University of Cambridge

Displaying 1-40 of 237 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2013

    Security of Two-Way Quantum Key Distribution

    Quantum key distribution protocols typically make use of a one-way quantum channel to distribute a shared secret string to two distant users. However, protocols exploiting a two-way quantum channel have been proposed as an alternative route to the same goal, with the potential advantage of outperforming one-way protocols. Here, the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime

    In this paper, the authors present what they believe to be the first systematic study of the costs of cybercrime. It was prepared in response to a request from the UK Ministry of Defence following scepticism that previous studies had hyped the problem. For each of the main categories of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Error and Attack Vulnerability of Temporal Networks

    The study of real-world communication systems via complex network models has greatly expanded the people understanding on how information flows, even in completely decentralized architectures such as mobile wireless networks. Nonetheless, static network models cannot capture the time-varying aspects and, therefore, various temporal metrics have been introduced. In this paper,...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2012

    The Seven Deadly Sins of Cloud Computing Research

    Research into distributed parallelism on "The cloud" has surged lately. As the research agenda and methodology in this area are being established, the authors observe a tendency towards certain common simplifications and shortcuts employed by researchers, which they provocatively term "Sins". They believe that these sins, in some cases, are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    STOP: Socio-Temporal Opportunistic Patching of Short Range Mobile Malware

    Mobile phones are integral to everyday life with emails, social networking, online banking and other applications; however, the wealth of private information accessible increases economic incentives for attackers. Compared with fixed networks, mobile malware can replicate through both long range messaging and short range radio technologies; the former can be...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    CHERI: A Research Platform Deconflating Hardware Virtualization and Protection

    Contemporary CPU architectures conflate virtualization and protection, imposing virtualization-related performance, programmability, and debuggability penalties on software requiring fine-grained protection. First observed in micro-kernel research, these problems are increasingly apparent in recent attempts to mitigate software vulnerabilities through application compartmentalisation. Capability Hardware Enhanced RISC Instructions (CHERI) extend RISC ISAs to support...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Physical Layer Impact Upon Packet Errors

    The authors postulate a future for optical networks where data is more susceptible to errors than has been the case to date. This paper builds upon a previous study that highlighted content-dependent error in Gigabit Ethernet. In this paper, they explain their previous non-uniformity results in terms of interactions between...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Empirical Evaluation of Hybrid Opportunistic Networks

    In this paper, the authors study the utility of opportunistic communication systems with the co-existence of network infrastructure using three real experimental deployments. They study how some important performance metrics change with varying degrees of infrastructure and mobile nodes willing to participate in the opportunistic forwarding. In doing so, they...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Distributed Multicast Grouping for Publish/Subscribe Over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Event broker grids that deploy the publish/subscribe communication paradigm extend the capabilities of seamless messaging in heterogeneous network environments. In order to support such mixed network environments, the authors integrate publish/subscribe semantics with multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks. Dynamic construction of an event dissemination structure to route events...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Evaluating Temporal Robustness of Mobile Networks

    The application of complex network models to communication systems has led to several important results: nonetheless, previous research has often neglected to take into account their temporal properties, which in many real scenarios play a pivotal role. At the same time, network robustness has come extensively under scrutiny. Understanding whether...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Opportunism Vs. Cooperation: Comparing Forwarding Strategies in Multihop Wireless Networks With Random Fading

    A wide range of forwarding strategies have been developed for multi-hop wireless networks, considering the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and the presence of random fading that results in time-varying and unreliable transmission quality. Two recently proposed strategies are opportunistic forwarding, which exploits relay diversity by opportunistically selecting an...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    On the Effectiveness of an Opportunistic Traffic Management System for Vehicular Networks

    Road congestion results in a huge waste of time and productivity for millions of people. A possible way to deal with this problem is to have transportation authorities distribute traffic information to drivers, which in turn can decide (or be aided by a navigator) to route around congested areas. Such...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Network Clustering Via Spectral Projections

    This paper proposes a novel non-parametric technique for clustering networks based on their structure. Many topological measures have been introduced in the literature to characterize topological properties of networks. These measures provide meaningful information about the structural properties of a network, but many networks share similar values of a given...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Activity Based Sector Synchronisation: Efficient Transfer of Disk-State for WAN Live Migration

    Live migration of virtual machines is now commonplace but the issue of synchronising storage remains an obstacle to wide-area migration between datacentres. The authors discuss the range of possible designs for synchronising disk images and argue that they have to be adaptive at the sector level to efficiently transfer disk-state...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Free Lunch: Exploiting Renewable Energy for Computing

    This paper argues for "Free Lunch", a computation architecture that exploits otherwise wasted renewable energy by co-locating data-centres with these remote energy sources, connecting them over a dedicated network, and providing a software framework that supports the seamless execution and migration of virtual machines in the platform according to power...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Can New Nuclear Power Plants Be Project Financed?

    This paper considers the prospects for financing a wave of new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using project financing, which is used widely in large capital intensive infrastructure investments, including the power and gas sectors, but has not previously been used for nuclear power. It argues that the first few NPPs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Security-Oriented Formal Techniques

    Security of software systems is a critical issue in a world where Information Technology is becoming more and more pervasive. The number of services for everyday life that are provided via electronic networks is rapidly increasing, as witnessed by the longer and longer list of words with the prefix "e",...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    The Process Of Negotiating Settlements At FERC

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). This paper sets out the process by which this is achieved, illustrating with the 12 rate cases from 2008 and 2009. In contrast to many other...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Beyond The DSGE Straightjacket

    Academic macroeconomics and the research department of central banks have come to be dominated by Dynamic, Stochastic, General Equilibrium (DSGE) models based on micro-foundations of optimising representative agents with rational expectations. The authors argue that the dominance of this particular sort of DSGE and the resistance of some in the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    On Identification Of Bayesian DSGE Models

    In recent years there has been increasing concern about the identification of parameters in Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models. Given the structure of DSGE models it may be difficult to determine whether a parameter is identified. For the researcher using Bayesian methods, a lack of identification may not be...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Economics Of Energy (And Electricity) Demand

    Economic drivers, technologies and demand side management are keys in understanding the long-term trends of both energy and more specifically electricity consumption. This paper discusses some of the important economics foundations of energy demand in general, and electricity in particular. First, the authors look at the macro-economic context of energy....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Measuring User Activity on an Online Location-Based Social Network

    While in recent years online social networks have been largely shaping user experience on the Web, only in the last year there has been a soaring increase of novel location-based social applications. By allowing users to check-in at places and share their location with friends, these social platforms provide a...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reconfigurable Data Processing for Clouds

    Reconfigurable computing for some time has had the potential to make a huge impact on mainstream high performance computing. The authors now have very large capacity FPGAs which contain many highly parallel fine grain parallel processing power, and the ability to define high bandwidth custom memory hierarchies offers a compelling...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Integrating Short-Term Demand Response Into Long-Term Investment Planning

    Planning models have been used for many years to optimize generation investments in electric power systems. More recently, these models have been extended in order to treat demand-side management on an equal footing. This paper stresses the importance of integrating short-term demand response to time-varying prices into those investment models....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    War Signals: A Theory Of Trade, Trust And Conflict

    The authors construct a dynamic theory of civil conflict hinging on inter-ethnic trust and trade. The model economy is inhabitated by two ethnic groups. Inter-ethnic trade requires imperfectly observed bilateral investments and one group has to form beliefs on the average propensity to trade of the other group. Since conflict...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    CIEL: A Universal Execution Engine for Distributed Data-Flow Computing

    This paper introduces CIEL, a universal execution engine for distributed data-flow programs. Like previous execution engines, CIEL masks the complexity of distributed programming. Unlike those systems, a CIEL job can make data-dependent control-flow decisions, which enables it to compute iterative and recursive algorithms. The authors have also developed Skywriting, a...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model For Energy Security

    The mathematical formulation of a large-scale equilibrium natural gas simulation model is presented. Although large-scale natural gas models have been developed and used for energy security and policy analysis quite extensively (e.g., Holz (2007), Egging et al. (2008), Holz et al. (2009) and Lise et al. (2008)), this model differs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reforming Small Power Systems Under Political Volatility: The Case Of Nepal

    This paper assesses the electricity sector reforms across small power systems while citing Nepal as an example. The on-going political instability and increasing electricity demand make power sector reform in Nepal and similar small systems a more complex process. As international reform experiences provide plenty of lessons to learn; raising...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Distributive Politics And Electoral Incentives: Evidence From Seven US State Legislatures

    The authors study the effect of electoral incentives on the allocation of public services across legislative districts. They develop a model in which elections encourage individual legislators to cater to parochial interests and thus aggravate the common pool problem. Using unique data from seven US states, they study how the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Dynamics Of Evolution In The Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry

    The authors employ a value chain analysis approach to examine the forces shaping the industry structure, entry and inter-firm governance modes. Forty largest global and regional companies in the ethanol manufacturing stage have been classified according to their pre-entry industry of origin. Firms with pre-entry history in feedstock supply have...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Group Decision-Making: An Economic Analysis Of Social Influence And Individual Difference In Experimental Juries

    In a jury decision-making, individuals must compromise in order to reach a group consensus. If individuals compromise for non-rational reasons, such as a preference for conformity or due to erroneous information, then the final decision of the group may be biased. This paper presents original experimental data which shows that...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Monetary Policy, Capital Inflows, And The Housing Boom

    The authors estimate an open economy VAR model to quantify the effect of monetary policy and capital inflows shocks on the US housing market. The shocks are identified with sign restrictions derived from a standard DSGE model. They find that monetary policy shocks have a limited effect on house prices...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Payment Matters? - An Exploratory Study Into The Pre-Payment Electricity Metering

    In this paper the authors look at the role of pre-payment (in the context of prepayment metering) for household electricity consumption. Using a matching approach, they find that households paying their electricity upfront tend to consume no less electricity than households paying ex post. This is despite facing a higher...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Liquidity Constraints And High Electricity Use

    It is a well established fact that electricity use increases with income. What is less well known is that - despite the positive correlation between electricity use and income - a significant portion of low-income households consume very large amounts of electricity. In this paper, the authors make a first...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Civil War And Human Development: Impacts Of Finance And Financial Infrastructure

    In this paper interactions between finance, development and armed conflict are explored to demonstrate that financial factors are crucial in sustaining conflict-underdevelopment feedback loops. Military expenditure drains resources, financial instability leads to conflict (and vice versa), war retards the development of financial institutions/infrastructure, and interactions between finance and conflict are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Reforming The Power Sector In Transition: Do Institutions Matter?

    This paper quantitatively explores high-level links between power sector reforms and wider institutional reforms in the economy for a set of 27 diverse countries in rapid political and economic transition since 1990. Panel-data econometrics based on bias corrected dynamic fixed effect analysis (LSDVC) is performed to assess the impact of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Principal Components Instrumental Variable Estimation

    Instrumental variable estimators can be severely biased in finite samples when the degree of over-identification is high or when the instruments are weakly correlated with the endogenous regressors. This paper proposes an estimator based on the use of the principal components of the instruments as a means of dealing with...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Tests For Convergence Clubs

    In many applications common in testing for convergence the number of cross-sectional units is large and the number of time periods are few. In these situations tests which are founded upon an omnibus null hypothesis are characterised by a number of problems. In this paper the authors consider a broad...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Robust Growth Determinants

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Commodity Price Volatility And The Sources Of Growth

    This paper studies the impact of the level and volatility of commodity terms of trade on economic growth, as well as on the three main growth channels: Total factor productivity, physical capital accumulation, and human capital acquisition. The authors argue that volatility, rather than abundance per se, drives the "Resource...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime

    In this paper, the authors present what they believe to be the first systematic study of the costs of cybercrime. It was prepared in response to a request from the UK Ministry of Defence following scepticism that previous studies had hyped the problem. For each of the main categories of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2012

    The Seven Deadly Sins of Cloud Computing Research

    Research into distributed parallelism on "The cloud" has surged lately. As the research agenda and methodology in this area are being established, the authors observe a tendency towards certain common simplifications and shortcuts employed by researchers, which they provocatively term "Sins". They believe that these sins, in some cases, are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Crowd-Sourcing World Models With OpenRoomMap

    The construction of world models typically requires laborious survey and cataloguing of a building's contents. OpenRoomMap attempts to crowd-source this information by allowing all building occupants to contribute to the model. The authors' initial deployment of OpenRoomMap has considered their office building that has a floor area of approximately 10000...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Free Lunch: Exploiting Renewable Energy for Computing

    This paper argues for "Free Lunch", a computation architecture that exploits otherwise wasted renewable energy by co-locating data-centres with these remote energy sources, connecting them over a dedicated network, and providing a software framework that supports the seamless execution and migration of virtual machines in the platform according to power...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    CHERI: A Research Platform Deconflating Hardware Virtualization and Protection

    Contemporary CPU architectures conflate virtualization and protection, imposing virtualization-related performance, programmability, and debuggability penalties on software requiring fine-grained protection. First observed in micro-kernel research, these problems are increasingly apparent in recent attempts to mitigate software vulnerabilities through application compartmentalisation. Capability Hardware Enhanced RISC Instructions (CHERI) extend RISC ISAs to support...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil From Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study Of The Costs And CO2 Emissions Of Mining And In-situ Recovery

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of Synthetic Crude Oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Dominance And Innovation

    Do dominant or less dominant firms innovate more? Theoretically it has been shown that within an asymmetric mixed strategy game of a patent race, the less dominant firm invests more than the dominant firm. But the empirical data on patent races is divided. In this paper, the authors argue that...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Communication And Marketing Of Services By Religious Organizations In India

    Marketing communication is a vital strategic tool for religious organizations to achieve competitive differentiation. The determinants of religious organizations' use of direct and indirect communication channels offers valuable insights into their modus operandi. This paper uses novel primary survey data on 568 Hindu, Muslim, Christian, Sikh and Jain organizations spread...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    UK Renewable Energy Policy Since Privatisation

    The aim of this paper is to look at the UK's renewable energy policy in the context of its overall decarbonisation and energy policies. This will allow the authors to explore the precise nature of the 'Failure' of UK renewables policy and to suggest policy changes which might be appropriate...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    The Economic Effects Of Electricity Deregulation: An Empricial Analysis Of Indian States

    As developing countries seek to improve their economic prospects, electricity reform has been widely viewed as a central part of this effort. While the focus of most research to date has been at economy or utility level; there has been much less research on regional outcomes. India presents a unique...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Electricity Liberalisation In The European Union: A Progress Report

    It is around 5 years since the author's colleague, Tooraj Jamasb, and the author reviewed the EU's progress with electricity reform (Jamasb and Pollitt, 2005). At that time many countries were still struggling to implement elements of the EU wide policy on signed up to. In this short update paper...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Monthly And Quarterly GDP Estimates For Interwar Britain

    The authors derive monthly and quarterly series of UK GDP for the inter-war period from a set of indicators that were constructed at the time. They proceed to illustrate how the new data can contribute to the understanding of the economic history of the UK in the 1930s and have...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Efficient Repeated Implementation

    This paper examines repeated implementation of a Social Choice Function (SCF) with infinitely-lived agents whose preferences are determined randomly in each period. An SCF is repeated-implementable in (Bayesian) Nash equilibrium if there exists a sequence of (possibly history-dependent) mechanisms such that its equilibrium set is non-empty and every equilibrium outcome...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Oil Exports And The Iranian Economy

    This paper develops a long run growth model for a major oil exporting economy and derives conditions under which oil revenues are likely to have a lasting impact. This approach contrasts with the standard literature on the "Dutch disease" and the "Resource curse", which primarily focus on short run implications...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Favoritism

    Favoritism is the act of offering jobs, contracts and resources to members of one's social group in preference to outsiders. Favoritism is widely practiced and this motivates an exploration of its origins and economic consequences. The main finding is that individuals have an interest to trade favors over time and...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Herding And Contrarian Behaviour In Financial Markets

    Rational herd behavior and informationally efficient security prices have long been considered to be mutually exclusive but for exceptional cases. In this paper, the authors describe the conditions on the underlying information structure that is necessary and sufficient for informational herding and contrarianism. In a standard sequential security trading model,...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Herding And Contrarian Behavior In Financial Markets: An Experimental Analysis

    This is the first paper to analyze and confirm the existence and extent of rational informational herding and rational informational contrarianism in a financial market experiment, and to compare and contrast these with the equivalent irrational phenomena. In the authors? paper, subjects generally behave according to benchmark rationality. Traders who...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Specificity Of Manufacturing In Marx's Economic Thought

    The manufacturing sector has traditionally been regarded, particularly in development economics and in the Kaldorian literature, as having a 'Special role' as an engine of growth. This paper examines Marx's approach to manufacturing, and the extent to which manufacturing could be considered to have a special place in Marx's economic...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Services' In Marxian Economic Thought

    The services sector has grown as a share of GDP and employment in most countries in recent years, and there has been increasing interest in understanding this sector and in its growth potential. This paper analyses the meaning and nature of the 'Services sector' from a Marxian perspective. Marx did...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Effect Of Energy Prices On Operation And Investment In OECD Countries: Evidence From The Vintage Capital Model

    This paper analyzes the effect of energy prices on energy efficiency, separately accounting for operational and investment choices in different sectors. For this purpose, capital stock is characterised by vintages with different intensities of energy use, calculated as a function of exogenously-evolving technology availability and energy prices. The model separately...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Carbon Markets And Technological Innovation

    This paper examines the effects of firm-level innovation in carbon-abatement technologies on optimal cap-and-trade schemes with and without price controls. The authors characterize optimal cap-and-trade regulation with a price cap and price floor, and compare it to the individual cases of pure taxation and simple emissions cap. Innovation shifts the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Quality Of Supply In Energy Regulation Measurement, Assessment And Experience From Norway

    In order to overcome the incentive of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments in incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating quality of service in the energy sector. In this paper, the authors discuss the issue of assessing and implementing quality-related incentives based on...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Factor Decomposition Of Sectoral Growth In South Africa, 1970-2007

    Chenery's factor decomposition method is used to analyse the sources of growth, by sector, in South Africa from 1970 to 2007. Using input-output data, the growth of each sector is decomposed into components associated with export growth; import substitution; growth in domestic demand; and growth in intermediate demand. The results...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Dynamic Tax Competition Under Asymmetric Productivity Of Public Capital

    The authors here expand the static tax competition models in symmetric small regions, which were indicated by Zodrow and Mieszkowski (1986) and Wilson (1986), to a dynamic tax competition model in large regions, taking consideration of the regional asymmetry of productivity of public capital and the existence of capital accumulation....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Contract Enforcement, Institutions And Social Capital: The Maghribi Traders Reappraised

    Economists draw important lessons for modern development from the medieval Maghribi traders who, it has been argued, enforced contracts collectively through a closed, private-order coalition. The authors show that this view is untenable. Not a single empirical example adduced as evidence of the putative coalition shows that any coalition actually...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Efficiency Analysis Of Energy Networks : An International Survey Of Regulators

    Incentive regulation for networks has been an important part of the reform agenda in a number of countries. As part of this regulatory process, incentives are put in place to improve the cost efficiency of network companies by rewarding good performance relative to a predefined benchmark. The techniques used to...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Dynamics Of The UK Natural Gas Industry: System Dynamics Modelling And Long-term Energy Policy Analysis

    The authors present a dynamic model of the indigenous natural gas industry in the UK. The model has been built using a system dynamics approach. Using the model several scenarios have been analysed. They found that management of the supply-side policy alone cannot substantially postpone the discovery, production and consumption...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2009

    The Economics Of Public Sector Information

    The authors give an overview of the economics of 'Public Sector Information' (PSI) focusing on the question of funding and regulatory structure. That is: who should pay to maintain public sector information and what regulatory structure should be put in place to support this. This paper examines the economics of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Causality Along Subspaces: Theory

    This paper extends previous notions of causality to take into account the subspaces along which causality occurs as well as long run causality. The properties of these new notions of causality are extensively studied for a wide variety of time series processes. The paper then proves that the notions of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Democracy, Judicial Attitudes And Heterogeneity: The Civil Versus Common Law Tradition

    A key issue in the design of a legal system is the choice of the mechanism aggregating preferences over the level of deterrence. While under Case law appellate judges' biases offset one another at the cost of volatility of precedents, under Statute law the Legislator chooses certain rules that are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    General Network Effects And Welfare

    (In)direct network effects arise frequently in economic models but, for reasons of analytical tractability, are often assumed to be linear. Here, the authors examine the general non-linear case with two platforms. They establish the conditions characterising equilibria and show that welfare changes can be related in a simple, intuitive way...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Human Resource Constraints For Electricity Regulation In Developing Countries: Has Anything Changed?

    The authors provide strong evidence that there are significant human resource constraints which limit the scale and, hence, the scope and potential effectiveness of electricity/energy regulatory agencies in developing countries. They summaries the key findings in the earlier Domah, Pollitt and Stern paper (2002). They then consider what new evidence...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    The Welfare Implications Of Oil Privatisation: A Cost-benefit Analysis Of Norway's Statoil

    The oil industry is of great economic significance to many countries, and privatisations of National Oil Companies (NOCs) have often been controversial, as have been the benefits from privatisation more generally. The authors conduct a social cost-benefit analysis of the partial privatisation of Norway's Statoil and estimate net present welfare...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    The Relationship Between Unemployment And Earnings Inequality In South Africa

    Unemployment and earnings inequality have moved closely together in South Africa in recent years, suggesting that there may not be a trade-off between them as the literature generally suggests. This paper explores the relationship between unemployment and earnings inequality in South Africa, specifically investigating the extent to which changes in...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Contracting Out Of Service Activities And The Effects On Sectoral Employment Patterns In South Africa

    This paper develops a methodology and uses household and labour survey data to analyse the extent of intersectoral outsourcing of the employment of specific labour-intensive activities in South Africa from 1997-2007. It is shown that the relatively high growth in services employment is driven by an expansion of employment of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Smart Metering And Electricity Demand: Technology, Economics And International Experience

    In recent years smart metering of electricity demand has attracted attention around the world. A number of countries and regions have started deploying new metering systems; and many others have set targets for deployment or are undertaking trials. Across the board advances in technology and international experience characterize the metering...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Poverty, Armed Conflict And Financial Instability

    Civil conflict has far-reaching effects on underdeveloped economies. Whilst military expenditure may be diverted into projects that encourage human capital accumulation and the construction of essential infrastructure, conflict destroys institutions and infrastructure generating financial instability and exacerbating stagnation and underdevelopment. Vicious circles emerge as socioeconomic instability contributes to ongoing civil...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Returns-Based Beliefs And The Prisoner's Dilemma

    Returns-based beliefs provide an explanation for the anomaly between the theory and empirics for the one-shot and finitely-repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games. Even in a fully specified game, there is strategic uncertainty as players attempt to coordinate their actions. Therefore players form subjective probabilities of the actions of their opponents. The...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Is Economic Volatility Detrimental To Global Sustainability?

    This paper examines the effects of economic volatility on global sustainability in a dynamic panel data model allowing for error cross section dependence. It finds that output volatility and financial market volatility exert strong negative impacts on sustainable development, with the impacts exacerbated in some subsamples such as higher energy...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Colour Invariants for Machine Face Recognition

    Illumination invariance remains the most researched, yet the most challenging aspect of automatic face recognition. In this paper, the authors investigate the discriminative power of colour-based invariants in the presence of large illumination changes between training and test data, when appearance changes due to cast shadows and non-Lambertian effects are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge