University of Birmingham

Displaying 1-32 of 32 results

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Efficient Identity-Based Threshold Signature Scheme From Bilinear Pairings in the Standard Model

    The authors propose a new Identity-Based THreshold Signature (IBTHS) scheme from bilinear pairings enjoying the following advantages in efficiency, security and functionality. The round-complexity of the threshold signing protocol is optimal since each party pays no other communication cost except broadcasting one single message. The computational complexity of the threshold...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    An Automata-Theoretic Model of Objects

    In this paper, the authors present a new model of class-based Algol-like programming languages inspired by automata-theoretic concepts. The model may be seen as a variant of the "Object-based" model previously proposed by Reddy, where objects are described by their observable behaviour in terms of events. At the same time,...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    What Would Hume Make Of Our Current Theories And Our Current Economic Predicament? And What Should We Make Of His Views On Government Debt?

    This paper aims to offer observations on two things: first, what Hume would make of the present predicament of economics and the economy; and second, what today's economists should make of his writing on the subject. The focus of the paper is on Hume's Of Public Credit, which is much...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // May 2011

    A Statistical Test for Information Leaks Using Continuous Mutual Information

    The authors present a statistical test for detecting information leaks in systems with continuous outputs. They use continuous mutual information to detect the information leakage from trial runs of a probabilistic system. It has been shown that there is no universal rate of convergence for sampled mutual information, however when...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Designated Confirmer Signatures With Unified Verification

    After the introduction of Designated Confirmer Signatures (DCS) by Chaum in 1994, considerable researches have been done to build generic schemes from standard digital signatures and construct efficient concrete solutions. In DCS schemes, a signature cannot be verified without the help of either the signer or a semi-trusted third party,...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    A Test for the Two-Sample Problem Using Mutual Information to Fix Information Leak in e-Passports

    For two independently drawn samples from continuous distributions, a statistical test based on the mutual information statistic is proposed for the null hypothesis that both the samples originate from the same population. It is demonstrated through simulation that this test is more powerful than the commonly used nonparametric tests in...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Learning By Exporting: Evidence Based On Data Of Knowledge Flows From Innovation Surveys In Estonia

    This paper studies learning-by-exporting, based on survey data of knowledge flow indicators. Most of the earlier related papers investigate the effects of exporting on productivity of firms, and often find little evidence of learning effects. This study looks more in detail into the mechanism of these effects. It investigates whether...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Peering Through the iFrame

    Drive-by-download attacks have become the method of choice for cyber-criminals to infect machines with malware. Previous research has focused on developing techniques to detect web sites involved in drive-by-download attacks, and on measuring their prevalence by crawling large portions of the Internet. In this paper, the authors take a different...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Chinese Monetary Policy And The Dollar Peg

    This paper investigates to what extent Chinese monetary policy is constrained by the dollar peg. To this end, the authors use a cointegration framework to examine whether Chinese interest rates are driven by the Fed's policy. In a second step, they estimate a monetary model for China, in which they...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Semantics of Parametric Polymorphism in Imperative Programming Languages

    Programming languages such as CLU, Ada and Modula-3 have included facilities for parametric polymorphism and, more recently, C++ and Java have also added similar facilities. In this paper, the authors examine the issues of defining denotational semantics for imperative programming languages with polymorphism. They use the framework of reflexive graphs...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Prediction-Based Opportunistic Greedy Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    In recent years, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications e.g. active traffic management, safety application, etc. are gaining popularity. Again internet-based services are also emerging nowadays in vehicular communication networks. Therefore, a suitable routing mechanism is essential to support delay tolerant networking to ensure reliable information exchange. On the other hand,...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Literature Review And Future Agenda For B2B Branding: Challenges Of Branding In A B2B Context

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The existing body of research knowledge on brand management has been predominantly derived from business to consumer markets, particularly fast moving consumer goods. Business-to-business branding has received comparatively little attention in the academic literature due to the belief that industrial buyers are unaffected...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Development Of Local And Regional Food Networks: Cases From The UK

    To analyse barriers and facilitators for local and regional food network development and the role of governmental and other support agencies. Case analysis of three English regional food networks: A local food marketing group; an initiative integrating supply chain members to exploit a local ethnic market opportunity; and an ethically...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Open Source Verification Under a Cloud

    An experiment in providing volunteer cloud computing support for automated audits of open source code is described here, along with the supporting theory. Certification and the distributed and piecewise nature of the underlying verification computation are among the areas formalised in the theory part. The eventual aim of this research...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    An Active Constraint Method for Optimal Multicast Message Transmission in Wireless Networks

    Efficiently transmitting data in wireless networks requires joint optimization of routing, scheduling, and power control. Also, transmitting data to multiple destinations (multicasting) in an optimal way typically involves the solution of difficult combinatorial optimization problems. To avoid such difficulties, the authors use the concept of network coding to design an...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Simultaneous Equation Model Of Economic Growth, FDI And Government Policy In China

    Empirical investigations aimed at determining what relationship, if any, exists between FDI and economic growth has drawn ambiguous results. This is also the case for China, where all empirical studies have used the VAR methodology. In this paper, the authors outline a dynamic simultaneous equations model. The model captures the...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Analysing Unlinkability and Anonymity Using the Applied Pi Calculus

    An attacker that can identify messages as coming from the same source can use this information to build up a picture of targets' behaviour, and so, threaten their privacy. In response to this danger, unlinkable protocols aim to make it impossible for a third party to identify two runs of...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    How to Detect an Android

    A number of prominent researchers in Artificial Intelligence look forward to a time when androids will co-exist with humans. In such a world the question 'Can Machines Think?' will be answered in the affirmative, if it is asked at all. A far more pressing problem will be whether androids could...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Calculating Probabilistic Anonymity From Sampled Data

    This paper addresses the problem of calculating the anonymity of a system statistically from a number of trial runs. The authors show that measures of anonymity based on capacity can be estimated, by showing that the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm converges for sampled data. They obtain bounds on the error of the...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    An Authentication Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Identity-Based Signatures

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), authentication is a crucial security requirement to avoid attacks against secure communication, and to mitigate DoS attacks exploiting the limited resources of sensor nodes. Resource constraints of sensor nodes are hurdles in applying strong public key cryptographic based mechanisms in WSNs. To address the problem...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Statistical Measurement of Information Leakage

    Information theory provides a range of useful methods to analyze probability distributions and these techniques have been successfully applied to measure information flow and the loss of anonymity in secure systems. However, previous work has tended to assume that the exact probabilities of every action are known, or that the...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports

    Since 2004, many nations have started issuing "e-passports" containing an RFID tag that, when powered, broadcasts information. It is claimed that these passports are more secure and that the authors' data will be protected from any possible unauthorised attempts to read it. In this paper, the authors show that there...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Human Resource Management And Decentralization In Botswana And South Africa

    This paper seeks to understand the relationship between decentralization and human resource management in Botswana and South Africa. The study is situated within the context of the New Public Management (NPM) that has influenced the Human Resource Management reforms that the two countries aspire to adopt. This study's main finding...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    IP Transmission Over OCDMA-LAN

    This paper proposes a novel Internet Protocol (IP) traffic transmission over multiple array (M-ary) Frequency Shift Keying Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access (FSK-OCDMA) local area network (LAN). The transceiver also enjoys the co-channel interference canceller. The network performance has been analyzed and compared with common incoherent Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM). The results indicate...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Untraceability in the Applied Pi-Calculus

    The use of RFID tags in personal items, such as passports, may make it possible to track a person's movements. Even RFID protocols that encrypt their identity may leak enough information to let an attacker trace a tag. This paper defines strong and weak forms of untraceablility, and illustrates these...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Self-Optimizing Architecture for Ensuring Quality Attributes in the Cloud

    This paper describes various challenges in ensuring Quality Attributes (QA) of applications hosted in the cloud and hence the perceived quality of service of the cloud as a whole. This paper advocates a self-management/optimization architecture driven approach to ensure that Quality Attributes are met. The author discusses the limitations of...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Function Interface Models for Hardware Compilation: Types, Signatures, Protocols

    The problem of synthesis of gate-level descriptions of digital circuits from behavioral specifications written in higher-level programming languages (hardware compilation) has been studied for a long time yet a definitive solution has not been forthcoming. The argument of this essay is mainly methodological, bringing a perspective that is informed by...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Assessing The Impact Of European Integration On The Foreign Policy-Making In Central And Eastern Europe: The Cases Of Hungary, Romania, And Slovakia

    This paper discusses how the European integration influences the domestic structures and processes of foreign policy-making in the new member states from Central and Eastern Europe, namely in Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. Previous studies on Europeanization of foreign policy provide for mixed evidences with regard to the real domestic impact...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    A Lifecycle Approach to Evaluating MyArtSpace

    MyArtSpace is a service on mobile phones for enquiry-led museum learning. It enables students to create their own interpretations of museum visits through descriptions of objects, images and sounds. These are automatically transmitted to a personal online gallery that they can use to reflect upon and share their experience. This...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    How We Might Model A Credit Squeeze, And Draw Some Policy Implications For Responding To It

    This paper endeavors to illustrate the consequences of a credit squeeze by inserting a standard model of retail banks into some familiar macroeconomic models. Some possible policy conclusions are drawn about the benefits of incentives to increase lending at these times, and to reduce it in much better times. The...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Bonuses, Credit Rating Agencies And The Credit Crunch

    The payment of bonuses can bring big benefits. But harm, too, can result. In the financial sector, this is especially true, above all when they are related to noisy indicators of performance over brief periods. This paper starts by exploring these ideas, and then proceeds to examine credit rating agencies...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Using A Third Party In Business-To-Business (B2B) Communication: Towards A Terminology Framework

    The emphasis of this paper lies in the discussion of communications messages in which a third party is used to enhance the effect of messages transmitted by the business marketer to their target audience - this might be via direct exchanges between a salesperson and customer representative or involve more...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Untraceability in the Applied Pi-Calculus

    The use of RFID tags in personal items, such as passports, may make it possible to track a person's movements. Even RFID protocols that encrypt their identity may leak enough information to let an attacker trace a tag. This paper defines strong and weak forms of untraceablility, and illustrates these...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    IP Transmission Over OCDMA-LAN

    This paper proposes a novel Internet Protocol (IP) traffic transmission over multiple array (M-ary) Frequency Shift Keying Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access (FSK-OCDMA) local area network (LAN). The transceiver also enjoys the co-channel interference canceller. The network performance has been analyzed and compared with common incoherent Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM). The results indicate...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Open Source Verification Under a Cloud

    An experiment in providing volunteer cloud computing support for automated audits of open source code is described here, along with the supporting theory. Certification and the distributed and piecewise nature of the underlying verification computation are among the areas formalised in the theory part. The eventual aim of this research...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    How to Detect an Android

    A number of prominent researchers in Artificial Intelligence look forward to a time when androids will co-exist with humans. In such a world the question 'Can Machines Think?' will be answered in the affirmative, if it is asked at all. A far more pressing problem will be whether androids could...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Self-Optimizing Architecture for Ensuring Quality Attributes in the Cloud

    This paper describes various challenges in ensuring Quality Attributes (QA) of applications hosted in the cloud and hence the perceived quality of service of the cloud as a whole. This paper advocates a self-management/optimization architecture driven approach to ensure that Quality Attributes are met. The author discusses the limitations of...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Human Resource Management And Decentralization In Botswana And South Africa

    This paper seeks to understand the relationship between decentralization and human resource management in Botswana and South Africa. The study is situated within the context of the New Public Management (NPM) that has influenced the Human Resource Management reforms that the two countries aspire to adopt. This study's main finding...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Assessing The Impact Of European Integration On The Foreign Policy-Making In Central And Eastern Europe: The Cases Of Hungary, Romania, And Slovakia

    This paper discusses how the European integration influences the domestic structures and processes of foreign policy-making in the new member states from Central and Eastern Europe, namely in Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. Previous studies on Europeanization of foreign policy provide for mixed evidences with regard to the real domestic impact...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Learning By Exporting: Evidence Based On Data Of Knowledge Flows From Innovation Surveys In Estonia

    This paper studies learning-by-exporting, based on survey data of knowledge flow indicators. Most of the earlier related papers investigate the effects of exporting on productivity of firms, and often find little evidence of learning effects. This study looks more in detail into the mechanism of these effects. It investigates whether...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Designated Confirmer Signatures With Unified Verification

    After the introduction of Designated Confirmer Signatures (DCS) by Chaum in 1994, considerable researches have been done to build generic schemes from standard digital signatures and construct efficient concrete solutions. In DCS schemes, a signature cannot be verified without the help of either the signer or a semi-trusted third party,...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Function Interface Models for Hardware Compilation: Types, Signatures, Protocols

    The problem of synthesis of gate-level descriptions of digital circuits from behavioral specifications written in higher-level programming languages (hardware compilation) has been studied for a long time yet a definitive solution has not been forthcoming. The argument of this essay is mainly methodological, bringing a perspective that is informed by...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Using A Third Party In Business-To-Business (B2B) Communication: Towards A Terminology Framework

    The emphasis of this paper lies in the discussion of communications messages in which a third party is used to enhance the effect of messages transmitted by the business marketer to their target audience - this might be via direct exchanges between a salesperson and customer representative or involve more...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Literature Review And Future Agenda For B2B Branding: Challenges Of Branding In A B2B Context

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The existing body of research knowledge on brand management has been predominantly derived from business to consumer markets, particularly fast moving consumer goods. Business-to-business branding has received comparatively little attention in the academic literature due to the belief that industrial buyers are unaffected...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Development Of Local And Regional Food Networks: Cases From The UK

    To analyse barriers and facilitators for local and regional food network development and the role of governmental and other support agencies. Case analysis of three English regional food networks: A local food marketing group; an initiative integrating supply chain members to exploit a local ethnic market opportunity; and an ethically...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Analysing Unlinkability and Anonymity Using the Applied Pi Calculus

    An attacker that can identify messages as coming from the same source can use this information to build up a picture of targets' behaviour, and so, threaten their privacy. In response to this danger, unlinkable protocols aim to make it impossible for a third party to identify two runs of...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Calculating Probabilistic Anonymity From Sampled Data

    This paper addresses the problem of calculating the anonymity of a system statistically from a number of trial runs. The authors show that measures of anonymity based on capacity can be estimated, by showing that the Blahut-Arimoto algorithm converges for sampled data. They obtain bounds on the error of the...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Traceability Attack Against e-Passports

    Since 2004, many nations have started issuing "e-passports" containing an RFID tag that, when powered, broadcasts information. It is claimed that these passports are more secure and that the authors' data will be protected from any possible unauthorised attempts to read it. In this paper, the authors show that there...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Statistical Measurement of Information Leakage

    Information theory provides a range of useful methods to analyze probability distributions and these techniques have been successfully applied to measure information flow and the loss of anonymity in secure systems. However, previous work has tended to assume that the exact probabilities of every action are known, or that the...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    A Lifecycle Approach to Evaluating MyArtSpace

    MyArtSpace is a service on mobile phones for enquiry-led museum learning. It enables students to create their own interpretations of museum visits through descriptions of objects, images and sounds. These are automatically transmitted to a personal online gallery that they can use to reflect upon and share their experience. This...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Simultaneous Equation Model Of Economic Growth, FDI And Government Policy In China

    Empirical investigations aimed at determining what relationship, if any, exists between FDI and economic growth has drawn ambiguous results. This is also the case for China, where all empirical studies have used the VAR methodology. In this paper, the authors outline a dynamic simultaneous equations model. The model captures the...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    What Would Hume Make Of Our Current Theories And Our Current Economic Predicament? And What Should We Make Of His Views On Government Debt?

    This paper aims to offer observations on two things: first, what Hume would make of the present predicament of economics and the economy; and second, what today's economists should make of his writing on the subject. The focus of the paper is on Hume's Of Public Credit, which is much...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Bonuses, Credit Rating Agencies And The Credit Crunch

    The payment of bonuses can bring big benefits. But harm, too, can result. In the financial sector, this is especially true, above all when they are related to noisy indicators of performance over brief periods. This paper starts by exploring these ideas, and then proceeds to examine credit rating agencies...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    How We Might Model A Credit Squeeze, And Draw Some Policy Implications For Responding To It

    This paper endeavors to illustrate the consequences of a credit squeeze by inserting a standard model of retail banks into some familiar macroeconomic models. Some possible policy conclusions are drawn about the benefits of incentives to increase lending at these times, and to reduce it in much better times. The...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Chinese Monetary Policy And The Dollar Peg

    This paper investigates to what extent Chinese monetary policy is constrained by the dollar peg. To this end, the authors use a cointegration framework to examine whether Chinese interest rates are driven by the Fed's policy. In a second step, they estimate a monetary model for China, in which they...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Peering Through the iFrame

    Drive-by-download attacks have become the method of choice for cyber-criminals to infect machines with malware. Previous research has focused on developing techniques to detect web sites involved in drive-by-download attacks, and on measuring their prevalence by crawling large portions of the Internet. In this paper, the authors take a different...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Prediction-Based Opportunistic Greedy Routing for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    In recent years, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) applications e.g. active traffic management, safety application, etc. are gaining popularity. Again internet-based services are also emerging nowadays in vehicular communication networks. Therefore, a suitable routing mechanism is essential to support delay tolerant networking to ensure reliable information exchange. On the other hand,...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    An Authentication Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks Using Identity-Based Signatures

    In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), authentication is a crucial security requirement to avoid attacks against secure communication, and to mitigate DoS attacks exploiting the limited resources of sensor nodes. Resource constraints of sensor nodes are hurdles in applying strong public key cryptographic based mechanisms in WSNs. To address the problem...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    An Active Constraint Method for Optimal Multicast Message Transmission in Wireless Networks

    Efficiently transmitting data in wireless networks requires joint optimization of routing, scheduling, and power control. Also, transmitting data to multiple destinations (multicasting) in an optimal way typically involves the solution of difficult combinatorial optimization problems. To avoid such difficulties, the authors use the concept of network coding to design an...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    A Test for the Two-Sample Problem Using Mutual Information to Fix Information Leak in e-Passports

    For two independently drawn samples from continuous distributions, a statistical test based on the mutual information statistic is proposed for the null hypothesis that both the samples originate from the same population. It is demonstrated through simulation that this test is more powerful than the commonly used nonparametric tests in...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // May 2011

    A Statistical Test for Information Leaks Using Continuous Mutual Information

    The authors present a statistical test for detecting information leaks in systems with continuous outputs. They use continuous mutual information to detect the information leakage from trial runs of a probabilistic system. It has been shown that there is no universal rate of convergence for sampled mutual information, however when...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    Efficient Identity-Based Threshold Signature Scheme From Bilinear Pairings in the Standard Model

    The authors propose a new Identity-Based THreshold Signature (IBTHS) scheme from bilinear pairings enjoying the following advantages in efficiency, security and functionality. The round-complexity of the threshold signing protocol is optimal since each party pays no other communication cost except broadcasting one single message. The computational complexity of the threshold...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    An Automata-Theoretic Model of Objects

    In this paper, the authors present a new model of class-based Algol-like programming languages inspired by automata-theoretic concepts. The model may be seen as a variant of the "Object-based" model previously proposed by Reddy, where objects are described by their observable behaviour in terms of events. At the same time,...

    Provided By University of Birmingham

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Semantics of Parametric Polymorphism in Imperative Programming Languages

    Programming languages such as CLU, Ada and Modula-3 have included facilities for parametric polymorphism and, more recently, C++ and Java have also added similar facilities. In this paper, the authors examine the issues of defining denotational semantics for imperative programming languages with polymorphism. They use the framework of reflexive graphs...

    Provided By University of Birmingham