluation By Value-added Analysis Under Endogeneity

    Value-added analysis is a common tool in analyzing school performances. In this paper, the authors analyze the SIMCE panel data which provides individual scores of about 200,000 students in Chile, and whose aim is to rank schools according to their educational achievement. Based on the data collection procedure and on...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Fixed-charge Transportation On A Path: Optimization, LP Formulations And Separation

    The fixed-charge transportation problem is an interesting problem in its own right. This paper further motivates its study by showing that it is both a special case and a strong relaxation of the big-bucket multi-item lot-sizing problem. The authors then provide a polyhedral analysis of the polynomially solvable special case...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Measuring The Variability In Supply Chains With The Peakedness

    This paper introduces a novel way to measure the variability of order flows in supply chains, the peakedness. The peakedness can be used to measure the variability assuming the order flow is a general point process. The authors show basic properties of the peakedness, and demonstrate its computation from real-time...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Adaptation And Mitigation In Long-term Climate Policies

    The paper analytically explores the optimal policy mix between mitigation and environmental adaptation against climate change at a macroeconomic level. The constructed economic-environmental model is formulated as a social planner problem with the adaptation and abatement investments as separate decision variables. The authors prove the existence of a unique steady...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Innovation, Antidumping And Retaliation

    The authors study the effect of contingency trade policy in a multi-country oligopoly model with and without R&D opportunities. They show that firms benefit from unilateral protection but initiate AntiDumping (AD) only against the targets domiciled in substantially smaller countries. Also, AD filings are more likely when firms face R&D...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Mixing Sets Linked By Bidirected Paths

    Recently there has been considerable research on simple mixed-integer sets, called mixing sets, and closely related sets arising in incapacitated and constant capacity lot-sizing. This in turn has led to study of more general sets, called network-dual sets, for which it is possible to derive extended formulations whose projection gives...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Benefits Of Cooperation Under Uncertainty: The Case Of Climate Change

    This paper presents an analysis of the behavior of countries defining their climate policies in an uncertain context. The analysis is made using the S-CWS model, a stochastic version of an integrated assessment growth model. The model includes a stochastic definition of the climate sensitivity parameter. The authors show that...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Competitively Neutral Universal Service Obligations

    Universal service obligations impose specific costs on the universal service provider. The measure of these costs and their financing has been studied along two complementary lines of reasoning: is the universal service obligation sustainable? Who should bear its costs? Most often, a two-step procedure is put forward. In a first...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Digital Piracy : Theory

    This paper reviews recent theoretical contributions on digital piracy. It starts by elaborating on the reasons for intellectual property protection, by reporting a few facts about copyright protection, and by examining reasons to become a digital pirate. Next, it provides an exploration of the consequences of digital piracy, using a...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Family Policies : What Does The Standard Endogenous Fertility Model Tell Us ?

    Very few studies have explored the optimality properties of the "standard model" of fertility where parents must determine their optimal trade-off between quality and quantity. The present paper works to fill that gap and find three main results. First, when there exist positive externalities in the accumulation of human capital,...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Optimal Trade-off Between Quality And Quantity With Uncertain Child Survival

    The present paper investigates a standard model of endogenous fertility when child survival to adulthood is uncertain. In this framework, the author first shows that facing the risk their children die before reaching adulthood; parents don't always formulate a precautionary demand for children. Indeed, there exists a non-empty set of...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Tradable Pollution Permits In Dynamic General Equilibrium: Can Optimality And Acceptability Be Reconciled?

    In this paper the authors study the optimal growth path and its decentralization in a two-sector overlapping generations model with pollution. One sector (power generation) is polluting and the other (final good) is not. Pollution is regulated by tradable emission permits. The issue is whether the optimal growth path can...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    A Theory Of Soft Capture

    In this paper, the authors propose a model for regulatory capture that is based on information transmission and asymmetric information. In a three-tier model, a regulator is charged by a political principal to provide a signal for the type of a regulated firm. Only the firm can observe his type...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Influence Networks

    Some behaviors, ideas or technologies spread and become persistent in society, whereas others vanish. This paper analyzes the role of social influence in determining such distinct collective outcomes. Agents are assumed to acquire information from others through certain sampling process that generates an influence network, and they use simple rules...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Voting Over Piece-wise Linear Tax Methods

    The authors analyze the problem of choosing the most appropriate method for apportioning taxes in a democracy. They consider a simple theoretical model of taxation and restrict their attention to piece-wise linear tax methods, which are almost ubiquitous in advanced democracies world-wide. They show that if they allow agents to...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Stability And Fairness In Models With A Multiple Membership

    This paper studies a model of coalition formation for the joint production (and finance) of public projects, in which agents may belong to multiple coalitions. The authors show that, if projects are divisible, there always exists a stable (secession-proof) structure, i.e., a structure in which no coalition would reject a...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Product Innovation And Market Acquisition Of Firms

    The paper explores the incentives for an incumbent firm to acquire an entrant willing to sell a product innovation, rather than openly compete with this entrant and, in case of acquisition, the incentives to sell simultaneously the existing products and the new one, rather than specializing on a single variant....

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Bargaining And Delay In Patent Licensing

    The authors consider a model of licensing of a non-drastic innovation in which the patent holder (an outside innovator) negotiates either up-front fixed fees or per-unit royal-ties with two firms producing horizontally differentiated brands and competing ? la Cournot. They investigate how licensing schemes (fixed fee or per-unit royalty) and...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Social Rationality, Separability, And Equity Under Uncertainty

    Harsanyi (1955) proved that, in the context of uncertainty, social rationality and the Pareto principle impose severe constraints on the degree of priority for the worst-off that can be adopted in the social evaluation. Since then, the literature has hesitated between an ex ante approach that relaxes rationality (Diamond (1967))...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Justifying Social Discounting: The Rank-discounted Utilitarian Approach

    The popular discounted utilitarian criterion for infinite horizon social choice has been criticized on the ground that it treats successive generations unfairly. The author proposes to evaluate intergenerational welfare with a Rank-Discounted Utilitarian (RDU) criterion instead. The criterion amounts to discounted utilitarianism on non-decreasing paths, but it treats all generations...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    The Impact Of A Minimum Pension On Old Age Poverty And Its Budgetary Cost: Evidence From Latin America

    This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum old age pensions in Latin America using recent household survey data for 18 countries. Alleviating old age poverty requires different approach from other age groups and a minimum pension is likely to be the...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Double Smoothing Technique For Infinite-dimensional Optimization Problems With Applications To Optimal Control

    In this paper, the authors propose an efficient technique for solving some infinite-dimensional problems over the sets of functions of time. In this problem, besides the convex point-wise constraints on state variables, they have convex coupling constraints with finite-dimensional image. Hence, they can formulate a finite-dimensional dual problem, which can...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Utilitarianism And Unequal Longevities : A Remedy?

    This paper re-examines a counterintuitive corollary of utilitarianism under unequal longevities: the tendency to redistribute resources from short-lived towards long-lived agents, against any intuition of compensation. It is shown that this corollary prevails not only under time-additive lifetime welfare, but, also, in general, under non-additive lifetime welfare, so that this...

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    The Optimal Commodity Tax System As A Compromise Between Two Objectives

    Policy analysis in applied fields such as agricultural, trade, environmental and development policy is still often undertaken within a first-best, rather than a more realistic second-best framework. This paper seeks to contribute to changing this state of affairs by providing an intuitive explanation of what determines the optimal tax system....

    Provided By Universite Catholique de Louvain