University of Cambridge

Displaying 1-40 of 205 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2013

    Security of Two-Way Quantum Key Distribution

    Quantum key distribution protocols typically make use of a one-way quantum channel to distribute a shared secret string to two distant users. However, protocols exploiting a two-way quantum channel have been proposed as an alternative route to the same goal, with the potential advantage of outperforming one-way protocols. Here, the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Measuring the Cost of Cybercrime

    In this paper, the authors present what they believe to be the first systematic study of the costs of cybercrime. It was prepared in response to a request from the UK Ministry of Defence following scepticism that previous studies had hyped the problem. For each of the main categories of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2012

    Error and Attack Vulnerability of Temporal Networks

    The study of real-world communication systems via complex network models has greatly expanded the people understanding on how information flows, even in completely decentralized architectures such as mobile wireless networks. Nonetheless, static network models cannot capture the time-varying aspects and, therefore, various temporal metrics have been introduced. In this paper,...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2012

    The Seven Deadly Sins of Cloud Computing Research

    Research into distributed parallelism on "The cloud" has surged lately. As the research agenda and methodology in this area are being established, the authors observe a tendency towards certain common simplifications and shortcuts employed by researchers, which they provocatively term "Sins". They believe that these sins, in some cases, are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    STOP: Socio-Temporal Opportunistic Patching of Short Range Mobile Malware

    Mobile phones are integral to everyday life with emails, social networking, online banking and other applications; however, the wealth of private information accessible increases economic incentives for attackers. Compared with fixed networks, mobile malware can replicate through both long range messaging and short range radio technologies; the former can be...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2012

    CHERI: A Research Platform Deconflating Hardware Virtualization and Protection

    Contemporary CPU architectures conflate virtualization and protection, imposing virtualization-related performance, programmability, and debuggability penalties on software requiring fine-grained protection. First observed in micro-kernel research, these problems are increasingly apparent in recent attempts to mitigate software vulnerabilities through application compartmentalisation. Capability Hardware Enhanced RISC Instructions (CHERI) extend RISC ISAs to support...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Physical Layer Impact Upon Packet Errors

    The authors postulate a future for optical networks where data is more susceptible to errors than has been the case to date. This paper builds upon a previous study that highlighted content-dependent error in Gigabit Ethernet. In this paper, they explain their previous non-uniformity results in terms of interactions between...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Empirical Evaluation of Hybrid Opportunistic Networks

    In this paper, the authors study the utility of opportunistic communication systems with the co-existence of network infrastructure using three real experimental deployments. They study how some important performance metrics change with varying degrees of infrastructure and mobile nodes willing to participate in the opportunistic forwarding. In doing so, they...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Distributed Multicast Grouping for Publish/Subscribe Over Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Event broker grids that deploy the publish/subscribe communication paradigm extend the capabilities of seamless messaging in heterogeneous network environments. In order to support such mixed network environments, the authors integrate publish/subscribe semantics with multicast routing in mobile ad hoc networks. Dynamic construction of an event dissemination structure to route events...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Evaluating Temporal Robustness of Mobile Networks

    The application of complex network models to communication systems has led to several important results: nonetheless, previous research has often neglected to take into account their temporal properties, which in many real scenarios play a pivotal role. At the same time, network robustness has come extensively under scrutiny. Understanding whether...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Opportunism Vs. Cooperation: Comparing Forwarding Strategies in Multihop Wireless Networks With Random Fading

    A wide range of forwarding strategies have been developed for multi-hop wireless networks, considering the broadcast nature of the wireless medium and the presence of random fading that results in time-varying and unreliable transmission quality. Two recently proposed strategies are opportunistic forwarding, which exploits relay diversity by opportunistically selecting an...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    On the Effectiveness of an Opportunistic Traffic Management System for Vehicular Networks

    Road congestion results in a huge waste of time and productivity for millions of people. A possible way to deal with this problem is to have transportation authorities distribute traffic information to drivers, which in turn can decide (or be aided by a navigator) to route around congested areas. Such...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Network Clustering Via Spectral Projections

    This paper proposes a novel non-parametric technique for clustering networks based on their structure. Many topological measures have been introduced in the literature to characterize topological properties of networks. These measures provide meaningful information about the structural properties of a network, but many networks share similar values of a given...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Activity Based Sector Synchronisation: Efficient Transfer of Disk-State for WAN Live Migration

    Live migration of virtual machines is now commonplace but the issue of synchronising storage remains an obstacle to wide-area migration between datacentres. The authors discuss the range of possible designs for synchronising disk images and argue that they have to be adaptive at the sector level to efficiently transfer disk-state...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Free Lunch: Exploiting Renewable Energy for Computing

    This paper argues for "Free Lunch", a computation architecture that exploits otherwise wasted renewable energy by co-locating data-centres with these remote energy sources, connecting them over a dedicated network, and providing a software framework that supports the seamless execution and migration of virtual machines in the platform according to power...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Can New Nuclear Power Plants Be Project Financed?

    This paper considers the prospects for financing a wave of new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using project financing, which is used widely in large capital intensive infrastructure investments, including the power and gas sectors, but has not previously been used for nuclear power. It argues that the first few NPPs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    The Process Of Negotiating Settlements At FERC

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). This paper sets out the process by which this is achieved, illustrating with the 12 rate cases from 2008 and 2009. In contrast to many other...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Security-Oriented Formal Techniques

    Security of software systems is a critical issue in a world where Information Technology is becoming more and more pervasive. The number of services for everyday life that are provided via electronic networks is rapidly increasing, as witnessed by the longer and longer list of words with the prefix "e",...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Beyond The DSGE Straightjacket

    Academic macroeconomics and the research department of central banks have come to be dominated by Dynamic, Stochastic, General Equilibrium (DSGE) models based on micro-foundations of optimising representative agents with rational expectations. The authors argue that the dominance of this particular sort of DSGE and the resistance of some in the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    On Identification Of Bayesian DSGE Models

    In recent years there has been increasing concern about the identification of parameters in Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models. Given the structure of DSGE models it may be difficult to determine whether a parameter is identified. For the researcher using Bayesian methods, a lack of identification may not be...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Economics Of Energy (And Electricity) Demand

    Economic drivers, technologies and demand side management are keys in understanding the long-term trends of both energy and more specifically electricity consumption. This paper discusses some of the important economics foundations of energy demand in general, and electricity in particular. First, the authors look at the macro-economic context of energy....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reconfigurable Data Processing for Clouds

    Reconfigurable computing for some time has had the potential to make a huge impact on mainstream high performance computing. The authors now have very large capacity FPGAs which contain many highly parallel fine grain parallel processing power, and the ability to define high bandwidth custom memory hierarchies offers a compelling...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Measuring User Activity on an Online Location-Based Social Network

    While in recent years online social networks have been largely shaping user experience on the Web, only in the last year there has been a soaring increase of novel location-based social applications. By allowing users to check-in at places and share their location with friends, these social platforms provide a...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Integrating Short-Term Demand Response Into Long-Term Investment Planning

    Planning models have been used for many years to optimize generation investments in electric power systems. More recently, these models have been extended in order to treat demand-side management on an equal footing. This paper stresses the importance of integrating short-term demand response to time-varying prices into those investment models....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    War Signals: A Theory Of Trade, Trust And Conflict

    The authors construct a dynamic theory of civil conflict hinging on inter-ethnic trust and trade. The model economy is inhabitated by two ethnic groups. Inter-ethnic trade requires imperfectly observed bilateral investments and one group has to form beliefs on the average propensity to trade of the other group. Since conflict...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    CIEL: A Universal Execution Engine for Distributed Data-Flow Computing

    This paper introduces CIEL, a universal execution engine for distributed data-flow programs. Like previous execution engines, CIEL masks the complexity of distributed programming. Unlike those systems, a CIEL job can make data-dependent control-flow decisions, which enables it to compute iterative and recursive algorithms. The authors have also developed Skywriting, a...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model For Energy Security

    The mathematical formulation of a large-scale equilibrium natural gas simulation model is presented. Although large-scale natural gas models have been developed and used for energy security and policy analysis quite extensively (e.g., Holz (2007), Egging et al. (2008), Holz et al. (2009) and Lise et al. (2008)), this model differs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reforming Small Power Systems Under Political Volatility: The Case Of Nepal

    This paper assesses the electricity sector reforms across small power systems while citing Nepal as an example. The on-going political instability and increasing electricity demand make power sector reform in Nepal and similar small systems a more complex process. As international reform experiences provide plenty of lessons to learn; raising...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Distributive Politics And Electoral Incentives: Evidence From Seven US State Legislatures

    The authors study the effect of electoral incentives on the allocation of public services across legislative districts. They develop a model in which elections encourage individual legislators to cater to parochial interests and thus aggravate the common pool problem. Using unique data from seven US states, they study how the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Dynamics Of Evolution In The Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry

    The authors employ a value chain analysis approach to examine the forces shaping the industry structure, entry and inter-firm governance modes. Forty largest global and regional companies in the ethanol manufacturing stage have been classified according to their pre-entry industry of origin. Firms with pre-entry history in feedstock supply have...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Group Decision-Making: An Economic Analysis Of Social Influence And Individual Difference In Experimental Juries

    In a jury decision-making, individuals must compromise in order to reach a group consensus. If individuals compromise for non-rational reasons, such as a preference for conformity or due to erroneous information, then the final decision of the group may be biased. This paper presents original experimental data which shows that...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Monetary Policy, Capital Inflows, And The Housing Boom

    The authors estimate an open economy VAR model to quantify the effect of monetary policy and capital inflows shocks on the US housing market. The shocks are identified with sign restrictions derived from a standard DSGE model. They find that monetary policy shocks have a limited effect on house prices...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Payment Matters? - An Exploratory Study Into The Pre-Payment Electricity Metering

    In this paper the authors look at the role of pre-payment (in the context of prepayment metering) for household electricity consumption. Using a matching approach, they find that households paying their electricity upfront tend to consume no less electricity than households paying ex post. This is despite facing a higher...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Liquidity Constraints And High Electricity Use

    It is a well established fact that electricity use increases with income. What is less well known is that - despite the positive correlation between electricity use and income - a significant portion of low-income households consume very large amounts of electricity. In this paper, the authors make a first...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Civil War And Human Development: Impacts Of Finance And Financial Infrastructure

    In this paper interactions between finance, development and armed conflict are explored to demonstrate that financial factors are crucial in sustaining conflict-underdevelopment feedback loops. Military expenditure drains resources, financial instability leads to conflict (and vice versa), war retards the development of financial institutions/infrastructure, and interactions between finance and conflict are...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Reforming The Power Sector In Transition: Do Institutions Matter?

    This paper quantitatively explores high-level links between power sector reforms and wider institutional reforms in the economy for a set of 27 diverse countries in rapid political and economic transition since 1990. Panel-data econometrics based on bias corrected dynamic fixed effect analysis (LSDVC) is performed to assess the impact of...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Principal Components Instrumental Variable Estimation

    Instrumental variable estimators can be severely biased in finite samples when the degree of over-identification is high or when the instruments are weakly correlated with the endogenous regressors. This paper proposes an estimator based on the use of the principal components of the instruments as a means of dealing with...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Tests For Convergence Clubs

    In many applications common in testing for convergence the number of cross-sectional units is large and the number of time periods are few. In these situations tests which are founded upon an omnibus null hypothesis are characterised by a number of problems. In this paper the authors consider a broad...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Robust Growth Determinants

    This paper investigates the robustness of determinants of economic growth in the presence of model uncertainty, parameter heterogeneity and outliers. The robust model averaging approach introduced in the paper uses a flexible and parsimonious mixture modeling that allows for fat-tailed errors compared to the normal benchmark case. Applying robust model...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Commodity Price Volatility And The Sources Of Growth

    This paper studies the impact of the level and volatility of commodity terms of trade on economic growth, as well as on the three main growth channels: Total factor productivity, physical capital accumulation, and human capital acquisition. The authors argue that volatility, rather than abundance per se, drives the "Resource...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Interfuel Substitution And Energy Use In The UK Manufacturing Sector

    This paper investigates interfuel substitution in the UK manufacturing sector. Econometric models of interfuel substitution are applied to energy inputs aggregated by their energy use, and separately for thermal heating processes, where interfuel substitution is technologically feasible. Compared to aggregate data, estimated own-price fuel demand elasticities for all fuels and...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Why Has Productivity Growth Stagnated In Most Latin-American Countries Since The Neo-Liberal Reforms?

    Latin America's economic performance since the beginning of neo-liberal reforms has been poor; this not only contrasts with its own performance pre-1980, but also with what has happened in Asia since 1980. The author argues that the weakness of the region's new paradigm is rooted as much in its intrinsic...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Shifts In Portfolio Preferences Of International Investors: An Application To Sovereign Wealth Funds

    Reversals in capital inflows can have severe economic consequences. This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model to analyze the effect on interest rates, asset prices, investment, consumption, output, the exchange rate and the current account of a shift in portfolio preferences of foreign investors. The model has two countries...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Asset Management With Price Impact And Fair Treatment Of Clients

    In light of recent regulatory initiatives focusing on fair treatment of customers in financial markets, this paper examines the agency problem created by an asset manager with market impact, segregated accounts and preference-based contracts. It illustrates how aggregate client welfare and assets under management are affected by the order in...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Conditional Volatility And Correlations Of Weekly Returns And The VaR Analysis Of 2008 Stock Market Crash

    Modeling of conditional volatilities and correlations across asset returns is an integral part of portfolio decision making and risk management. Over the past three decades there has been a trend towards increased asset return correlations across markets, a trend which has been accentuated during the recent financial crisis. The authors...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Econometric Analysis Of High Dimensional VARs Featuring A Dominant Unit

    This paper extends the analysis of Infinite Dimensional Vector Auto Regressive models (IVAR) proposed in Chudik and Pesaran (2010) to the case where one of the variables or the cross section units in the IVAR model is dominant or pervasive. This extension is not straightforward and involves several technical difficulties....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Fiscal Federalism And Electoral Accountability

    The authors study the efficient allocation of spending and taxation authority in a federation in which federal politicians are exposed to electoral uncertainty. They show that centralization may, but need not, result in a loss of electoral accountability. They identify an important asymmetry between positive and negative externalities and show...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Exploring Ahe Determinants Of "Best Practice" In Network Regulation: The Case Of The Electricity Sector

    In this paper the authors use a best practice index constructed from the survey responses of regulators in 40 countries to explore the determinants of outcomes in electricity network regulation. They construct a model of explained behavior where they are particularly interested in understanding the impact of industry setting, political,...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Nuclear Future? UK Government Policy And The Role Of The Market?

    UK energy policy has evolved since the 2002 Energy Review (PIU, 2002) in which Tony Blair introduced the report and noted that "securing cheap, reliable, and sustainable sources of energy has long been a major concern for governments". The new Department of Energy and Climate Change, DECC, has rephrased its...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Operational And Investment Response To Energy Prices In The OECD Manufacturing Sector

    This paper estimates the vintage capital model of energy demand and examines operational and investment responses to energy prices at disaggregate level using data from five OECD manufacturing industries. Applying the model to less aggregate level data helps avoiding the distortions from exogenous structural shifts and measurement errors. The results...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    The Impact Of Instrument Choice On Investment In Abatement Technologies: A Case Study Of Tax Versus Trade Incentives For CCS And Biomass For Electricity

    There has been a wide discussion on the different properties between carbon taxes, cap-and-trade schemes and hybrid instruments such as cap-and-trade schemes with price floors and ceilings. There has been less discussion on the incentives to investment that each of these instruments may provide. The authors build a three-period model...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Impacts Of Personality On Herding In Financial Decision-Making

    Experimental analyses have identified significant tendencies for individuals to follow herd decisions, a finding which has been explained using Bayesian principles of statistical inference. This paper outlines the results from a herding task designed to extend these analyses. Empirically, the authors estimate logistic functions using panel fixed effect estimation techniques...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Understanding Interactions In Social Networks And Committees

    While much of the literature on cross section dependence has focused mainly on estimation of the regression coefficients in the underlying model, estimation and inferences on the magnitude and strength of spillovers and interactions has been largely ignored. At the same time, such inferences are important in many applications, not...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reconfigurable Data Processing for Clouds

    Reconfigurable computing for some time has had the potential to make a huge impact on mainstream high performance computing. The authors now have very large capacity FPGAs which contain many highly parallel fine grain parallel processing power, and the ability to define high bandwidth custom memory hierarchies offers a compelling...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    CIEL: A Universal Execution Engine for Distributed Data-Flow Computing

    This paper introduces CIEL, a universal execution engine for distributed data-flow programs. Like previous execution engines, CIEL masks the complexity of distributed programming. Unlike those systems, a CIEL job can make data-dependent control-flow decisions, which enables it to compute iterative and recursive algorithms. The authors have also developed Skywriting, a...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    The Case for Abstracting Security Policies

    As Internet connectivity grows executing untrusted code becomes an increasingly serious threat. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and digital signatures offer some degree of protection, but are only part of a solution. In this paper the authors propose a mechanism of forcing applications to "Declare what they intend to do" by...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Monetary Policy, Capital Inflows, And The Housing Boom

    The authors estimate an open economy VAR model to quantify the effect of monetary policy and capital inflows shocks on the US housing market. The shocks are identified with sign restrictions derived from a standard DSGE model. They find that monetary policy shocks have a limited effect on house prices...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Can New Nuclear Power Plants Be Project Financed?

    This paper considers the prospects for financing a wave of new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) using project financing, which is used widely in large capital intensive infrastructure investments, including the power and gas sectors, but has not previously been used for nuclear power. It argues that the first few NPPs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Beyond The DSGE Straightjacket

    Academic macroeconomics and the research department of central banks have come to be dominated by Dynamic, Stochastic, General Equilibrium (DSGE) models based on micro-foundations of optimising representative agents with rational expectations. The authors argue that the dominance of this particular sort of DSGE and the resistance of some in the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    The Economics Of Energy (And Electricity) Demand

    Economic drivers, technologies and demand side management are keys in understanding the long-term trends of both energy and more specifically electricity consumption. This paper discusses some of the important economics foundations of energy demand in general, and electricity in particular. First, the authors look at the macro-economic context of energy....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    War Signals: A Theory Of Trade, Trust And Conflict

    The authors construct a dynamic theory of civil conflict hinging on inter-ethnic trust and trade. The model economy is inhabitated by two ethnic groups. Inter-ethnic trade requires imperfectly observed bilateral investments and one group has to form beliefs on the average propensity to trade of the other group. Since conflict...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Strategic Eurasian Natural Gas Model For Energy Security

    The mathematical formulation of a large-scale equilibrium natural gas simulation model is presented. Although large-scale natural gas models have been developed and used for energy security and policy analysis quite extensively (e.g., Holz (2007), Egging et al. (2008), Holz et al. (2009) and Lise et al. (2008)), this model differs...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Reforming Small Power Systems Under Political Volatility: The Case Of Nepal

    This paper assesses the electricity sector reforms across small power systems while citing Nepal as an example. The on-going political instability and increasing electricity demand make power sector reform in Nepal and similar small systems a more complex process. As international reform experiences provide plenty of lessons to learn; raising...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Integrating Short-Term Demand Response Into Long-Term Investment Planning

    Planning models have been used for many years to optimize generation investments in electric power systems. More recently, these models have been extended in order to treat demand-side management on an equal footing. This paper stresses the importance of integrating short-term demand response to time-varying prices into those investment models....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    On Identification Of Bayesian DSGE Models

    In recent years there has been increasing concern about the identification of parameters in Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models. Given the structure of DSGE models it may be difficult to determine whether a parameter is identified. For the researcher using Bayesian methods, a lack of identification may not be...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Distributive Politics And Electoral Incentives: Evidence From Seven US State Legislatures

    The authors study the effect of electoral incentives on the allocation of public services across legislative districts. They develop a model in which elections encourage individual legislators to cater to parochial interests and thus aggravate the common pool problem. Using unique data from seven US states, they study how the...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Dynamics Of Evolution In The Global Fuel-Ethanol Industry

    The authors employ a value chain analysis approach to examine the forces shaping the industry structure, entry and inter-firm governance modes. Forty largest global and regional companies in the ethanol manufacturing stage have been classified according to their pre-entry industry of origin. Firms with pre-entry history in feedstock supply have...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Data Privacy and Security for Smart Meters - Response to Ofgem's Consultation

    This is a response to the consultation on 'Smart Metering Implementation Program: Data Privacy and Security' published by DECC/Ofgem on 27th July, 2010. While the authors commend Ofgem for taking into account the importance of security and privacy, they would like to point out several areas where more work is...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Key Management for Substations: Symmetric Keys, Public Keys or No Keys?

    In this paper, the authors discuss symmetric-key and public key protocols for key management in electricity transmission and distribution substations - both for communication within substations, and between substations and the network control center. Key management in the electricity network is widely regarded as a challenging problem, not only because...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Rationales And Instruments For Public Innovation Policies

    Economic interest in innovation policy largely arises from the fundamental importance of innovation to social welfare and from well-known inefficiencies in innovation in a competitive market environment. As a result, a wide variety of public innovation policies are used in practice. This paper reviews the economic justifications for public innovation...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Maintaining Database Integrity with Refinement Types

    Given recent advances in automated theorem proving, the authors present a new method for determining whether database transactions preserve integrity constraints. They consider check constraints and referential-integrity constraints - extracted from SQL table declarations - and application-level invariants expressed as formulas of first-order logic. The motivation is to use static...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Secure Path-Key Revocation for Symmetric Key Pre-Distribution Schemes in Sensor Networks

    Path keys are secrets established between communicating devices that do not share a pre-distributed key. They are required by most key pre-distribution schemes for sensor networks, because topology is unknown before deployment and storing complete pairwise-unique keys is infeasible for low-cost devices such as sensors. Unfortunately, path keys have often...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    So Near and Yet so Far: Distance-Bounding Attacks in Wireless Networks

    Distance-bounding protocols are specialized authentication protocols that determine an upper bound for the physical distance between two communicating parties. They aim to prevent attackers from pretending that the prover is closer to the verifier than is actually the case. Distance-bounding protocols have been suggested for application in access control tokens...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Cling: A Memory Allocator to Mitigate Dangling Pointers

    Use-after-free vulnerabilities exploiting so-called dangling pointers to deallocated objects are just as dangerous as buffer overflows: they may enable arbitrary code execution. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art defenses against use-after-free vulnerabilities require compiler support, pervasive source code modifications, or incur high performance overheads. This paper presents and evaluates Cling, a memory allocator designed...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Capsicum: Practical Capabilities for UNIX

    Capsicum is a lightweight operating system capability and sandbox framework planned for inclusion in FreeBSD 9. Capsicum extends, rather than replaces, UNIX APIs, providing new kernel primitives (sandboxed capability mode and capabilities) and a userspace sandbox API. These tools support compartmentalisation of monolithic UNIX applications into logical applications, an increasingly...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Exploiting Temporal Complex Network Metrics in Mobile Malware Containment

    Malicious mobile phone worms spread between devices via short-range Bluetooth contacts, similar to the propagation of human and other biological viruses. Recent work has employed models from epidemiology and complex networks to analyse the spread of malware and the effect of patching specific nodes. These approaches have adopted a static...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Large-System Analysis of Multiuser Detection With an Unknown Number of Users: A High-SNR Approach

    The authors analyze multiuser detection under the assumption that the number of users accessing the channel is unknown by the receiver. In this environment, users' activity must be estimated along with any other parameters such as data, power, and location. The main goal is to determine the performance loss caused...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Post-Manichean Economics: Foreign Investment, State Capacity And Economic Development In Transition Economies

    This paper evaluates the role of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the transition from socialism to capitalism. Fixed-effects panel regressions indicate that FDI and domestic investment have an equal effect on growth in the first year of investment, but over time FDI is associated with greater growth than domestic investment....

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Cojumping: Evidence From The US Treasury Bond And Futures Markets

    The basis between spot and future prices will be affected by jump behavior in each asset price, challenging intraday hedging strategies. Using a formal cojumping test this paper considers the cojumping behavior of spot and futures prices in high frequency US Treasury data. Cojumping occurs most frequently at shorter maturities...

    Provided By University of Cambridge

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Group Decision-Making: An Economic Analysis Of Social Influence And Individual Difference In Experimental Juries

    In a jury decision-making, individuals must compromise in order to reach a group consensus. If individuals compromise for non-rational reasons, such as a preference for conformity or due to erroneous information, then the final decision of the group may be biased. This paper presents original experimental data which shows that...

    Provided By University of Cambridge