University of California

Displaying 281-320 of 614 results

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Static Analysis for Detecting Taint-Style Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    The number and the importance of web applications have increased rapidly over the last years. At the same time, the quantity and impact of security vulnerabilities in such applications have grown as well. Since manual code reviews are time-consuming, error-prone and costly, the need for automated solutions has become evident....

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    A System for Managing Physical Data in Buildings

    In order to reduce building energy consumption, the authors need a global, accurate view of the building. Many modern buildings have a sensing infrastructure that can be used to do fine-grained accounting and understand the complex interactions between systems and spaces. However, through the experience with an active, campus-wide Building...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    FATE and DESTINI: A Framework for Cloud Recovery Testing

    As the cloud era begins and failures become commonplace, the fate and destiny of availability, reliability and performance are in the hands of failure recovery. Unfortunately, recovery problems still take place, causing downtimes, data loss, and many other problems. The authors propose a new testing framework for cloud recovery: FATE...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Decentralized Multi-Armed Bandit With Imperfect Observations

    The authors consider decentralized multi-armed bandit problems with multiple distributed players. At each time, each player chooses one of the N independent arms with unknown reward statistics to play. Players do not exchange information regarding their observations or actions. A collision occurs when multiple players choose the same arm. In...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Active Cloud DB: A RESTful Software-as-a-Service for Language Agnostic Access to Distributed Datastores

    In this paper, the authors present Active Cloud DB, an open source Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) application that allows for RESTful access to cloud-based distributed datastore technologies that implement the Google Datastore API. They implement Active Cloud DB as a Google App Engine application that they employ to expose the Google App...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Identifying BGP Routing Table Transfers

    BGP routing updates collected by monitoring projects such as RouteViews and RIPE have been a vital source to the understanding of the global routing system. However the collected BGP data contains both the updates generated by actual route changes, and the updates of BGP routing table transfers resulted from BGP...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Cooperative Jamming and Power Allocation for Wireless Relay Networks in Presence of Eavesdropper

    Relying on physical layer security is an attractive alternative of utilizing cryptographic algorithms at upper layers of protocol stack for secure communications. In this paper, the authors consider a two-hop wireless relay network in the presence of an eavesdropper. Their scenario of interest spans over a four-node network model including...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Urban-X: Towards Distributed Channel Assignment in Cognitive Multi-Radio Mesh Networks

    Researches about multi-radio mesh networks have mostly focused on channel allocation under internal interference. However, the deployment of WMNs in unlicensed bands of dense urban areas imposes many challenges regarding co-existence with residential access points. In this paper, the authors propose Urban-X, which is a first attempt towards a new...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Copperhead: Compiling an Embedded Data Parallel Language

    Modern parallel microprocessors deliver high performance on applications that expose substantial fine-grained data parallelism. Although data parallelism is widely available in many computations, implementing data parallel algorithms in low-level languages is often an unnecessarily difficult task. The characteristics of parallel microprocessors and the limitations of current programming methodologies motivate the...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Impulsive Systems Triggered by Superposed Renewal Processes

    The authors consider impulsive systems with several reset maps triggered by independent renewal processes, i.e., the intervals between jumps associated with a given reset map are identically distributed and independent of the other jump intervals. Considering linear dynamic and reset maps, they establish that mean exponential stability is equivalent to...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Streaming Satellite Data to Cloud Workflows for On-Demand Computing of Environmental Products

    Environmental data arriving constantly from satellites and weather stations are used to compute weather coefficients that are essential for agriculture and viticulture. For example, the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) coefficient, overlaid on regional maps, is provided each day by the California Department of Water Resources to local farmers and turf managers...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    L2-Induced Gains of Switched Systems and Classes of Switching Signals

    This paper addresses the L2-induced gain analysis for switched linear systems. The authors exploit non-conservative necessary and sufficient conditions for the induced gain to lie below a prescribed positive constant and discuss on the induced gains of switched systems obtained for different classes of switching signals, which distinct regularity assumptions...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Toward an Error Handling Mechanism for Timing Errors With Java Pathfinder and Ptolemy II

    Designing effective error handling systems in an embedded software system is essential for acceptable and reliable functionality in cases of errors and for the recovery from faults. Errors in the error handling system can cause catastrophic failures of the software, lead to mission failures and can endanger human life. The...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Toward Automated Detection of Logic Vulnerabilities InWeb Applications

    Web applications are the most common way to make services and data available on the Internet. Unfortunately, with the increase in the number and complexity of these applications, there has also been an increase in the number and complexity of vulnerabilities. Current techniques to identify security problems in web applications...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    A Case for Opportunistic Embedded Sensing in Presence of Hardware Power Variability

    The system lifetime gains provided by the various power management techniques in embedded sensing systems are a strong function of the active and sleep mode power consumption of the underlying hardware platform. However, power consumption characteristics of hardware platforms exhibit high variability across different instances of the platform, diverse ambient...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Extended H-Index Parameterized Data Structures for Computing Dynamic Subgraph Statistics

    The authors present techniques for maintaining subgraph frequencies in a dynamic graph, using data structures that are parameterized in terms of h, the h-index of the graph. The methods extend previous results of Eppstein and Spiro for maintaining statistics for undirected subgraphs of size three to directed subgraphs and to...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Linear-Complexity Private Set Intersection Protocols Secure in Malicious Model

    Private Set Intersection (PSI) protocols allow one party ("Client") to compute an intersection of its input set with that of another party ("Server"), such that the client learns nothing other than the set intersection and the server learns nothing beyond client input size. Prior work yielded a range of PSI...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Quality Tradeoffs in Object Tracking With Duty-Cycled Sensor Networks

    Extending the lifetime of wireless sensor networks requires energy-conserving operations such as duty-cycling. However, such operations may impact the effectiveness of high-fidelity real-time sensing tasks, such as object tracking, which require high accuracy and short response times. In this paper, the authors quantify the influence of different duty-cycle schemes on...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Tweakable Block Ciphers

    A common trend in applications of block ciphers over the past decades has been to employ block ciphers as one piece of a "Mode of operation" - possibly, a way to make a secure symmetric-key cryptosystem, but more generally, any cryptographic application. Most of the time, these modes of operation...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Inter-Socket Victim Cacheing for Platform Power Reduction

    On a multi-socket architecture with load below peak, as is often the case in a server installation, it is common to consolidate load onto fewer sockets to save processor power. However, this can increase main memory power consumption due to the decreased total cache space. This paper describes inter-socket victim...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Design of a Reliable Reputation System

    Next generation Web 2.0 communities and distributed P2P systems rely on the cooperation of diverse user populations spread across numerous administrative and security domains. Zero accountability via anonymous online identities and divergent interests result in selfish behavior that can disrupt or manipulate networks for personal gain. While "Reputation systems" are...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Provenance in ORCHESTRA

    Sharing structured data today requires agreeing on a standard schema, then mapping and cleaning all of the data to achieve a single queriable mediated instance. However, for settings in which structured data is collaboratively authored by a large community, such as in the sciences, there is seldom consensus about how...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Why Johnny Can't Pentest: An Analysis of Black-Box Web Vulnerability Scanners

    Black-box web vulnerability scanners are a class of tools that can be used to identify security issues in web applications. These tools are often marketed as "Point-and-click pentesting" tools that automatically evaluate the security of web applications with little or no human support. These tools access a web application in...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    CEO: A Cloud Epistasis computing Model in GWAS

    The 1000 Genome project has made available a large number of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) for Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS). However, the large number of SNPs has also rendered the discovery of epistatic interactions of SNPs computationally expensive. Parallelizing the computation offers a promising solution. This paper proposes a Cloud-based...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    VAPR: Void Aware Pressure Routing Protocol

    UnderWater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UW-ASNs) have lately been suggested as a potent means of supporting aquatic applications ranging from environmental monitoring to intrusion detection. A bevy of mobile sensor nodes each equipped with a variety of sensors and a low bandwidth acoustic modem (e.g. Drogues) can be deployed the region...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Two-Handed Marking Menus for Multi-Touch Devices

    The authors investigate multi-stroke marking menus for multi-touch devices and they show that using two hands can improve performance. They present two new two-handed multi-stroke marking menu variants in which users either draw strokes with both hands simultaneously or alternate strokes between hands. In a pair of studies they find...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Model-Based Process for Evaluating Cluster Building Blocks

    Traditional servers account for more than 1.5% of the US electricity use though spend their lives largely underutilized or idle. Because a large portion of power in a data center is due directly or indirectly to servers, power savings in a data center environment can be achieved simply by using...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Multi-Modal Modeling of Urban Mobility

    Design and efficacy of a routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks strongly depends on the underlying mobility pattern of the mobile nodes. Counter to the perception of mobility being random in time and space, the authors show that spatial modality is a key trait of human mobility. Most of the...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Automating Data Center Operations Using Machine Learning

    Today's Internet data-centers run many complex and large-scale Web applications that are very difficult to manage. The main challenges are understanding user workloads and application performance, and quickly identifying and resolving performance problems. Statistical Machine Learning (SML) provides a methodology for quickly processing the large quantities of monitoring data generated...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Results and Techniques in Multiuser Information Theory

    In this dissertation the authors develop new techniques and apply them to prove new results in multiuser information theory. In the first part of the dissertation, they introduce the "Potential function method," and apply it to prove converses for a series of multi-terminal network capacity problems. In the second part...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Interactive Visual Analysis of Hierarchical Enterprise Data

    In this paper, the authors present an interactive visual technique for analyzing and understanding hierarchical data, which they have applied to analyzing a corpus of technical reports produced by a corporate research laboratory. The analysis begins by selecting a known entity, such as a topic, a report, or a person,...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Quantitative Evaluation of Secure Network Coding

    Network coding has gained significant attention by improving throughput and reliability in disruptive MANETs. Yet, it is vulnerable to attacks from malicious nodes. In order to prevent this attack, the authors have explored the use of secure network coding schemes based on homomorphic properties of cryptographic systems. While the method...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Bayesian Inference for Queueing Networks and Modeling of Internet Services

    Modern Internet services, such as those at Google, Yahoo!, and Amazon, handle billions of requests per day on clusters of thousands of computers. Because these services operate under strict performance requirements, a statistical understanding of their performance is of great practical interest. Such services are modeled by networks of queues,...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    System Problem Detection by Mining Console Logs

    The console logs generated by an application contain information that the developers believed would be useful in debugging or monitoring the application. Despite the ubiquity and large size of these logs, they are rarely exploited because they are not readily machine-parsable. The authors propose a fully automatic methodology for mining...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Towards Cooperative Grids: Sensor/Actuator Networks for Renewables Integration

    Faced with an uncertain path forward to Renewables Portfolio Standard (RPS) goals and the high cost of energy storage, the authors believe that deep demand side management must be a central strategy to achieve widespread penetration of renewable energy sources. They examine the variability of wind as a source of...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Code Generation for Embedded Java With Ptolemy

    Code generation from models is the ultimate goal of model-based design. For real-time systems the generated code must be analyzable for the worst-case execution time (WCET). This paper evaluates Java code generation from Ptolemy II for embedded real-time Java. The target system is the time-predictable Java processor JOP. The quality...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    On Developing Smart Applications for VANETs: Where Are We Now? Some Insights on Technical Issues and Open Problems

    The advances in research on ad hoc networks, the availability of cheap radio interfaces (e.g. Wi-Fi) and the increasing amount of electronic devices installed in vehicles have set the path for vehicular ad hoc networks. In the past few years, Vehicular Ad hoc NETwork (VANET) research has addressed all layers,...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    An Adaptive Multi-Channel P2P Video-on-Demand System Using Plug-and-Play Helpers

    They authors present a multi-channel P2P Video-on-Demand (VoD) system using "plug-and-play" helpers. Helpers are heterogeneous "micro-servers" with limited storage, bandwidth and number of users they can serve simultaneously. The proposed system has the following salient features: it minimizes the server load; it is distributed, and requires little or no maintenance...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Fine-Grained Incremental Learning and Multi-Feature Tossing Graphs to Improve Bug Triaging

    Software bugs are inevitable and bug fixing is a difficult, expensive, and lengthy process. One of the primary reasons why bug fixing takes so long is the difficulty of accurately assigning a bug to the most competent developer for that bug kind or bug class. Assigning a bug to a...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Cross-Language, Type-Safe, and Transparent Object Sharing for Co-Located Managed Runtimes

    As software becomes increasingly complex and difficult to analyze, it is more and more common for developers to use high-level, type-safe, Object-Oriented (OO) programming languages and to architect systems that comprise multiple components. Different components are often implemented in different programming languages. In state-of-the-art multi-component, multi-language systems, cross-component communication relies...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Illiquid Financial Markets And Monetary Policy

    This paper analyzes the role of money in markets where financial investment takes place in a decentralized fashion. A key methodological contribution is the development of a dynamic framework that brings together a model for illiquid assets a la Duffie et al. and a monetary framework a la Lagos and...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Financial Crises, Credit Booms, And External Imbalances: 140 Years Of Lessons

    Do external imbalances increase the risk of financial crises? In this paper, the authors study the experience of 14 developed countries over 140 years (1870{2008). They exploit their long-run dataset in a number of different ways. First, they apply new statistical tools to describe the temporal and spatial patterns of...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Modeling and Characterizing User Experience in a Cloud Server Based Mobile Gaming Approach

    With the evolution of mobile devices and networks, and the growing trend of mobile Internet access, rich, multi-player gaming using mobile devices, similar to PC-based Internet games, has tremendous potential and interest. However, the current client-server architecture for PC-based Internet games, where most of the storage and computational burden of...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // May 2011

    The Effects Of Monetary Policy "News" And "Surprises"

    There is substantial agreement in the monetary policy literature over the effects of exogenous monetary policy shocks. The shocks that are investigated, however, almost exclusively represent unanticipated changes in policy, which surprise the private sector and which are typically found to have a delayed and sluggish effect on output. In...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // May 2009

    SWAP: Mitigating XSS Attacks Using a Reverse Proxy

    Due to the increasing amount of Web sites offering features to contribute rich content, and the frequent failure of Web developers to properly sanitize user input, cross-site scripting prevails as the most significant security threat to Web applications. Using cross-site scripting techniques, miscreants can hijack Web sessions, and craft credible...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Blue Versus Red: Towards a Model of Distributed Security Attacks

    This paper develops a two-sided multiplayer model of security in which attackers aim to deny service and defenders strategize to secure their assets. Attackers benefit from the successful compromise of target systems, however, may suffer penalties for increased attack activities. Defenders weigh the force of an attack against the cost...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Implementation and Evaluation of a Mobile Wireless PlanetLab Node

    With the introduction of cellular phones, mobile wireless communication has become an integral part of day-to-day life in this century. A testbed is crucial in continuing cutting-edge wireless technology research and development since physical and MAC layers in mobile wireless communication have many parameters pertinent to performance that are often...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Protecting Browsers From Extension Vulnerabilities

    Browser extensions are remarkably popular, with one in three Firefox users running at least one extension. Although well-intentioned, extension developers are often not security experts and write buggy code that can be exploited by malicious web site operators. In the Firefox extension system, these exploits are dangerous because extensions run...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Cross-Origin JavaScript Capability Leaks: Detection, Exploitation, and Defense

    This paper identifies a class of Web browser implementation vulnerabilities, cross-origin JavaScript capability leaks, which occur when the browser leaks a JavaScript pointer from one security origin to another. The paper devises an algorithm for detecting these vulnerabilities by monitoring the "Points-to" relation of the JavaScript heap. The algorithm finds...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // May 2009

    ElasTraS: An Elastic Transactional Data Store in the Cloud

    Over the last couple of years, "Cloud Computing" or "Elastic Computing" has emerged as a compelling and successful paradigm for internet scale computing. One of the major contributing factors to this success is the elasticity of resources. In spite of the elasticity provided by the infrastructure and the scalable design...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    MapScale: A Cloud Environment for Scientific Computing

    Parallel programming languages have sought out many different means by which many numbers of cores can be utilized for a common goal. Programming languages such as MPI provide a low-level, message passing system, while others such as UPC provide a high-level, shared memory model. Both of these languages and many...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Scheduling Heterogeneous Wireless Systems for Efficient Spectrum Access

    The spectrum scarcity problem emerged in recent years, due to unbalanced utilization of RF (Radio Frequency) bands in the current state of wireless spectrum allocations. Different from cognitive radio approaches which are opportunistic and non-collaborative in general, spectrum access scheduling proactively structures and interleaves the channel access pattern of heterogeneous...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Near-Optimal Radio Use for Wireless Network Synchronization

    This paper considers the model of communication where wireless devices can either switch their radios o to save energy (and hence, can neither send nor receive messages), or switch their radios on and engage in communication. The problem has been extensively studied in practice, in the setting such as deployment...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Optimizing Interval Training Protocols Using Data Mining Decision Trees

    Interval training consists of interleaving high intensity exercises with rest periods. This training method is a well known exercise protocol which helps strengthen and improve one's cardiovascular fitness. However, there is no known method for formulating and tailoring an optimized interval training protocol for a specific individual which maximizes the...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Business Travel As An Input To International Trade

    The importance of business and social networks in generating trade is becoming increasingly recognized in the international economics literature. An important way in which people build and maintain networks is through face-to-face meetings. The author proposes an empirical model in which business travel helps to overcome informational asymmetries in international...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Knowledge Transfers From Multinational To Domestic Firms: Evidence From Worker Mobility

    Labor turnover is a commonly-cited mechanism for the transmission of technology from multinational to domestic firms, but until now there has been little direct evidence for this mechanism. Using a novel matched establishment-worker database from Brazil, the author presents evidence consistent with the existence of positive multinational wage spillovers through...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Foreign Direct Investment In Cross-Border Infrastructure

    In this paper, the authors critically review the relevant information and literature and that can enhance the feasibility and the successful implementation of cross-border infrastructure projects. They provide detailed information concerning FDI into the major emerging regions: East Asia/Pacific, Latin America and Eastern Europe. They also discuss the theoretical and...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    The SQL-Based All-Declarative FORWARD Web Application Development Framework

    The vast majority of database-driven web applications perform, at a logical level, fundamentally simple Insert/Update/Delete commands. In response to a user action on the browser, the web application executes a program that transitions the old state to a new state. The state is primarily persistent and often captured in a...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Exploring the Relationship Between Web Application Development Tools and Security

    How should software engineers choose which tools to use to develop secure web applications? Different developers have different opinions regarding which language, framework, or vulnerability-finding tool tends to yield more secure software than another; some believe that there is no difference at all between such tools. This paper adds quantitative...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Preventing Capability Leaks in Secure JavaScript Subsets

    Publishers wish to sandbox third-party advertisements to protect themselves from malicious advertisements. One promising approach used by ADsafe, Dojo Secure, and Jacaranda, sandboxes advertisements by statically verifying that their JavaScript conforms to a safe subset of the language. These systems blacklist known dangerous properties that would let advertisements escape the...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Structural Change And Growth In India

    This paper examines the link between structural change and growth in India. It constructs indices of structural change, and performs a time series analysis of the data. It finds that 1988 marks a break in the time series of growth and structural change. There is one-way causality from structural change...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // May 2009

    The VIKING Project: An Initiative on Resilient Control of Power Networks

    This paper presents the work on resilient and secure power transmission and distribution developed within the VIKING (Vital Infrastructure, networKs, INformation and control system manaGement) project. VIKING receives funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Program. The authors will present the consortium, the motivation behind this research, the main objective...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Essays On The Financial Crisis And Globalization

    The authors have certainly been living in interesting times. While avoiding the worst connotations of that concept (no global war or other catastrophe), they have seen the fall of communism, the rise of information technology, and the beginnings of a shift in the global economic balance, back toward the days...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Kicking The Bad Apples Out: Tariff Liberalization And Bilateral Trade

    In this paper, the author presents a simple model in which liberalization of a Most-Favored Nation (MFN) tariff need not increase bilateral imports from all MFN sources. While liberalization must increase imports from high price MFN sources, it may decrease imports from low price MFN sources. This has stark implications...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Collaboration Practices and Affordances in Free/Open Source Software Development

    This paper examines collaborative work practices, development processes, project and community dynamics, and other socio-technical relationships in Free and Open Source Software Development (FOSSD). It also describes what kinds of collaboration affordances facilitate collaborative work in FOSSD projects. It reviews a set of empirical studies of FOSSD that articulate different...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    The Challenge of Heterogeneously Licensed Systems in Open Architecture Software Ecosystems

    The role of software ecosystems in the development and evolution of open architecture systems has received insufficient consideration. Such systems are composed of heterogeneously licensed components, open source or proprietary or both, in an architecture in which evolution can occur by evolving existing components or by replacing them. But this...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    The Role of Software Licenses in Open Architecture Ecosystems

    The role of software ecosystems in the development and evolution of open architecture systems has received insufficient consideration. Such systems are composed of heterogeneously-licensed components, open source or proprietary or both, in an architecture in which evolution can occur by evolving existing components or by replacing them. The software licenses...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    A Secure Cryptographic Token Interface

    Cryptographic keys must be protected from exposure. In real-world applications, they are often guarded by cryptographic tokens that employ sophisticated hardware-security measures. Several logical attacks on the key management operations of cryptographic tokens have been reported in the past, which allowed exposing keys merely by exploiting the token API in...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Vintage Capital Growth Theory: Three Breakthroughs

    Vintage capital growth models have been at the heart of growth theory in the 60s. This research line collapsed in the late 60s with the so-called embodiment controversy and the technical sophistication of the vintage models. This paper analyzes the astonishing revival of this literature in the 90s. In particular,...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Comprehending Environmental And Economic Sustainability: Comparative Analysis Of Stability Principles In The Biosphere And Free Market Economy

    Using the formalism of Lyapunov potential function it is shown that the stability principles for biomass in the ecosystem and for employment in economics are mathematically similar. The ecosystem is found to have a stable and an unstable stationary state with high (forest) and low (grasslands) biomass, respectively. In economics,...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Cryptographic Voting Protocols: A Systems Perspective

    Cryptographic voting protocols offer the promise of verifiable voting without needing to trust the integrity of any software in the system. However, these cryptographic protocols are only one part of a larger system composed of voting machines, software implementations, and election procedures, and they must analyze their security by considering...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Distillation Codes and Applications to DoS Resistant Multicast Authentication

    The authors introduce distillation codes, a method for streaming and storing data. Like erasure codes, distillation codes allow information to be decoded from a sufficiently large quorum of symbols. In contrast to erasure codes, distillation codes are robust against pollution attacks, a powerful class of Denial of Service (DoS) attacks...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Hidden Markov Model Cryptanalysis

    The authors present HMM attacks, a new type of cryptanalysis based on modeling randomized side channel countermeasures as Hidden Markov Models (HMM's). They also introduce Input Driven Hidden Markov Models (IDHMM's), a generalization of HMM's that provides a powerful and unified cryptanalytic framework for analyzing countermeasures whose operational behavior can...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Estimating Time Preferences From Convex Budgets

    Experimentally elicited discount rates are frequently higher than what one would infer from market interest rates and seem unreasonable for economic decision-making. Such high rates have often been attributed to dynamic inconsistency, as in present bias and hyperbolic discounting. A commonly recognized bias of standard elicitation techniques is the use...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Risk Preferences Are Not Time Preferences

    Risk and time are intertwined. The present is known while the future is inherently risky. Discounted expected utility provides a simple, coherent structure for analyzing decisions in intertemporal, uncertain environments. Critical to such analysis is the notion that certain and uncertain utility are functionally interchangeable. The authors document an important...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Certain And Uncertain Utility: The Allais Paradox And Five Decision Theory Phenomena

    In the study of decision making under risk, preferences are assumed to be continuous. The authors present a model of discontinuous preferences over certain and uncertain outcomes. Using existing parameter estimates for certain and uncertain utility, five important decision theory phenomena are discussed: the certainty effect, experimentally observed probability weighting,...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Multinational Firms And Trade: Gravity Versus Market Power In A Ricardian World

    Are multinational firms good for consumer welfare? The authors build a model of foreign direct investment and trade that exploits both firm heterogeneity and strategic pricing behavior, embodying direct exporting and multinational production for both export and local sale in one framework. They show that improved efficiency in target firms...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Reduced-Bandwidth Multithreaded Algorithms for Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication

    On multicore architectures, the ratio of peak memory bandwidth to peak floating-point performance (byte: flop ratio) is decreasing as core counts increase, further limiting the performance of bandwidth limited applications. Multiplying a sparse matrix (as well as its transpose in the un-symmetric case) with a dense vector is the core...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Cooperative Localization Using Angle of Arrival Measurements: Sequential Algorithms and Non-Line-of-Sight Suppression

    The authors investigate localization of a source based on Angle of Arrival (AoA) measurements made at a geographically dispersed network of cooperating receivers. The goal is to efficiently compute accurate estimates despite outliers in the AoA measurements due to multipath reflections in Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) environments. Maximal Likelihood (ML) location estimation...

    Provided By University of California

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    3D-FlashMap: A Physical-Location-Aware Block Mapping Strategy for 3D NAND Flash Memory

    Three-Dimensional (3D) flash memory is emerging to fulfill the ever-increasing demands of storage capacity. In 3D NAND flash memory, multiple layers are stacked to increase bit density and reduce bit cost of flash memory. However, the physical architecture of 3D flash memory leads to a higher probability of disturbance to...

    Provided By University of California