University of Michigan

Displaying 1-40 of 249 results

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Off-Path TCP Sequence Number Inference Attack How Firewall Middleboxes Reduce Security

    In this paper, the authors report a newly discovered "Off-path TCP sequence number inference" attack enabled by firewall middle-boxes. It allows an off-path (i.e., not man-in-the-middle) attacker to hijack a TCP connection and inject malicious content, effectively granting the attacker write-only permission on the connection. For instance, with the help...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Low Power Interconnects for SIMD Computers

    Driven by continued scaling of Moore's Law, the number of processing elements on a die is increasing dramatically. Recently there has been a surge of wide single instruction multiple data architectures designed to handle computationally intensive applications like 3D graphics, high definition video, image processing, and wireless communication. A limit...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Trusted Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

    Collaborative spectrum sensing is a key technology in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). It is inaccurate if spectrum sensing nodes are malicious. Although mobility is an inherent property of wireless networks, there has been no prior work studying the detection of malicious users for collaborative spectrum sensing in mobile CRNs. Existing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    System-Level Implications of Disaggregated Memory

    Recent research on memory disaggregation introduces a new architectural building block - the memory blade - as a cost-effective approach for memory capacity expansion and sharing for an ensemble of blade servers. Memory blades augment blade servers' local memory capacity with a second-level (remote) memory that can be dynamically apportioned...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Is Diversity Gain Worth the Pain: Performance Comparison Between Opportunistic Multi-Channel MAC and Single-Channel MAC

    In this paper, the authors analyze the delay performance of an opportunistic multi-channel medium access control scheme and compare it to that of the corresponding single channel MAC scheme. In the opportunistic multi-channel MAC scheme, they assume that the pair of sender/receiver is able to evaluate the channel quality after...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Approximately Optimal Adaptive Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    In this paper, the authors develop an adaptive learning algorithm which is approximately optimal for an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem with polynomial complexity. In this OSA problem each channel is modeled as a two state discrete time Markov chain with a bad state which yields no reward and a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    The Effect of Node Density and Propagation Model on Throughput Scaling of Wireless Networks

    The paper has led to many studies of scaling laws for the asymptotically achievable throughput in wireless networks under a variety of network models and assumptions. Such scaling laws help one understand the fundamental performance limits of these networks and how efficiency changes as network conditions change. Some examples include...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Transform Coding of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data

    With mean-squared error D as a goal, it is well known that one may approach the Rate-Distortion function R(D) of a non-bandlimited, continuous-time Gaussian source by sampling at a sufficiently high rate, applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform to sufficiently long blocks, and then independently coding the transform coefficients of each type....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Representation of Correlated Sources Into Graphs for Transmission Over Broadcast Channels

    In this paper, the authors consider the communication problem that involves transmission of correlated sources over broadcast channels. They consider a graph-based framework for this information transmission problem. The system involves a source coding module and a channel coding module. In the source coding module, the sources are efficiently represented...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Extending Multicore Architectures to Exploit Hybrid Parallelism in Single-Thread Applications

    Chip multiprocessors with multiple simpler cores are gaining popularity because they have the potential to drive future performance gains without exacerbating the problems of power dissipation and complexity. Current chip multiprocessors increase throughput by utilizing multiple cores to perform computation in parallel. These designs provide real benefits for server-class applications...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    BulletProof: A Defect?Tolerant CMP Switch Architecture

    As silicon technologies move into the nanometer regime, transistor reliability is expected to wane as devices become subject to extreme process variation, particle-induced transient errors, and transistor wear-out. Unless these challenges are addressed, computer vendors can expect low yields and short mean-times-to-failure. In this paper, the authors examine the challenges...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SODA: A Lowpower Architecture for Software Radio

    The physical layer of most wireless protocols is traditionally implemented in custom hardware to satisfy the heavy computational requirements while keeping power consumption to a minimum. These implementations are time consuming to design and difficult to verify. A programmable hardware platform capable of supporting software implementations of the physical layer,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SPEX: A Programming Language for Software Defined Radio

    High-throughput, low-power Software Defined Radio(SDR) solutions require multi-core SIMD DSP processors to meet real-time performance requirements. Given the difficulty in programming traditional DSPs, these new multi-core signal processors provide even greater challenges for programmers and compilers. In this paper, the authors describe SPEX, a programming language which is aimed at...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Data Access Partitioning for Fine-Grain Parallelism on Multicore Architectures

    The recent design shift towards multicore processors has spawned a significant amount of research in the area of program parallelization. The future abundance of cores on a single chip requires programmer and compiler intervention to increase the amount of parallel work possible. Much of the recent work has fallen into...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Atomic Congestion Games on Graphs and Its Applications in Networking

    In this paper, the authors introduce and analyze the properties of a class of game, the Atomic Congestion Game on Graphs (ACGG), which is a generalization of the classical congestion game. In particular, the ACGG captures the spatial information which is often ignored in the classical congestion game. This is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Full-System Analysis and Characterization of Interactive Smartphone Applications

    Smartphones have recently overtaken PCs as the primary consumer computing device in terms of annual unit shipments. Given this rapid market growth, it is important that mobile system designers and computer architects analyze the characteristics of the interactive applications users have come to expect on these platforms. With the introduction...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Information Rates of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data: Distributed Vector Quantization and Scalar Quantization With Transforms

    Motivated by the question of the efficiency of dense sensor networks for sampling and encoding spatial random fields, this paper investigates the rates attainable by several lossy schemes for coding a Gaussian random field to a specified mean-squared error distortion based on sampling at asymptotically large rates. In the first,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Scalability and Efficiency of Push-Driven P2PTV Systems

    TeleVision transmitted over IP (IPTV) presents numerous opportunities for users as well as service providers, and has attracted significant interest from industry as well as research communities in recent years. Among the emerging IPTV delivery architectures, the peer-to-peer based delivery mechanism is considered attractive due to the relative ease of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    You Can Run, But You Can't Hide: Exposing Network Location for Targeted DoS Attacks in Cellular Networks

    An important class of attacks against cellular network infrastructures, i.e., signaling DoS attack, paging channel overload, and channel exhaustion attack, operates by sending low rate data traffic to a large number of mobile devices at a particular location to exhaust bottleneck resources such as radio resource and radio resource controller....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Error Exponent for Multiple-Access Channels: Upper Bounds

    The problem of bounding the reliability function of a Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) is studied. Two new upper bounds on the error exponent of a two-user Discrete Memoryless (DM) Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) are derived. The first bound (sphere packing) is an upper bound on the average error exponent and is the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    PEPSC: A Power-Efficient Processor for Scientific Computing

    The rapid advancements in the computational capabilities of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) as well as the deployment of general programming models for these devices have made the vision of a desktop supercomputer a reality. It is now possible to assemble a system that provides several TFLOPs of performance on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Automatic Root-Cause Diagnosis of Performance Anomalies in Production Software

    Troubleshooting the performance of complex production software is challenging. Most existing tools, such as profiling, tracing, and logging systems, reveal what events occurred during performance anomalies. However, the users of such tools must then infer why these events occurred during a particular execution; e.g., that their execution was due to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Low Overhead Control Channels in Wireless Networks

    Low-latency, low-overhead and reliable control channels are essential to the efficient operation of wireless networks. However, control channels that utilize current in-band and out-of-band designs do not fully meet this requirement. In this paper, the authors design and implement Aileron, a novel control channel based on automatic modulation recognition that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Detecting and Surviving Data Races Using Complementary Schedules

    Data races are a common source of errors in multithreaded programs. In this paper, the authors show how to protect a program from data race errors at runtime by executing multiple replicas of the program with complementary thread schedules. Complementary schedules are a set of replica thread schedules crafted to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Network Coding Aware Dynamic Subcarrier Assignment in OFDMA Based Wireless Networks

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been integrated into emerging broadband wireless systems such as the 802.16 wirelessMAN. A critical problem in OFDMA is to assign multiple frequency bands (called subcarriers) to different users. Taking advantage of the frequency diversity and multiuser diversity in OFDMA systems, dynamic subcarrier assignment...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Towards Name-Based Trust and Security for Content-Centric Network

    Trust and security have been considered as built-in properties for future Internet architecture. Leveraging the concept of named content in recently proposed information centric network, the authors propose a name-based trust and security protection mechanism. Their scheme is built with Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC), where the identity of a user or...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Functional Correctness for CMP Interconnects

    As transistor counts continue to scale, modern designs are transitioning towards large Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs). In order to match the advancing performance of CMPs, on-chip interconnects are becoming increasingly complex, commonly deploying advanced Network-on-Chip (NoC) structures. Ensuring the correct operation of these system-level infrastructures has become increasingly problematic and, in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Post-Silicon Bug Diagnosis With Inconsistent Executions

    The complexity of modern chips intensifies verification challenges, and an increasing share of this verification effort is shouldered by post-silicon validation. Focusing on the first silicon prototypes, post-silicon validation poses critical new challenges such as intermittent failures, where multiple executions of a same test do not yield a consistent outcome....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Nonparametric Steganalysis of QIM Steganography Using Approximate Entropy

    This paper proposes an active steganalysis method for Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) based steganography. The proposed nonparametric steganalysis method uses irregularity (or randomness) in the test-image to distinguish between the cover-image and the stego-image. The authors have shown that plain quantization (quantization without message embedding) induces regularity in the resulting...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Designing Scalable and Effective Decision Support for Mitigating Attacks in Large Enterprise Networks

    Managing numerous security vulnerabilities has long been a difficult and daunting task especially due to the complexity, heterogeneity, and various operational constraints of the network. In this paper, the authors focus on the task of mitigating and managing network-device-specific vulnerabilities automatically and intelligently. They achieve the goal by a scalable,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Iterative Path Optimization for Practical Robot Planning

    The authors present a hybrid path planner that combines two common methods for robotic planning: a Dijkstra graph search for the minimum distance path through the configuration space and an optimization scheme to iteratively improve grid-based paths. Their formulation is novel because they first commit to the minimum distance path,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Cooperative Carrier Signaling: Harmonizing Coexisting WPAN and WLAN Devices

    The unlicensed ISM spectrum is getting crowded by WLAN and WPAN users and devices. Spectrum sharing within the same network of devices can be arbitrated by existing MAC protocols, but the coexistence between WPAN and WLAN (e.g., ZigBee and Wi-Fi) remains a challenging problem. The traditional MAC protocols are ineffective...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    AprilTag: A Robust and Flexible Visual Fiducial System

    While the use of naturally-occurring features is a central focus of machine perception, artificial features (fiducials) play an important role in creating controllable experiments, ground truthing, and in simplifying the development of systems where perception is not the central objective. The authors describe a new visual fiducial system that uses...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Access Point Selection Under Emerging Wireless Technologies

    Users of wireless networks increasingly face a choice among multiple available access points. Clients generally make this decision with limited information about the access points or traffic trends in the system. The authors examine the strategic implications of an emerging wireless technology: utilizing multiple Access Points (APs) simultaneously. Clients using...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Does Low-Power Design Imply Energy Efficiency for Data Centers?

    Data center efficiency has quickly become a first-class design goal. In response, many studies have emerged from the academic community and industry using low-power design to help improve the energy efficiency of server hardware. Generally, these proposals hold the assumption that low-power design is inherently better for energy efficiency; this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State Fiscal Policies And Transitory Income Fluctuations

    State and local expenditure and tax revenue respond less to the business cycle than do federal spending and revenue, thereby reducing the countercyclicality of total government expenditure and revenue. This paper considers forces responsible for the cyclical pattern of state expenditure and revenue. Annual fluctuations in state personal income are...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Bloom Filter Guided Transaction Scheduling

    Contention management is an important design component to a transactional memory system. Without effective contention management to ensure forward progress, a transactional memory system can experience live-lock, which is difficult to debug in parallel programs. Early work in contention management focused on heuristic managers that reacted to conflicts between transactions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Improving TCP Performance Over Wireless Networks With Collaborative Multi-Homed Mobile Hosts

    Multi-homed mobile hosts situated in physical proximity may spontaneously team up to run high-bandwidth applications by pooling their low Wireless Wide-Area Network (WWAN) bandwidths together for communication with a remote application server and utilizing their high-bandwidth Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN) in ad-hoc mode for aggregation and distribution of application contents...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    An Analysis of Single-Layer Networks in Unsupervised Feature Learning

    A great deal of research has focused on algorithms for learning features from unlabeled data. Indeed, much progress has been made on benchmark datasets like NORB and CIFAR by employing increasingly complex unsupervised learning algorithms and deep models. In this paper, however, the authors show that several simple factors, such...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Recognizing Human Actions by Attributes

    In this paper, the authors explore the idea of using high-level se-mantic concepts, also called attributes, to represent human actions from videos and argue that attributes enable the construction of more descriptive models for human action recognition. They propose a unified framework wherein manually specified attributes are: selected in a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Bridging the Computation Gap Between Programmable Processors and Hardwired Accelerators

    New media and signal processing applications demand ever higher performance while operating within the tight power constraints of mobile devices. A range of hardware implementations is available to deliver computation with varying degrees of area and power efficiency, from general-purpose processors to Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The tradeoff of moving...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Stream Compilation for Real-Time Embedded Multicore Systems

    Multicore systems have not only become ubiquitous in the desktop and server worlds, but are also becoming the standard in the embedded space. Multicore offers programmability and flexibility over traditional ASIC solutions. However, many of the advantages of switching to multicore hinge on the assumption that software development is simpler...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Inflation Differentials In EU New Member States: An Empirical Evidence

    In this paper, the authors examine the determinants of inflation differentials in a panel of the new European Union member states vis-?-vis the euro area in 1997-2007. The main results are as follows. Exchange rate appreciation and higher price level in the new EU members is associated with narrower inflation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Regional Determinants Of FDI Distribution In Poland

    In this paper the authors examine the location determinants of the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Poland, at a regional level. Using survey data from an online questionnaire in February 2005 and a multinomial legit model incorporating the investor's specific characteristics, they show that knowledge-seeking factors alongside market...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Impact Of Foreign Direct Investments On Industrial Productivity: A Subnational Study Of India

    The paper uses unique aggregate industry-level dataset at sub national level from India to measure the effects of foreign investments on the productivity of domestic firms. Using pooled regression analysis with fixed effects for the period 2002 - 2005, the authors find that: foreign investments have significant positive effect on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign News And Spillovers In Emerging European Stock Markets

    The authors analyze foreign news and spillovers in the emerging EU stock markets (the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland). They employ high-frequency five-minute intraday data on stock market index returns and four classes of EU and U.S. macroeconomic announcements during 2004 - 2007. They account for the difference of each...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Exports and Property Prices In France: Are They Connected?

    France has seen a marked deterioration in its export performance in the last 10 years or so. Previous empirical research pointed out that weak export performance was due to vigorous domestic demand; lower mark-ups due to head-to-head competition with Germany; low non-price competitiveness of French export goods; off shoring of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Does FDI Spur Innovation, Productivity And Knowledge Sourcing By Incumbent Firms? Evidence From Manufacturing Industry In Estonia

    Does FDI affect productivity growth, innovation, and knowledge sourcing activities of domestic firms? This study employs detailed firm-level panel-data from Estonia's manufacturing sector to investigate different channels through which FDI can affect domestic firms. The author uses instrumental variables approach to identify the effects. The author finds no evidence of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Catching-Up And Inflation In Europe: Balassa-Samuelson, Engel's Law And Other Culprits

    This paper analyses the impact of economic catching-up on annual inflation rates in the European Union with a special focus on the new member countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Using an array of estimation methods, the authors show that the Balassa-Samuelson effect is not an important driver of inflation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Testudo: Heavyweight Security Analysis Via Statistical Sampling

    Heavyweight security analysis systems, such as taint analysis and dynamic type checking, are powerful technologies used to detect security vulnerabilities and software bugs. Traditional software implementations of these systems have high instrumentation overhead and suffer from significant performance impacts. To mitigate these slowdowns, a few hardware-assisted techniques have been recently...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A 5.42nW/kB Retention Power Logic-Compatible Embedded DRAM With 2T Dual-Vt Gain Cell for Low Power Sensing Applications

    A logic-compatible 2T dual-Vt embedded DRAM (eDRAM) is proposed for ultra-small sensing systems to achieve 8? longer retention time, 5? lower refresh power and 30% reduced area compared with the lowest power eDRAM previously reported. With an area-efficient single inverter sensing scheme designed for R/W speed compatibility with ultralow power...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Oil Prices And Stock Markets: What Drives What In The Gulf Corporation Council Countries?

    In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Konya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    On The Influence Of Oil Prices On Stock Markets: Evidence From Panel Analysis In GCC Countries

    This paper implements recent bootstrap panel co-integration techniques and Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) methods to investigate the existence of a long-run relationship between oil prices and Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) stock markets. Since GCC countries are major world energy market players, their stock markets are likely to be susceptible to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Identifying Social Entrepreneurs Serving The Poor At The BoP

    The concept of social entrepreneurship as a characterization of social responsibility for business organizations has gained considerable popularity. There is growing belief in international development and donor communities that this form of for? Profit activity might be the long?]sought panacea for solving poverty at the so? called Base of the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Unemployment And Finance: How Do Financial And Labour Market Factors Interact?

    Using annual data for 18 OECD countries over the period 1980-2004, the authors investigate how labor and financial factors interact to determine unemployment by estimating a dynamic panel model using the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). They show that the impact of financial variables depends strongly on the labor...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Direct And Indirect Effects Of FDI In Emerging European Markets: A Survey And Meta-analysis

    The authors review a large body of literature dealing with the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economies during their transformation from a command economic system toward a market system. They report the results of a meta-analysis based on the literature on externalities from FDI. The studies on emerging...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Implications Of Bank Ownership For The Credit Channel Of Monetary Policy Transmission: Evidence From India

    Many developing and emerging markets have high degrees of state bank ownership. In addition, the recent global financial crisis has led to significant state ownership of banking assets in developed countries such as the United Kingdom. These observations beg the question of whether the effectiveness of monetary policy through a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Do Innovative Workplace Practices Foster Mutual Gains? Evidence From Croatia

    New survey data for more than 470 employees (more than 80% of production workers) in a single Croatian manufacturing firm exhibits large variation in participation in Innovative Work Practices (IWPs) notably online teams, offline teams, employee ownership, and incentive pay. Amongst IWPs, probit estimates reveal that membership in offline teams...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    DAC: Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation for Wireless Relay Networks

    Cooperative relay is a communication paradigm that aims to realize the capacity of multi-antenna arrays in a distributed manner. However, the symbol-level synchronization requirement among distributed relays limits its use in practice. The authors propose to circumvent this barrier with a cross-layer protocol called Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation (DAC). With DAC,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Investigation of Triangular Spamming: A Stealthy and Efficient Spamming Technique

    Spam is increasingly accepted as a problem associated with compromised hosts or email accounts. This problem not only makes the tracking of spam sources difficult but also enables a massive amount of illegitimate or unwanted emails to be disseminated quickly. Various attempts have been made to analyze, backtrack, detect, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On Network-Level Clusters for Spam Detection

    IP-based blacklist is an effective way to filter spam emails. However, building and maintaining individual IP addresses in the blacklist is difficult, as new malicious hosts continuously appear and their IP addresses may also change over time. To mitigate this problem, researchers have proposed to replace individual IP ad-dresses in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    MIDAS: An Impact Scale for DDoS Attacks

    The authors usually have well-defined classification scales to estimate the intensity and impact of natural disasters. Prominent examples are the Richter and the Fujita scales for measuring earthquakes and tornadoes respectively. In this paper, the authors apply similar ideas to estimate the impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Tussle in Routing: Who Determines Internet Paths?

    End-users today have little control over how traffic reaches the intended destination. Most end-users residing in edge networks just rely on their upstream provider to deliver outgoing traffic to the destination networks. Even Multihoming provides only limited control in the form of choosing the first hop AS among limited choices...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Differentiated BGP Update Processing for Improved Routing Convergence

    Internet routers today can be overwhelmed by a large number of BGP updates triggered by events such as session resets, link failures, and policy changes. Such excessive updates can delay routing convergence, which, in turn, degrades the performance of delay- and jitter-sensitive applications. This paper proposes a simple and novel...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Ascertaining the Reality of Network Neutrality Violation in Backbone ISPs

    On the Internet today, a growing number of QoS sensitive network applications exist, such as VoIP, imposing more stringent requirements on ISPs besides the basic reachability assurance. Thus, the demand on ISPs for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with better guarantees is increasing. However, despite overprovisioning in core ISP networks, resource...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices

    This paper presents an ultra low power programmable processor architecture for wireless devices that support 4G wireless communications and video decoding. To derive such an architecture, first the authors analyzed the kernel algorithms that constitute these applications. The characteristics of these algorithms helped define the wide-SIMD architecture, where the SIMD...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Stochastic Queuing Simulation for Data Center Workloads

    Data center systems and workloads are increasing in importance, yet there are few methods for evaluating potential changes to these systems. This paper introduces a new methodology for exascale evaluation, called Statistical Queuing Simulation (SQS). At its heart, SQS is a parallel, large-scale stochastic discrete time simulation of generalized queueing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Epoch Parallelism: One Execution Is Not Enough

    The conventional approach for using multiprocessors requires programmers to write correct, scalable parallel programs. Unfortunately, writing such programs remains a daunting task, despite decades of research on parallel languages, programming models, static and dynamic analysis tools, and synchronization primitives. The authors argue that it is futile to expect programmers to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Tolerating Latency in Replicated State Machines Through Client Speculation

    Replicated state machines are an important and widely studied methodology for tolerating a wide range of faults. Unfortunately, while replicas should be distributed geographically for maximum fault tolerance, current replicated state machine protocols tend to magnify the effects of high network latencies caused by geographic distribution. In this paper, the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    A New Universal Random-Coding Bound for Average Probability Error Exponent for Multiple-Access Channels

    In this work, a new upper bound for average error probability of a two-user Discrete Memoryless (DM) Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) is derived. This bound can be universally obtained for all discrete memoryless MACs with given input and output alphabets. This is the first bound of this type that explicitly uses...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Online Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access: A Restless Bandit Approach

    The authors consider an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem where the time-varying condition of each channel (e.g., as a result of random fading or certain primary users' activities) is modeled as an arbitrary finite-state Markov chain. At each instance of time, a (secondary) user probes a channel and collects a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    The Value Of Financial Statement Verification In Debt Financing: Evidence From Private U.S. Firms

    I examine how the verification of financial statements influences lenders' debt pricing decisions. To do so, the author obtains access to a large proprietary database of privately-held U.S. firms, an important business sector in which the information environment is opaque and financial statement audits are not mandated. The author finds...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Simple Power Analysis Attack on the Serpent Key Schedule

    The authors describe an SPA attack on an 8-bit smart card implementation of the Serpent block cipher. The attack uses measurements taken during an on-the-fly key expansion together with linearity in the cipher's key schedule algorithm to drastically reduce the search time for an initial key. An implementation finds 256-bit...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Harnessing Knowledge From Ad Hoc Queries by Creating a Zone of Standardization

    Business Intelligence drives strategic business decisions by providing timely and accurate information. Beneath the demand for constantly changing information-needs usually lay a highly complex entangled mesh of business rules, data sets, query logic and custom-ad hoc Reports. The discrete nature of ad hoc reports may lead to inefficiencies in processing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    When Virtual Is Better Than Real

    This position paper argues that the operating system and applications currently running on a real machine should relocate into a virtual machine. This structure enables services to be added below the operating system and to do so without trusting or modifying the operating system or applications. To demonstrate the usefulness...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    DSearch: Distributed Search for a Personal Area Network

    An increasing amount of data is being stored on mobile devices with growing storage capacity and functional specializations. As a result, searching through a user's distributed data set effectively is crucial. Previous search architectures tuned for single, stationary devices are not effective at managing the challenges associated with querying data...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Robit: An Extensible Auction-Based Market Platform for Challenged Environments

    Open and competitive marketplaces, like those enabled by the internet, bring enormous value to consumers while fostering innovation and growth across a wide variety of businesses. Electronic commerce has forever changed how people trade goods and services. Last year alone, US consumers spent more than $150 billion dollars on internet...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    MobLab: A Mobility Emulation Platform

    Mobility powered systems provide the core routing mechanism in many adhoc and delay tolerant networks. Evaluating such systems under real life scenarios is often not practical because they involve multiple moving participants over a wide area. As a result, the principal way these systems are evaluated is though discrete event...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    CapEst: Estimating Wireless Link Capacity in Multi-Hop Networks

    Estimating link capacity in a wireless network is a complex task because the available capacity at a link is a function of not only the current arrival rate at that link, but also of the arrival rate at links which interfere with that link as well as of the nature...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Latency-Optimizing File Splitting for Transmission Over a Large Multi-Hop Network

    The authors consider the problem of latency-optimizing file splitting for transmission over a large multi-hop network. They utilize recent results from random matrix theory to analytically express the latency distribution as a function of the relevant network parameters and the file size. The resulting minimax problem can be solved using...

    Provided By University of Michigan