University of Cambridge

Displaying 1-40 of 274 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2013

    Security of Two-Way Quantum Key Distribution

    Quantum key distribution protocols typically make use of a one-way quantum channel to distribute a shared secret string to two distant users. However, protocols exploiting a two-way quantum channel have been proposed as an alternative route to the same goal, with the potential advantage of outperforming one-way protocols. Here, the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime

    In this paper, the authors present what they believe to be the first systematic study of the costs of cybercrime. It was prepared in response to a request from the UK Ministry of Defence following scepticism that previous studies had hyped the problem. For each of the main categories of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Error and Attack Vulnerability of Temporal Networks

    The study of real-world communication systems via complex network models has greatly expanded the people understanding on how information flows, even in completely decentralized architectures such as mobile wireless networks. Nonetheless, static network models cannot capture the time-varying aspects and, therefore, various temporal metrics have been introduced. In this paper,...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2012

    The Seven Deadly Sins of Cloud Computing Research

    Research into distributed parallelism on "The cloud" has surged lately. As the research agenda and methodology in this area are being established, the authors observe a tendency towards certain common simplifications and shortcuts employed by researchers, which they provocatively term "Sins". They believe that these sins, in some cases, are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    STOP: Socio-Temporal Opportunistic Patching of Short Range Mobile Malware

    Mobile phones are integral to everyday life with emails, social networking, online banking and other applications; however, the wealth of private information accessible increases economic incentives for attackers. Compared with fixed networks, mobile malware can replicate through both long range messaging and short range radio technologies; the former can be...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    CHERI: A Research Platform Deconflating Hardware Virtualization and Protection

    Contemporary CPU architectures conflate virtualization and protection, imposing virtualization-related performance, programmability, and debuggability penalties on software requiring fine-grained protection. First observed in micro-kernel research, these problems are increasingly apparent in recent attempts to mitigate software vulnerabilities through application compartmentalisation. Capability Hardware Enhanced RISC Instructions (CHERI) extend RISC ISAs to support...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Physical Layer Impact Upon Packet Errors

    The authors postulate a future for optical networks where data is more susceptible to errors than has been the case to date. This paper builds upon a previous study that highlighted content-dependent error in Gigabit Ethernet. In this paper, they explain their previous non-uniformity results in terms of interactions between...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Empirical Evaluation of Hybrid Opportunistic Networks

    In this paper, the authors study the utility of opportunistic communication systems with the co-existence of network infrastructure using three real experimental deployments. They study how some important performance metrics change with varying degrees of infrastructure and mobile nodes willing to participate in the opportunistic forwarding. In doing so, they...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Distributed Multicast Grouping for Publish/Subscribe Over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Event broker grids that deploy the publish/subscribe communication paradigm extend the capabilities of seamless messaging in heterogeneous network environments. In order to support such mixed network environments, the authors integrate publish/subscribe semantics with multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks. Dynamic construction of an event dissemination structure to route events...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Evaluating Temporal Robustness of Mobile Networks

    The application of complex network models to communication systems has led to several important results: nonetheless, previous research has often neglected to take into account their temporal properties, which in many real scenarios play a pivotal role. At the same time, network robustness has come extensively under scrutiny. Understanding whether...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Opportunism Vs. Cooperation: Comparing Forwarding Strategies in Multihop Wireless Networks With Random Fading

    A wide range of forwarding strategies have been developed for multi-hop wireless networks, considering the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and the presence of random fading that results in time-varying and unreliable transmission quality. Two recently proposed strategies are opportunistic forwarding, which exploits relay diversity by opportunistically selecting an...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    On the Effectiveness of an Opportunistic Traffic Management System for Vehicular Networks

    Road congestion results in a huge waste of time and productivity for millions of people. A possible way to deal with this problem is to have transportation authorities distribute traffic information to drivers, which in turn can decide (or be aided by a navigator) to route around congested areas. Such...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Network Clustering Via Spectral Projections

    This paper proposes a novel non-parametric technique for clustering networks based on their structure. Many topological measures have been introduced in the literature to characterize topological properties of networks. These measures provide meaningful information about the structural properties of a network, but many networks share similar values of a given...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Activity Based Sector Synchronisation: Efficient Transfer of Disk-State for WAN Live Migration

    Live migration of virtual machines is now commonplace but the issue of synchronising storage remains an obstacle to wide-area migration between datacentres. The authors discuss the range of possible designs for synchronising disk images and argue that they have to be adaptive at the sector level to efficiently transfer disk-state...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Free Lunch: Exploiting Renewable Energy for Computing

    This paper argues for "Free Lunch", a computation architecture that exploits otherwise wasted renewable energy by co-locating data-centres with these remote energy sources, connecting them over a dedicated network, and providing a software framework that supports the seamless execution and migration of virtual machines in the platform according to power...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Security-Oriented Formal Techniques

    Security of software systems is a critical issue in a world where Information Technology is becoming more and more pervasive. The number of services for everyday life that are provided via electronic networks is rapidly increasing, as witnessed by the longer and longer list of words with the prefix "e",...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Can New Nuclear Power Plants Be Project Financed?

    This paper considers the prospects for financing a wave of new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using project financing, which is used widely in large capital intensive infrastructure investments, including the power and gas sectors, but has not previously been used for nuclear power. It argues that the first few NPPs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    The Process Of Negotiating Settlements At FERC

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). This paper sets out the process by which this is achieved, illustrating with the 12 rate cases from 2008 and 2009. In contrast to many other...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Beyond The DSGE Straightjacket

    Academic macroeconomics and the research department of central banks have come to be dominated by Dynamic, Stochastic, General Equilibrium (DSGE) models based on micro-foundations of optimising representative agents with rational expectations. The authors argue that the dominance of this particular sort of DSGE and the resistance of some in the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    On Identification Of Bayesian DSGE Models

    In recent years there has been increasing concern about the identification of parameters in Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models. Given the structure of DSGE models it may be difficult to determine whether a parameter is identified. For the researcher using Bayesian methods, a lack of identification may not be...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Economics Of Energy (And Electricity) Demand

    Economic drivers, technologies and demand side management are keys in understanding the long-term trends of both energy and more specifically electricity consumption. This paper discusses some of the important economics foundations of energy demand in general, and electricity in particular. First, the authors look at the macro-economic context of energy....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reconfigurable Data Processing for Clouds

    Reconfigurable computing for some time has had the potential to make a huge impact on mainstream high performance computing. The authors now have very large capacity FPGAs which contain many highly parallel fine grain parallel processing power, and the ability to define high bandwidth custom memory hierarchies offers a compelling...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Measuring User Activity on an Online Location-Based Social Network

    While in recent years online social networks have been largely shaping user experience on the Web, only in the last year there has been a soaring increase of novel location-based social applications. By allowing users to check-in at places and share their location with friends, these social platforms provide a...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Integrating Short-Term Demand Response Into Long-Term Investment Planning

    Planning models have been used for many years to optimize generation investments in electric power systems. More recently, these models have been extended in order to treat demand-side management on an equal footing. This paper stresses the importance of integrating short-term demand response to time-varying prices into those investment models....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    War Signals: A Theory Of Trade, Trust And Conflict

    The authors construct a dynamic theory of civil conflict hinging on inter-ethnic trust and trade. The model economy is inhabitated by two ethnic groups. Inter-ethnic trade requires imperfectly observed bilateral investments and one group has to form beliefs on the average propensity to trade of the other group. Since conflict...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    CIEL: A Universal Execution Engine for Distributed Data-Flow Computing

    This paper introduces CIEL, a universal execution engine for distributed data-flow programs. Like previous execution engines, CIEL masks the complexity of distributed programming. Unlike those systems, a CIEL job can make data-dependent control-flow decisions, which enables it to compute iterative and recursive algorithms. The authors have also developed Skywriting, a...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model For Energy Security

    The mathematical formulation of a large-scale equilibrium natural gas simulation model is presented. Although large-scale natural gas models have been developed and used for energy security and policy analysis quite extensively (e.g., Holz (2007), Egging et al. (2008), Holz et al. (2009) and Lise et al. (2008)), this model differs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reforming Small Power Systems Under Political Volatility: The Case Of Nepal

    This paper assesses the electricity sector reforms across small power systems while citing Nepal as an example. The on-going political instability and increasing electricity demand make power sector reform in Nepal and similar small systems a more complex process. As international reform experiences provide plenty of lessons to learn; raising...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Distributive Politics And Electoral Incentives: Evidence From Seven US State Legislatures

    The authors study the effect of electoral incentives on the allocation of public services across legislative districts. They develop a model in which elections encourage individual legislators to cater to parochial interests and thus aggravate the common pool problem. Using unique data from seven US states, they study how the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Dynamics Of Evolution In The Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry

    The authors employ a value chain analysis approach to examine the forces shaping the industry structure, entry and inter-firm governance modes. Forty largest global and regional companies in the ethanol manufacturing stage have been classified according to their pre-entry industry of origin. Firms with pre-entry history in feedstock supply have...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Group Decision-Making: An Economic Analysis Of Social Influence And Individual Difference In Experimental Juries

    In a jury decision-making, individuals must compromise in order to reach a group consensus. If individuals compromise for non-rational reasons, such as a preference for conformity or due to erroneous information, then the final decision of the group may be biased. This paper presents original experimental data which shows that...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Monetary Policy, Capital Inflows, And The Housing Boom

    The authors estimate an open economy VAR model to quantify the effect of monetary policy and capital inflows shocks on the US housing market. The shocks are identified with sign restrictions derived from a standard DSGE model. They find that monetary policy shocks have a limited effect on house prices...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Payment Matters? - An Exploratory Study Into The Pre-Payment Electricity Metering

    In this paper the authors look at the role of pre-payment (in the context of prepayment metering) for household electricity consumption. Using a matching approach, they find that households paying their electricity upfront tend to consume no less electricity than households paying ex post. This is despite facing a higher...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Liquidity Constraints And High Electricity Use

    It is a well established fact that electricity use increases with income. What is less well known is that - despite the positive correlation between electricity use and income - a significant portion of low-income households consume very large amounts of electricity. In this paper, the authors make a first...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Civil War And Human Development: Impacts Of Finance And Financial Infrastructure

    In this paper interactions between finance, development and armed conflict are explored to demonstrate that financial factors are crucial in sustaining conflict-underdevelopment feedback loops. Military expenditure drains resources, financial instability leads to conflict (and vice versa), war retards the development of financial institutions/infrastructure, and interactions between finance and conflict are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Reforming The Power Sector In Transition: Do Institutions Matter?

    This paper quantitatively explores high-level links between power sector reforms and wider institutional reforms in the economy for a set of 27 diverse countries in rapid political and economic transition since 1990. Panel-data econometrics based on bias corrected dynamic fixed effect analysis (LSDVC) is performed to assess the impact of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Principal Components Instrumental Variable Estimation

    Instrumental variable estimators can be severely biased in finite samples when the degree of over-identification is high or when the instruments are weakly correlated with the endogenous regressors. This paper proposes an estimator based on the use of the principal components of the instruments as a means of dealing with...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Tests For Convergence Clubs

    In many applications common in testing for convergence the number of cross-sectional units is large and the number of time periods are few. In these situations tests which are founded upon an omnibus null hypothesis are characterised by a number of problems. In this paper the authors consider a broad...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Robust Growth Determinants

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Commodity Price Volatility And The Sources Of Growth

    This paper studies the impact of the level and volatility of commodity terms of trade on economic growth, as well as on the three main growth channels: Total factor productivity, physical capital accumulation, and human capital acquisition. The authors argue that volatility, rather than abundance per se, drives the "Resource...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Xen 3.0 and the Art of Virtualization

    The Xen Virtual Machine Monitor will soon be undergoing its third major release, and is maturing into a stable, secure, and full-featured virtualization solution for Linux and other operating systems. Xen has attracted considerable development interest over the past year, and consequently the 3.0 release includes many exciting new features....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    The Past, Present And Future Of Industrial Policy In India: Adapting To The Changing Domestic And International Environment

    This paper takes a wide view of industrial policy, emphasising the government's continuing coordinating role in various spheres. It regards the institution of the Planning Commission as a major benefit for the country particularly as its role in formulating industrial policy in the narrow sense and in guiding India's ongoing...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Enforcing End-to-End Application Security in the Cloud

    Security engineering must be integrated with all stages of application specification and development to be effective. Doing this properly is increasingly critical as organisations rush to offload their software services to cloud providers. Service-Level Agreements (SLAs) with these providers currently focus on performance-oriented parameters, which run the risk of exacerbating...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Do The English Legal Origin Countries Have More Dispersed Share Ownership And More Developed Financial Systems?

    The essence of the legal origin hypothesis is that a country with an English legal origin provides better investor and creditor protection and experiences greater financial development; financial institutions and stock markets flourish, the general public participate more in financing investment projects of companies and so shareholding is less concentrated....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Scripting the Cloud With Skywriting

    Recent distributed computing frameworks - such as MapReduce, Hadoop and Dryad - have made it simple to exploit multiple machines in a compute cloud. However, these frameworks use coordination languages that are insufficiently expressive for many classes of computation, including iterative and recursive algorithms. To address this problem, and generalise...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Tiger, Tiger, Burning Bright? Industrial Policy Lessons From Ireland And East Asia For Small African Economies

    African countries can learn fro other so-called 'Tiger' economies including Ireland and the East and South Asian countries. The Irish model is relevant not least because of its emphasis on corporatism rather than simply relying on state direction in the operation of industrial policy. The Irish model is also more...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Turning Down the LAMP: Software Specialisation for the Cloud

    The wide availability of cloud computing offers an unprecedented opportunity to rethink how the authors construct applications. The cloud is currently mostly used to package up existing software stacks and operating systems (e.g. LAMP) for scaling out websites. They instead view the cloud as a stable hardware platform, and present...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    The Evolution Of The Corporation: Organization, Finance, Knowledge And Corporate Social Responsibility

    This paper, which selectively focuses on the contested concept of Corporate Social Responsibility [CSR], forms part of a larger research project on the evolution of corporate governance. This research posits the evolution of corporate governance along three historical paradigms: first, the economic/industrial organization paradigm, second, the financial paradigm, and third,...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Reconstructing I/O

    The authors present a next-generation architecture that addresses problems of dependability, maintainability, and manageability of I/O devices and their software drivers on the PC platform. The architecture resolves both hardware and software issues, exploiting emerging hardware features to improve device safety. The high-performance implementation, based on the Xen virtual machine...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Revisiting The Party Paradox Of Finance Capitalism: Evidence From Switzerland, Sweden And The Netherlands

    The 'Party paradox' paper claims that centre-left parties have a genuine interest in pro-shareholder corporate governance reforms, while centre-right parties oppose such reforms. Based on case studies of Switzerland, Sweden, and the Netherlands, the author tests the accuracy of this paper and find that it does not apply to either...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Reconnecting Money To Inflation: The Pivotal Role Of The External Finance Premium

    Monetary policy has become disconnected from the study of monetary aggregates. Authors consider reconnecting money to inflation using a model where banks supply loans to cash-in-advance constrained consumers on the basis of the value of collateral provided and the monitoring skills of banks. Authors show that when shocks to monitoring...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    The Reflexive Properties Of Corporate Governance Codes: The Reception Of The 'Comply Or Explain' Approach In Slovenia

    The Slovenian Corporate Governance Code for Public Joint-Stock Companies was adopted in March 2004. Using a systems-theoretical approach, the authors examine the extent to which the implementation of the Code has resulted in the kinds of 'Reflexive' learning processes which the 'Comply or explain' approach aims to bring about. The...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Safe Hardware Access With the Xen Virtual Machine Monitor

    The Xen virtual machine monitor allows multiple operating systems to execute concurrently on commodity x86 hardware, providing a solution for server consolidation and utility computing. In the initial design, Xen itself contained device-driver code and provided safe shared virtual device access. In this paper the authors present the new Safe...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Does Social Democracy Matter? Corporate Governance Reforms In Switzerland And Sweden (1980 - 2005)

    This paper tests the accuracy of Roe's (2003) claim that 'social democracies' tend to have insider-orientated corporate governance systems, for two extreme cases concerning Roe's independent variable: Switzerland and Sweden. Starting from a position in which both were clearly insider-orientated systems, there was a significant weakening of insider control in...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Reheating Cold Topics(in Networking)

    It has been proposed that research in certain areas is to be avoided when those areas have gone cold. While previous work concentrated on detecting the temperature of a research topic, this work addresses the question of changing the temperature of said topics. The authors make suggestions for a set...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Legal Origin, Juridical Form And Industrialisation In Historical Perspective: The Case Of The Employment Contract And The Joint-Stock Company

    The timing and nature of industrialization in Britain and continental Europe had significant consequences for the growth and development of labor market institutions, effects which are still felt today and which are visible in the conceptual structure of labor law and company law in different countries. However, contrary to the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Low Interest Rates And Housing Booms: The Role Of Capital Inflows, Monetary Policy And Financial Innovation

    A number of OECD countries experienced an environment of low interest rates and a rapid increase in housing market activity during the last decade. Previous work suggests three potential explanations for these events: expansionary monetary policy, capital inflows due to a global savings glut and excessive financial innovation combined with...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Assessing The Long-Run Economic Impact Of Labour Law Systems: A Theoretical Reappraisal And Analysis Of New Time Series Data

    Standard economic theory sees labor law as an exogenous interference with market relations and predicts mostly negative impacts on employment and productivity. The authors argue for a more nuanced theoretical position: labor law is, at least in part, endogenous, with both the production and the application of labor law norms...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    The Influence Of Stock Market Listing On Human Resource Management: Evidence For France And Britain

    The authors use data from REPONSE 2004 and WERS 2004 to analyze whether approaches to HRM differ according to whether an establishment is part of a company with a stock exchange listing. In both countries they find that listing is positively associated with team working and performance-related pay, while in...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    The Snooping Dragon: Social-Malware Surveillance of the Tibetan Movement

    This paper says about a case of malware-based electronic surveillance of a political organisation by the agents of a nation state. While malware attacks are not new, two aspects of this case make it worth serious study. First, it was a targeted surveillance attack designed to collect actionable intelligence for...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Stopping Spam by Extrusion Detection

    End users are often unaware that their systems have been compromised and are being used to send bulk unsolicited email (spam). This paper shows how automated processing of the email logs recorded on the "Smarthost" provided by an ISP for their customer's outgoing email can be used to detect this...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Security Economics and European Policy

    As Europe moves online, information security is becoming increasingly important: first, because the direct and indirect losses are now economically significant; and second, because growing public concerns about information security hinder the development of both markets and public services. While information security touches on many subjects from mathematics through law...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Traffic Analysis of the HTTP Protocol Over TLS

    The paper analyzes attacks that take advantage of the data length information leaked by HTTP transactions over the TLS protocol, in order to link clients with particular resources they might access on a web site. The threat model considered is a public news site that tries to protect the patterns...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Practical Experiences With Wireless Integration Using Mobile IPv6

    World over, mobile Internet access has shown strong growth, fuelled by the increasing popularity of WiFi (802.11b-based WLANs), and the world-wide deployment of wide-area wireless networks such as GPRS and 3G. Multi-mode devices are becoming increasing affordable, and thus a growing number of mobile devices such as laptops, PDAs and...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Securing Peer-to-Peer Content Sharing Service From Poisoning Attacks

    Poisoning attacks in the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) content sharing service have become a serious security problem on the global Internet due to the features of P2P systems such as self-organization, self-maintenance, etc. This paper proposes a novel poisoning-resistant security framework based on the notion that the content providers would be the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    TDMA for Long Distance Wireless Networks

    Off late the UC Berkeley TIER Project studied the need to deploy network infrastructure to emerging regions. Their goal was to "Address the challenges in bringing the Information Technology revolution to the masses of the developing regions of the world". Out of that work came plans for WiFi Based Long...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Understanding Scam Victims: Seven Principles for Systems Security

    The success of many attacks on computer systems can be traced back to the security engineers not understanding the psychology of the system users they meant to protect. The paper examines a variety of scams and "Short cons" that were investigated, documented and recreated for the BBC TV programme The...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Resource Provisioning for Virtualized Server Applications

    Data centre virtualization creates an agile environment for application deployment. Applications run within one or more virtual machines and are hosted on various servers throughout the data centre. One key mechanism provided by modern virtualization technologies is dynamic resource allocation. Using this technique virtual machines can be allocated resources as...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    An Analysis of Hard Drive Energy Consumption

    The increasing storage capacity and necessary redundancy of data centers and other large-scale IT facilities has drawn attention to the issue of reducing the power consumption of hard drives. This work comprehensively investigates the power consumption of hard drives to determine typical runtime power profiles. The paper has instrumented at...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Live Migration of Virtual Machines

    In this paper the design options for migrating OSes running services with liveness constraints, focusing on data center and cluster environments are considered. The paper introduces and analyzes the concept of writable working set, and present the design, implementation and evaluation of high-performance OS migration built on top of the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Learning the Switching Rate by Discretising Bernoulli Sources Online Phishing Pages

    The expert tracking algorithm Fixed-Share depends on a parameter, called the switching rate. The switching rate can be learned online with regret 1 2 log T + O(1) bits. The current fastest method to achieve this is based on optimal discretisation of the Bernoulli distributions into O(?T) bins and runs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Internet Routing Policies and Round-Trip-Times

    Round Trip Times (RTTs) play an important role in Internet measurements. In this paper, authors explore some of the ways in which routing policies impact RTTs. In particular, they investigate how routing policies for both intra- and inter-domain routing can naturally give rise to violations of the triangle inequality with...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Modelling Airline Network Routing and Scheduling Under Airport Capacity Constraints

    A flight routing and scheduling model is under development that predicts airline routing and scheduling under airport capacity constraints. It consists of several components describing different aspects of the air transport system, including passenger demand, airline competition, flight delay, and airline cost. These models are integrated into a flight routing...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    A Better X86 Memory Model: X86-TSO

    Real multiprocessors do not provide the sequentially consistent memory that is assumed by most work on semantics and verification. Instead, they have relaxed memory models, typically described in ambiguous prose, which lead to widespread confusion. These are prime targets for mechanized formalization. In previous work the produced a rigorous x86-CC...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2010

    X86-TSO: A Rigorous and Usable Programmer's Model for X86 Multiprocessors

    Exploiting the multiprocessors that have recently become ubiquitous requires high-performance and reliable concurrent systems code, for concurrent data structures, operating system kernels, synchronization libraries, compilers, and so on. However, concurrent programming, which is always challenging, is made much more so by two problems. First, real multiprocessors typically do not provide...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    The Semantics of X86 Multiprocessor Machine Code Supplementary Examples

    This note contains supplementary details for the paper The Semantics of x86 Multiprocessor Machine Code [SSZN+09], with an informal-mathematics paper of the axiomatic memory model, and illustrating the possible event structures and valid executions of the examples. All the figures were produced with the movements tool, described in the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    The Semantics of X86-CC Multiprocessor Machine Code

    Multiprocessors are now dominant, but real multiprocessors do not provide the sequentially consistent memory that is assumed by most work on semantics and verification. Instead, they have subtle relaxed (or weak) memory models, usually described only in ambiguous prose, leading to widespread confusion. They develop a rigorous and accurate semantics...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Steganographic Message Broadcasting Using Web Protocols

    The project involved creating a pair of programs that allow arbitrary files to be hidden in cover HTTP network traffic. The server and client are implemented as plugins to a web server and a web browser respectively, which communicate using opaque data in a selection of HTTP header fields. The...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Toward Natural Human-Robot Interaction: Exploring Facial Expression Synthesis on an Android Robot

    Robots are entering domestic environments in increasing number. However, the present means for interacting with them is quite limited and difficult for people who are not technically inclined or able-bodied. Thus, many in the field of robotics are moving toward natural human robot interaction, which means allowing people the ability...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Security-Oriented Formal Techniques

    Security of software systems is a critical issue in a world where Information Technology is becoming more and more pervasive. The number of services for everyday life that are provided via electronic networks is rapidly increasing, as witnessed by the longer and longer list of words with the prefix "e",...

    Provided By University of Cambridge