University of Chicago

Displaying 1-40 of 61 results

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Credit Crises, Precautionary Savings And The Liquidity Trap

    The authors use a model ? la Bewly-Huggett-Ayagari to explore the effects of a credit crunch on consumer spending. Households borrow and lend to smooth idiosyncratic income shocks facing an exogenous borrowing constraint. They look at the economy response after an unexpected permanent tightening of this constraint. The interest rate...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Garbage Collection for Multicore NUMA Machines

    Modern high-end machines feature multiple processor packages, each of which contains multiple independent cores and integrated memory controllers connected directly to dedicated physical RAM. These packages are connected via a shared bus, creating a system with a heterogeneous memory hierarchy. Since this shared bus has less bandwidth than the sum...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Credit Constraints And Investment In Human Capital: Training Evidence From Emerging Markets

    Using a unique survey database of 9,655 firms from 27 emerging markets, the authors find that lack of access to finance in general, and to bank credit in particular, is associated with significantly lower investment in human capital. Controlling for size, technology, monopsony power, and labor contract rigidity, firms for...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Cumulus: An Open Source Storage Cloud for Science

    Amazon's S3 protocol has emerged as the de facto interface for storage in the commercial data cloud. However, it is closed source and unavailable to the numerous science data centers all over the country. Just as Amazon's Simple Storage Service (S3) provides reliable data cloud access to commercial users, scientific...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    TACC Technical Report TR-11-01 Finite Element Integration on GPUs

    Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) present a promising platform for scientific simulation, offering high performance with excellent power and cost efficiency. However, despite advances in programmability for these devices, few numerical libraries have made use of them. The challenge of rewriting a CPU code to make use of a GPU's architectural...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    From Hyperinflation To Stable Prices: Argentina's Evidence On Menu Cost Models

    The authors review and extend two types of predictions of menu cost models of the type studied by Golosov and Lucas (2007) as well as by many others. They focus on the relationship between steady state inflation and the steady state frequency of price changes and between inflation and relative...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Locating Data in (Small-World?) Peer-to-Peer Scientific Collaborations

    Locating files based on their names is an essential mechanism for large-scale data sharing collaborations. A Peer-To-Peer (P2P) approach is preferable in many cases due to its ability to operate robustly in dynamic environments. Existing P2P location mechanisms focus on specific data sharing environments and, therefore, on specific requirements: in...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A Problem-Specific Fault-Tolerance Mechanism for Asynchronous, Distributed Systems

    The idle computers on a local area, campus area, or even wide area network represent a significant computational resource one that is, however, also unreliable, heterogeneous, and opportunistic. The authors describe an algorithm that allows branch-and-bound problems to be solved in such environments. In designing this algorithm, They faced two...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Improving Data Availability Through Dynamic Model-Driven Replication in Large Peer-to-Peer Communities

    Efficient data sharing in global peer-to-peer systems is complicated by erratic node failure, unreliable network connectivity and limited bandwidth. Replicating data on multiple nodes can improve availability and response time. Yet determining when and where to replicate data in order to meet performance goals in large-scale systems with many users...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A Peer-to-Peer Approach to Resource Location in Grid Environments

    Computational grids provide mechanisms for sharing and accessing large and heterogeneous collections of remote resources such as computers, online instruments, storage space, data, and applications. Resources are requested by specifying a set of desired attributes. Resource attributes have various degrees of dynamism, from mostly static attributes, such as operating system...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Mapping the Gnutella Network: Properties of Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems and Implications for System Design

    Despite recent excitement generated by the Peer-To-Peer (P2P) paradigm and the surprisingly rapid deployment of some P2P applications, there are few quantitative evaluations of P2P systems behavior. The open architecture, achieved scale, and self-organizing structure of the Gnutella network make it an interesting P2P architecture to study. Like most other...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Delegated Asset Management And Investment Mandates

    This paper develops a model to explain the widely used investment mandates in the institutional asset management industry based on two insights: first, giving a manager more investment flexibility weakens the link between fund performance and his effort in the designated market, and thus increases agency cost. Second, the presence...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Redistributive Taxation, Incentives, And The Intertemporal Evolution Of Human Capital

    This paper contributes to the literature on redistributive taxation and human capital dynamics by explicitly analyzing the role of incentives in the education market where human capital is produced. The authors introduce an explicit education market with heterogeneous private schools in a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Inflation And Taxes In A Growing Economy With Debt And Equity Finance

    The tax system was designed for an economy with little or no inflation. The current paper shows that inflation causes capricious changes in the effective rate of tax on capital income and therefore in the real net rate of return that savers receive. This is not only a temporary disequilibrium...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    A Declarative API for Particle Systems

    Recent trends in computer-graphics APIs and hardware have made it practical to use high-level functional languages for real-time graphics applications. Thus the authors have the opportunity to develop new approaches to computer graphics that take advantage of the high-level features of functional languages. This paper describes one such project that...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Capacity Analysis in Multi-State Synaptic Models: A Retrieval Probability Perspective

    The authors define the memory capacity of networks of binary neurons with finite-state synapses in terms of retrieval probabilities of learned patterns under standard asynchronous dynamics with a predetermined threshold. The threshold is set to control the proportion of non-selective neurons that fire. An optimal inhibition level is chosen to...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Arity Raising in Manticore

    Compilers for polymorphic languages are required to treat values in programs in an abstract and generic way at the source level. The challenges of optimizing the boxing of raw values, flattening of argument tuples, and raising the arity of functions that handle complex structures to reduce memory usage are old...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Non Pecuniary Benefits Of Small Business Ownership

    The authors find non pecuniary benefits of business ownership to be an important consideration in explaining small business formation. Using a variety of data sources, the authors show that the overwhelming majority of small businesses do not match the theoretical concept of an entrepreneur. Specifically, nearly all small businesses do...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Do Call Centers Promote School Enrollment? Evidence From India

    Globalization has changed job opportunities in much of the developing world. In India, outsourcing has created a new class of high-skill jobs which have increased overall returns to schooling. Existing evidence suggests education broadly responds to this change. The authors use microdata to evaluate the impact of these jobs on...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    A Structural Evaluation Of A Large-Scale Quasi-Experimental Microfinance Initiative

    This paper uses a structural model to understand, predict, and evaluate the impact of an exogenous microcredit intervention program, the Thai Million Baht Village Fund program. The authors model household decisions in the face of borrowing constraints, income uncertainty, and high-yield indivisible investment opportunities. After estimation of parameters using pre-program...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Performing Nonlinear Blind Source Separation With Signal Invariants

    Sensory devices often receive signals from multiple physical stimuli that evolve simultaneously but are unrelated to one another. In many of these situations, it is necessary to create separate representations of one or more of these stimuli by blindly processing the observed signals (i.e., by processing them without prior knowledge...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Durable Consumption and Asset Management With Transaction and Observation Costs

    The empirical evidence on rational inattention lags far behind the theoretical developments: micro evidence on the most immediate consequence of observation costs − the infrequent observation of state variables − is not available in standard datasets. This paper contribute to filling the gap with two novel household surveys that record...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Non-Pecuniary Benefits Of Small Business Ownership

    In this paper, the authors explore the importance of non-pecuniary benefits in explaining small business formation. First, using new data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, the authors show that a majority of small business owners report that non-pecuniary benefits were the primary reason that they started their business....

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Financing Speculative Booms

    This paper studies the financing of speculative asset-market booms in a standard framework with heterogeneous beliefs and short-sales constraints. Cash-constrained optimists use their asset holdings as collateral to raise debt financing from less optimistic creditors. Through state-contingent refinancing, short-term debt allows the optimists to reduce debt payment in upper states...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Dynamic Debt Runs

    Firms commonly spread out their debt expirations across time to reduce the liquidity risk generated by large quantities of debt expiring at the same time. By doing so, they introduce a dynamic coordination problem. In deciding whether to rollover his debt, each maturing creditor is concerned about the rollover decisions...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Learning to Identify Locally Actionable Health Anomalies

    Local information access (LIA) programs tap into existing public health data flows, and present data in simple and useful ways to ground staff. LIAs hold great potential for improving rural health systems in developing regions; benefits include more evidence-based decision making and optimizations at a local scale, as well as...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    XDTM: The XML Data Type and Mapping for Specifying Datasets

    This paper is concerned with the following problem: How to allow a community of users to access and process diverse data stored in many different formats? Standard data formats and data access APIs can help but are not general solutions because of their assumption of homogeneity. This paper proposes a...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Productivity Losses From Financial Frictions: Can Self-Financing Undo Capital Misallocation?

    Does capital misallocation from financial frictions cause substantial aggregate productivity losses? To explore this question, the author proposes a highly tractable theory featuring entrepreneurs who are subject to borrowing constraints and idiosyncratic productivity shocks. Productive entrepreneurs cannot raise capital in the market; however, they may self-finance investment in the sense...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Accelerating the Pace of Discovery by Changing the Peer Review Algorithm

    The number of scientific publications is constantly rising, increasing the strain on the review process. The number of submissions is actually higher, as each manuscript is often reviewed several times before publication. To face the deluge of submissions, top journals reject a considerable fraction of manuscripts without review, potentially declining...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Precise Capacity Analysis in Binary Networks With Multiple Coding Level Inputs

    The authors compute retrieval probabilities as a function of pattern age for networks with binary neurons and synapses updated with the simple Hebbian learning model studied in (Amit & Fusi 1994). The analysis depends on choosing a neural threshold that enables patterns to stabilize in the neural dynamics. In contrast...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Data-gov Wiki: A Semantic Web Portal for Linked Government Data

    In the Data-gov Wiki, the authors have published billions of triples and built a couple of interesting applications/demos from gov-data. In most of the demos, a SPARQL web service played an important role in connecting distributed RDF data with conventional Web APIs. The simplicity of this process grants a promising...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Extensible Component Based Architecture for FLASH, a Massively Parallel, Multiphysics Simulation Code

    FLASH is a publicly available high performance application code which has evolved into a modular, extensible software system from a collection of unconnected legacy codes. FLASH has been successful because its capabilities have been driven by the needs of scientific applications, without compromising maintainability, performance, and usability. In its newest...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Extreme-Scale Scripting: Opportunities for Large Task-Parallel Applications on Petascale Computers

    Parallel scripting is a loosely-coupled programming model in which applications are composed of highly parallel scripts of program invocations that process and exchange data via files. The authors characterize here the applications that can benefit from parallel scripting on petascale-class machines, describe the mechanisms that make this feasible on such...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    An Open Source Solution for Virtual Infrastructure Management in Private and Hybrid Clouds

    Cloud Computing is, to use yet another cloud-inspired pun, a nebulously defined term. However, it was arguably first popularized in 2006 by Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (or EC2, see http://www.amazon.com/ec2/), which started offering virtual machines (VMs) for $0.10/hour using both a simple web interface and a programmer friendly API. Although...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Which Indonesian Home Purchasers Seek Mortgage Finance?

    The incidence of taking a mortgage loan from a commercial bank or cooperative for home purchase is sharply lower in developing than industrialized countries. Indeed, the common approach for achieving good quality housing is for a family to construct and improve a dwelling over a number of years. At the...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Simple Economics Of Extortion: Evidence From Trucking In Aceh

    This paper tests whether the behavior of corrupt officials is consistent with standard industrial organization theory. The authors designed a study in which surveyors accompanied Indonesian truck drivers on 304 trips, during which they observed over 6,000 illegal payments to police, soldiers, and weigh station attendants. Using plausibly exogenous changes...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Globalization And Executive Compensation: An Analysis Of Pay Practices In U.K. Companies

    This paper examines the impact that interactions with the United States market have on the compensation practices of non-US firms. The authors find strong evidence that the total compensation of UK executives is positively related to the extent of the firm's interaction with the US market, as captured by the...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Regulation and Sarbanes-Oxley

    This paper will begin by summarizing the arguments for regulation that have been made in the literature. The paper will then consider whether these arguments apply to SOX. The author will suggest that, rather than being based on sound principles, regulation often seems to be a consequence of the public's...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Impact Of Climate Change On Rice Production In Thailand

    The goal is to evaluate crop yield impacts from likely climate changes for Southeast Asia. To do so the authors link soil science crop modeling, weather simulators, and global climate change modeling into an integrated economic model of multistage rice production. The economic model is estimated with detailed monthly data...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Resource Leasing and the Art of Suspending Virtual Machines

    Using virtual machines as a resource provisioning mechanism offers multiple benefits, most recently exploited by "Infrastructure-as-a-service" clouds, but also poses several scheduling challenges. More specifically, although they can use the suspend/resume/migrate capability of virtual machines to support advance reservation of resources efficiently, by using suspension/resumption as a preemption mechanism, this...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Durable Consumption and Asset Management With Transaction and Observation Costs

    The empirical evidence on rational inattention lags far behind the theoretical developments: micro evidence on the most immediate consequence of observation costs − the infrequent observation of state variables − is not available in standard datasets. This paper contribute to filling the gap with two novel household surveys that record...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    XDTM: The XML Data Type and Mapping for Specifying Datasets

    This paper is concerned with the following problem: How to allow a community of users to access and process diverse data stored in many different formats? Standard data formats and data access APIs can help but are not general solutions because of their assumption of homogeneity. This paper proposes a...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Inflation And Taxes In A Growing Economy With Debt And Equity Finance

    The tax system was designed for an economy with little or no inflation. The current paper shows that inflation causes capricious changes in the effective rate of tax on capital income and therefore in the real net rate of return that savers receive. This is not only a temporary disequilibrium...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Divestitures, Corporate Governance And Wealth Effects

    The author analyzes the impact of corporate governance quality on divestiture decisions and the resulting market reaction. They use a control sample of firms displaying characteristics often associated with divestitures indicating that these firms may face the same incentives to divest but elect not to respond in this manner. The...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Going Private But Staying Public: Reexamining The Effect Of Sarbanes-Oxley On Firms? Going-private Decisions

    This paper examines whether the cost of complying with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) contributed to the rise in going-private transactions after its enactment. Prior studies of this issue generally suffer from a mistaken assumption that by going private, a publicly traded firm necessarily immunizes itself from SOX. In...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Non-Pecuniary Benefits Of Small Business Ownership

    In this paper, the authors explore the importance of non-pecuniary benefits in explaining small business formation. First, using new data from the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, the authors show that a majority of small business owners report that non-pecuniary benefits were the primary reason that they started their business....

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Non Pecuniary Benefits Of Small Business Ownership

    The authors find non pecuniary benefits of business ownership to be an important consideration in explaining small business formation. Using a variety of data sources, the authors show that the overwhelming majority of small businesses do not match the theoretical concept of an entrepreneur. Specifically, nearly all small businesses do...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    The Simple Economics Of Extortion: Evidence From Trucking In Aceh

    This paper tests whether the behavior of corrupt officials is consistent with standard industrial organization theory. The authors designed a study in which surveyors accompanied Indonesian truck drivers on 304 trips, during which they observed over 6,000 illegal payments to police, soldiers, and weigh station attendants. Using plausibly exogenous changes...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Exchange Rate Pass-Through In A Competitive Model Of Pricing-To-Market

    This paper extends the Mussa and Rosen (1978) model of quality-pricing under perfect competition. Exporters sell goods of different qualities to consumers who have heterogeneous preferences for quality. Production is subject to decreasing returns to scale and, therefore, supply and the toughness of competition react to cost changes brought about...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Do Call Centers Promote School Enrollment? Evidence From India

    Globalization has changed job opportunities in much of the developing world. In India, outsourcing has created a new class of high-skill jobs which have increased overall returns to schooling. Existing evidence suggests education broadly responds to this change. The authors use microdata to evaluate the impact of these jobs on...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Data-gov Wiki: A Semantic Web Portal for Linked Government Data

    In the Data-gov Wiki, the authors have published billions of triples and built a couple of interesting applications/demos from gov-data. In most of the demos, a SPARQL web service played an important role in connecting distributed RDF data with conventional Web APIs. The simplicity of this process grants a promising...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Adjustment In The Euro Area And Regulation Of Product And Labour Markets: An Empirical Assessment

    This paper analyses how price-competitiveness (measured by both real exchange rate and inflation differentials) adjusts with the euro area and what role labour and product market regulations can play in this adjustment process. Two alternative perspectives are considered to capture the competitiveness adjustment: the reaction to the country - specific...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Extreme-Scale Scripting: Opportunities for Large Task-Parallel Applications on Petascale Computers

    Parallel scripting is a loosely-coupled programming model in which applications are composed of highly parallel scripts of program invocations that process and exchange data via files. The authors characterize here the applications that can benefit from parallel scripting on petascale-class machines, describe the mechanisms that make this feasible on such...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Locating Data in (Small-World?) Peer-to-Peer Scientific Collaborations

    Locating files based on their names is an essential mechanism for large-scale data sharing collaborations. A Peer-To-Peer (P2P) approach is preferable in many cases due to its ability to operate robustly in dynamic environments. Existing P2P location mechanisms focus on specific data sharing environments and, therefore, on specific requirements: in...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A Problem-Specific Fault-Tolerance Mechanism for Asynchronous, Distributed Systems

    The idle computers on a local area, campus area, or even wide area network represent a significant computational resource one that is, however, also unreliable, heterogeneous, and opportunistic. The authors describe an algorithm that allows branch-and-bound problems to be solved in such environments. In designing this algorithm, They faced two...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Improving Data Availability Through Dynamic Model-Driven Replication in Large Peer-to-Peer Communities

    Efficient data sharing in global peer-to-peer systems is complicated by erratic node failure, unreliable network connectivity and limited bandwidth. Replicating data on multiple nodes can improve availability and response time. Yet determining when and where to replicate data in order to meet performance goals in large-scale systems with many users...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A Peer-to-Peer Approach to Resource Location in Grid Environments

    Computational grids provide mechanisms for sharing and accessing large and heterogeneous collections of remote resources such as computers, online instruments, storage space, data, and applications. Resources are requested by specifying a set of desired attributes. Resource attributes have various degrees of dynamism, from mostly static attributes, such as operating system...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Mapping the Gnutella Network: Properties of Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems and Implications for System Design

    Despite recent excitement generated by the Peer-To-Peer (P2P) paradigm and the surprisingly rapid deployment of some P2P applications, there are few quantitative evaluations of P2P systems behavior. The open architecture, achieved scale, and self-organizing structure of the Gnutella network make it an interesting P2P architecture to study. Like most other...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    TACC Technical Report TR-11-01 Finite Element Integration on GPUs

    Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) present a promising platform for scientific simulation, offering high performance with excellent power and cost efficiency. However, despite advances in programmability for these devices, few numerical libraries have made use of them. The challenge of rewriting a CPU code to make use of a GPU's architectural...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Extensible Component Based Architecture for FLASH, a Massively Parallel, Multiphysics Simulation Code

    FLASH is a publicly available high performance application code which has evolved into a modular, extensible software system from a collection of unconnected legacy codes. FLASH has been successful because its capabilities have been driven by the needs of scientific applications, without compromising maintainability, performance, and usability. In its newest...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Cloud Computing and Grid Computing 360-Degree Compared

    Cloud Computing has become another buzzword after Web 2.0. However, there are dozens of different definitions for Cloud Computing and there seems to be no consensus on what a Cloud is. On the other hand, Cloud Computing is not a completely new concept; it has intricate connection to the relatively...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Comparison of the Wireless-Only and Landline Populations in a Small Pilot Immunization Study

    The size of the wireless-telephone-only population has increased in recent years, raising concerns about the accuracy of RDD-based telephone surveys. Previous research on the impact of wireless-only on population estimates has found mixed results. In 2007, the National Immunization Survey (NIS) conducted a pilot study to determine the impact of...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Discussion of a Lobbying Approach to Evaluating the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

    President Roosevelt allegedly issued this quip after having engaged in a lengthy exchange with a visiting business delegation. While the story (true or not) may be apocryphal, it illuminates a fundamental confusion that surrounds lobbying: What is it? How does it work? And when is it used? Some believe that...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Regulation and Sarbanes-Oxley

    This paper will begin by summarizing the arguments for regulation that have been made in the literature. The paper will then consider whether these arguments apply to SOX. The author will suggest that, rather than being based on sound principles, regulation often seems to be a consequence of the public's...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jun 2008

    Second Sourcing Vs. Sole Sourcing With Capacity Investment and Asymmetric Information

    In a sole-sourcing strategy, the buyer commits to source from a single supplier (the incumbent) over the entire horizon. In a second-sourcing strategy, the buyer keeps the option open to source from a new supplier (the entrant) in the future. Supplier costs are private information, and the incumbent's cost may...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Learning to Identify Locally Actionable Health Anomalies

    Local information access (LIA) programs tap into existing public health data flows, and present data in simple and useful ways to ground staff. LIAs hold great potential for improving rural health systems in developing regions; benefits include more evidence-based decision making and optimizations at a local scale, as well as...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Effective Use of Dedicated Wide-Area Networks for High-Performance Distributed Computing

    Recent advances in Grid technology have made it possible to build so-called computational Grids, or simply Grids, which couple unique or rare resources that are geographically separated and span multiple administrative domains. Such Grids are invariably composed of heterogeneous networks in which, at the least, a high-performance switch accommodates intracluster...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Capacity Leasing in Cloud Systems Using the OpenNebula Engine

    Clouds can be used to provide on-demand capacity as a utility. Although the realization of this idea can differ among various cloud providers from Google App Engine1 to Amazon EC2, the most flexible approach is the provisioning of virtualized resources as a service. These virtualization-based clouds, like Amazon EC2 or...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    An Open Source Solution for Virtual Infrastructure Management in Private and Hybrid Clouds

    Cloud Computing is, to use yet another cloud-inspired pun, a nebulously defined term. However, it was arguably first popularized in 2006 by Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (or EC2, see http://www.amazon.com/ec2/), which started offering virtual machines (VMs) for $0.10/hour using both a simple web interface and a programmer friendly API. Although...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Heterogeneous Offshore Outsourcing Demand Pull Innovation: Theory and Evidence From the Information Technology Hardware Industry

    This paper examines how heterogeneous offshore outsourcing demands affect an insourcing firm's innovation choices, how its choices affect an outsourcing firm's decision on what to outsource, and how these two dynamic decision interactions consequently shape an insourcing firm's organizational innovation capability. This paper contributes to the understanding of outsourcing demand...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Aug 2001

    Throwing Good Money After Bad? Board Connections and Conflicts in Bank Lending

    This paper investigates the frequency of connections between banks and non-financial firms through board linkages and whether those connections affect lending and borrowing behavior. Although board linkages may reduce the costs of information flows between the lender and borrower, a board linkage may generate pressure for special treatment of a...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Mar 2002

    Copyright as Entry Policy: The Case of Digital Distribution

    The point of entry of a new product or new service is especially important for a successful economy. Entry creates the possibility of fresh competition with existing products. At least as important, it is known that new products have been a critical source if not the critical source of new...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Oct 2004

    Reputational Penalties and the Merits of Class Action Securities Litigation

    If private securities class actions alleging fraudulent behavior by officers or directors of a company are meritorious, directors and officers should pay a reputational penalty when they sit on a board of a company where the officers and directors are accused of fraud. The author finds little evidence of a...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Science Clouds: Early Experiences in Cloud Computing for Scientific Applications

    The Science Clouds project allows members of the scientific community to lease resources for short amounts of time, in a manner similar to Amazon's EC2 service : a client requests a resource lease for a few hours and, if the request is authorized, a Virtual Machine (VM) is deployed. The...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Performing Nonlinear Blind Source Separation With Signal Invariants

    Sensory devices often receive signals from multiple physical stimuli that evolve simultaneously but are unrelated to one another. In many of these situations, it is necessary to create separate representations of one or more of these stimuli by blindly processing the observed signals (i.e., by processing them without prior knowledge...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Redistributive Taxation, Incentives, And The Intertemporal Evolution Of Human Capital

    This paper contributes to the literature on redistributive taxation and human capital dynamics by explicitly analyzing the role of incentives in the education market where human capital is produced. The authors introduce an explicit education market with heterogeneous private schools in a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with overlapping generations...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    A Structural Evaluation Of A Large-Scale Quasi-Experimental Microfinance Initiative

    This paper uses a structural model to understand, predict, and evaluate the impact of an exogenous microcredit intervention program, the Thai Million Baht Village Fund program. The authors model household decisions in the face of borrowing constraints, income uncertainty, and high-yield indivisible investment opportunities. After estimation of parameters using pre-program...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Impact Of Climate Change On Rice Production In Thailand

    The goal is to evaluate crop yield impacts from likely climate changes for Southeast Asia. To do so the authors link soil science crop modeling, weather simulators, and global climate change modeling into an integrated economic model of multistage rice production. The economic model is estimated with detailed monthly data...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Accelerating the Pace of Discovery by Changing the Peer Review Algorithm

    The number of scientific publications is constantly rising, increasing the strain on the review process. The number of submissions is actually higher, as each manuscript is often reviewed several times before publication. To face the deluge of submissions, top journals reject a considerable fraction of manuscripts without review, potentially declining...

    Provided By University of Chicago

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Precise Capacity Analysis in Binary Networks With Multiple Coding Level Inputs

    The authors compute retrieval probabilities as a function of pattern age for networks with binary neurons and synapses updated with the simple Hebbian learning model studied in (Amit & Fusi 1994). The analysis depends on choosing a neural threshold that enables patterns to stabilize in the neural dynamics. In contrast...

    Provided By University of Chicago