University of Michigan

Displaying 1-40 of 214 results

  • White Papers // Mar 2014

    Towards a General Method for Building Predictive Models of Learner Success Using Educational Time Series Data

    In this paper, the authors present a pedagogical and instructional-technology general method for building predictive models for education from time series log data. While it is common for models of learner achievement to include cognitive features, they instead are data mining only resource accesses in the learning environment. This has...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Off-Path TCP Sequence Number Inference Attack How Firewall Middleboxes Reduce Security

    In this paper, the authors report a newly discovered "Off-path TCP sequence number inference" attack enabled by firewall middle-boxes. It allows an off-path (i.e., not man-in-the-middle) attacker to hijack a TCP connection and inject malicious content, effectively granting the attacker write-only permission on the connection. For instance, with the help...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Low Power Interconnects for SIMD Computers

    Driven by continued scaling of Moore's Law, the number of processing elements on a die is increasing dramatically. Recently there has been a surge of wide single instruction multiple data architectures designed to handle computationally intensive applications like 3D graphics, high definition video, image processing, and wireless communication. A limit...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Trusted Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

    Collaborative spectrum sensing is a key technology in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). It is inaccurate if spectrum sensing nodes are malicious. Although mobility is an inherent property of wireless networks, there has been no prior work studying the detection of malicious users for collaborative spectrum sensing in mobile CRNs. Existing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    System-Level Implications of Disaggregated Memory

    Recent research on memory disaggregation introduces a new architectural building block - the memory blade - as a cost-effective approach for memory capacity expansion and sharing for an ensemble of blade servers. Memory blades augment blade servers' local memory capacity with a second-level (remote) memory that can be dynamically apportioned...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Is Diversity Gain Worth the Pain: Performance Comparison Between Opportunistic Multi-Channel MAC and Single-Channel MAC

    In this paper, the authors analyze the delay performance of an opportunistic multi-channel medium access control scheme and compare it to that of the corresponding single channel MAC scheme. In the opportunistic multi-channel MAC scheme, they assume that the pair of sender/receiver is able to evaluate the channel quality after...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Approximately Optimal Adaptive Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    In this paper, the authors develop an adaptive learning algorithm which is approximately optimal for an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem with polynomial complexity. In this OSA problem each channel is modeled as a two state discrete time Markov chain with a bad state which yields no reward and a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Extending Multicore Architectures to Exploit Hybrid Parallelism in Single-Thread Applications

    Chip multiprocessors with multiple simpler cores are gaining popularity because they have the potential to drive future performance gains without exacerbating the problems of power dissipation and complexity. Current chip multiprocessors increase throughput by utilizing multiple cores to perform computation in parallel. These designs provide real benefits for server-class applications...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    BulletProof: A Defect?Tolerant CMP Switch Architecture

    As silicon technologies move into the nanometer regime, transistor reliability is expected to wane as devices become subject to extreme process variation, particle-induced transient errors, and transistor wear-out. Unless these challenges are addressed, computer vendors can expect low yields and short mean-times-to-failure. In this paper, the authors examine the challenges...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SODA: A Lowpower Architecture for Software Radio

    The physical layer of most wireless protocols is traditionally implemented in custom hardware to satisfy the heavy computational requirements while keeping power consumption to a minimum. These implementations are time consuming to design and difficult to verify. A programmable hardware platform capable of supporting software implementations of the physical layer,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SPEX: A Programming Language for Software Defined Radio

    High-throughput, low-power Software Defined Radio(SDR) solutions require multi-core SIMD DSP processors to meet real-time performance requirements. Given the difficulty in programming traditional DSPs, these new multi-core signal processors provide even greater challenges for programmers and compilers. In this paper, the authors describe SPEX, a programming language which is aimed at...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Data Access Partitioning for Fine-Grain Parallelism on Multicore Architectures

    The recent design shift towards multicore processors has spawned a significant amount of research in the area of program parallelization. The future abundance of cores on a single chip requires programmer and compiler intervention to increase the amount of parallel work possible. Much of the recent work has fallen into...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Transform Coding of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data

    With mean-squared error D as a goal, it is well known that one may approach the Rate-Distortion function R(D) of a non-bandlimited, continuous-time Gaussian source by sampling at a sufficiently high rate, applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform to sufficiently long blocks, and then independently coding the transform coefficients of each type....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Representation of Correlated Sources Into Graphs for Transmission Over Broadcast Channels

    In this paper, the authors consider the communication problem that involves transmission of correlated sources over broadcast channels. They consider a graph-based framework for this information transmission problem. The system involves a source coding module and a channel coding module. In the source coding module, the sources are efficiently represented...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    The Effect of Node Density and Propagation Model on Throughput Scaling of Wireless Networks

    The paper has led to many studies of scaling laws for the asymptotically achievable throughput in wireless networks under a variety of network models and assumptions. Such scaling laws help one understand the fundamental performance limits of these networks and how efficiency changes as network conditions change. Some examples include...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Atomic Congestion Games on Graphs and Its Applications in Networking

    In this paper, the authors introduce and analyze the properties of a class of game, the Atomic Congestion Game on Graphs (ACGG), which is a generalization of the classical congestion game. In particular, the ACGG captures the spatial information which is often ignored in the classical congestion game. This is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Full-System Analysis and Characterization of Interactive Smartphone Applications

    Smartphones have recently overtaken PCs as the primary consumer computing device in terms of annual unit shipments. Given this rapid market growth, it is important that mobile system designers and computer architects analyze the characteristics of the interactive applications users have come to expect on these platforms. With the introduction...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Information Rates of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data: Distributed Vector Quantization and Scalar Quantization With Transforms

    Motivated by the question of the efficiency of dense sensor networks for sampling and encoding spatial random fields, this paper investigates the rates attainable by several lossy schemes for coding a Gaussian random field to a specified mean-squared error distortion based on sampling at asymptotically large rates. In the first,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Scalability and Efficiency of Push-Driven P2PTV Systems

    TeleVision transmitted over IP (IPTV) presents numerous opportunities for users as well as service providers, and has attracted significant interest from industry as well as research communities in recent years. Among the emerging IPTV delivery architectures, the peer-to-peer based delivery mechanism is considered attractive due to the relative ease of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    You Can Run, But You Can't Hide: Exposing Network Location for Targeted DoS Attacks in Cellular Networks

    An important class of attacks against cellular network infrastructures, i.e., signaling DoS attack, paging channel overload, and channel exhaustion attack, operates by sending low rate data traffic to a large number of mobile devices at a particular location to exhaust bottleneck resources such as radio resource and radio resource controller....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Error Exponent for Multiple-Access Channels: Upper Bounds

    The problem of bounding the reliability function of a Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) is studied. Two new upper bounds on the error exponent of a two-user Discrete Memoryless (DM) Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) are derived. The first bound (sphere packing) is an upper bound on the average error exponent and is the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    PEPSC: A Power-Efficient Processor for Scientific Computing

    The rapid advancements in the computational capabilities of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) as well as the deployment of general programming models for these devices have made the vision of a desktop supercomputer a reality. It is now possible to assemble a system that provides several TFLOPs of performance on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Automatic Root-Cause Diagnosis of Performance Anomalies in Production Software

    Troubleshooting the performance of complex production software is challenging. Most existing tools, such as profiling, tracing, and logging systems, reveal what events occurred during performance anomalies. However, the users of such tools must then infer why these events occurred during a particular execution; e.g., that their execution was due to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Low Overhead Control Channels in Wireless Networks

    Low-latency, low-overhead and reliable control channels are essential to the efficient operation of wireless networks. However, control channels that utilize current in-band and out-of-band designs do not fully meet this requirement. In this paper, the authors design and implement Aileron, a novel control channel based on automatic modulation recognition that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Detecting and Surviving Data Races Using Complementary Schedules

    Data races are a common source of errors in multithreaded programs. In this paper, the authors show how to protect a program from data race errors at runtime by executing multiple replicas of the program with complementary thread schedules. Complementary schedules are a set of replica thread schedules crafted to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Network Coding Aware Dynamic Subcarrier Assignment in OFDMA Based Wireless Networks

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been integrated into emerging broadband wireless systems such as the 802.16 wirelessMAN. A critical problem in OFDMA is to assign multiple frequency bands (called subcarriers) to different users. Taking advantage of the frequency diversity and multiuser diversity in OFDMA systems, dynamic subcarrier assignment...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Towards Name-Based Trust and Security for Content-Centric Network

    Trust and security have been considered as built-in properties for future Internet architecture. Leveraging the concept of named content in recently proposed information centric network, the authors propose a name-based trust and security protection mechanism. Their scheme is built with Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC), where the identity of a user or...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Functional Correctness for CMP Interconnects

    As transistor counts continue to scale, modern designs are transitioning towards large Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs). In order to match the advancing performance of CMPs, on-chip interconnects are becoming increasingly complex, commonly deploying advanced Network-on-Chip (NoC) structures. Ensuring the correct operation of these system-level infrastructures has become increasingly problematic and, in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Post-Silicon Bug Diagnosis With Inconsistent Executions

    The complexity of modern chips intensifies verification challenges, and an increasing share of this verification effort is shouldered by post-silicon validation. Focusing on the first silicon prototypes, post-silicon validation poses critical new challenges such as intermittent failures, where multiple executions of a same test do not yield a consistent outcome....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Nonparametric Steganalysis of QIM Steganography Using Approximate Entropy

    This paper proposes an active steganalysis method for Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) based steganography. The proposed nonparametric steganalysis method uses irregularity (or randomness) in the test-image to distinguish between the cover-image and the stego-image. The authors have shown that plain quantization (quantization without message embedding) induces regularity in the resulting...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Designing Scalable and Effective Decision Support for Mitigating Attacks in Large Enterprise Networks

    Managing numerous security vulnerabilities has long been a difficult and daunting task especially due to the complexity, heterogeneity, and various operational constraints of the network. In this paper, the authors focus on the task of mitigating and managing network-device-specific vulnerabilities automatically and intelligently. They achieve the goal by a scalable,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Iterative Path Optimization for Practical Robot Planning

    The authors present a hybrid path planner that combines two common methods for robotic planning: a Dijkstra graph search for the minimum distance path through the configuration space and an optimization scheme to iteratively improve grid-based paths. Their formulation is novel because they first commit to the minimum distance path,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Cooperative Carrier Signaling: Harmonizing Coexisting WPAN and WLAN Devices

    The unlicensed ISM spectrum is getting crowded by WLAN and WPAN users and devices. Spectrum sharing within the same network of devices can be arbitrated by existing MAC protocols, but the coexistence between WPAN and WLAN (e.g., ZigBee and Wi-Fi) remains a challenging problem. The traditional MAC protocols are ineffective...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    AprilTag: A Robust and Flexible Visual Fiducial System

    While the use of naturally-occurring features is a central focus of machine perception, artificial features (fiducials) play an important role in creating controllable experiments, ground truthing, and in simplifying the development of systems where perception is not the central objective. The authors describe a new visual fiducial system that uses...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Access Point Selection Under Emerging Wireless Technologies

    Users of wireless networks increasingly face a choice among multiple available access points. Clients generally make this decision with limited information about the access points or traffic trends in the system. The authors examine the strategic implications of an emerging wireless technology: utilizing multiple Access Points (APs) simultaneously. Clients using...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Does Low-Power Design Imply Energy Efficiency for Data Centers?

    Data center efficiency has quickly become a first-class design goal. In response, many studies have emerged from the academic community and industry using low-power design to help improve the energy efficiency of server hardware. Generally, these proposals hold the assumption that low-power design is inherently better for energy efficiency; this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State Fiscal Policies And Transitory Income Fluctuations

    State and local expenditure and tax revenue respond less to the business cycle than do federal spending and revenue, thereby reducing the countercyclicality of total government expenditure and revenue. This paper considers forces responsible for the cyclical pattern of state expenditure and revenue. Annual fluctuations in state personal income are...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Bloom Filter Guided Transaction Scheduling

    Contention management is an important design component to a transactional memory system. Without effective contention management to ensure forward progress, a transactional memory system can experience live-lock, which is difficult to debug in parallel programs. Early work in contention management focused on heuristic managers that reacted to conflicts between transactions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Improving TCP Performance Over Wireless Networks With Collaborative Multi-Homed Mobile Hosts

    Multi-homed mobile hosts situated in physical proximity may spontaneously team up to run high-bandwidth applications by pooling their low Wireless Wide-Area Network (WWAN) bandwidths together for communication with a remote application server and utilizing their high-bandwidth Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN) in ad-hoc mode for aggregation and distribution of application contents...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    An Analysis of Single-Layer Networks in Unsupervised Feature Learning

    A great deal of research has focused on algorithms for learning features from unlabeled data. Indeed, much progress has been made on benchmark datasets like NORB and CIFAR by employing increasingly complex unsupervised learning algorithms and deep models. In this paper, however, the authors show that several simple factors, such...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Investigation of Triangular Spamming: A Stealthy and Efficient Spamming Technique

    Spam is increasingly accepted as a problem associated with compromised hosts or email accounts. This problem not only makes the tracking of spam sources difficult but also enables a massive amount of illegitimate or unwanted emails to be disseminated quickly. Various attempts have been made to analyze, backtrack, detect, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On Network-Level Clusters for Spam Detection

    IP-based blacklist is an effective way to filter spam emails. However, building and maintaining individual IP addresses in the blacklist is difficult, as new malicious hosts continuously appear and their IP addresses may also change over time. To mitigate this problem, researchers have proposed to replace individual IP ad-dresses in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    MIDAS: An Impact Scale for DDoS Attacks

    The authors usually have well-defined classification scales to estimate the intensity and impact of natural disasters. Prominent examples are the Richter and the Fujita scales for measuring earthquakes and tornadoes respectively. In this paper, the authors apply similar ideas to estimate the impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Tussle in Routing: Who Determines Internet Paths?

    End-users today have little control over how traffic reaches the intended destination. Most end-users residing in edge networks just rely on their upstream provider to deliver outgoing traffic to the destination networks. Even Multihoming provides only limited control in the form of choosing the first hop AS among limited choices...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Differentiated BGP Update Processing for Improved Routing Convergence

    Internet routers today can be overwhelmed by a large number of BGP updates triggered by events such as session resets, link failures, and policy changes. Such excessive updates can delay routing convergence, which, in turn, degrades the performance of delay- and jitter-sensitive applications. This paper proposes a simple and novel...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Ascertaining the Reality of Network Neutrality Violation in Backbone ISPs

    On the Internet today, a growing number of QoS sensitive network applications exist, such as VoIP, imposing more stringent requirements on ISPs besides the basic reachability assurance. Thus, the demand on ISPs for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with better guarantees is increasing. However, despite overprovisioning in core ISP networks, resource...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices

    This paper presents an ultra low power programmable processor architecture for wireless devices that support 4G wireless communications and video decoding. To derive such an architecture, first the authors analyzed the kernel algorithms that constitute these applications. The characteristics of these algorithms helped define the wide-SIMD architecture, where the SIMD...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Stochastic Queuing Simulation for Data Center Workloads

    Data center systems and workloads are increasing in importance, yet there are few methods for evaluating potential changes to these systems. This paper introduces a new methodology for exascale evaluation, called Statistical Queuing Simulation (SQS). At its heart, SQS is a parallel, large-scale stochastic discrete time simulation of generalized queueing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Epoch Parallelism: One Execution Is Not Enough

    The conventional approach for using multiprocessors requires programmers to write correct, scalable parallel programs. Unfortunately, writing such programs remains a daunting task, despite decades of research on parallel languages, programming models, static and dynamic analysis tools, and synchronization primitives. The authors argue that it is futile to expect programmers to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Analyzing Intrusions Using Operating System Level Information Flow

    Modern computer systems are under attack, making computer security an important topic to understand. Malicious people (called hackers or attackers) search for computer systems (hosts) that are vulnerable to attacks. Vulnerable hosts range from Personal Computers (PCs) used in a home environment to corporate networks that are professionally managed and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Security and Privacy in Emerging Wireless Networks

    Wireless communication continues to make in-roads into many facets of the society and gradually becomes more and more ubiquitous. While, in the past, wireless communication (as well as mobility) was largely limited to first and last transmission hops, today's wireless networks are starting to offer purely wireless, often mobile, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Ownership And Corporate Restructuring: Direct Investment By Emerging-Market Firms In The United States

    This paper examines the recent upsurge in foreign direct investment by emerging-market firms into the United States. Traditionally, direct investment flowed from developed to developing countries, bringing with it superior technology, organizational capital, and access to international capital markets, yet increasingly there is a trend towards "Capital flowing uphill" with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Fairness In The WTO Trading System

    The authors first provide a brief critique of the utilitarian principle as a guide to fairness in the world trading system. They then turn to the alternative conception of fairness in terms of economic equity, exploring the meaning of its two components: equality of opportunity and distributive justice. They thereafter...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Revealing Social Networks Of Spammers

    The magnitude of the spam problem has not gone unnoticed by the US government. In 2003, the United States government drafted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to address the issue. CAN-SPAM provided guidelines on unsolicited email practices and specified how unsolicited email could be...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Business Value Of Information Sharing And The Role Of Emerging Technologies

    Information Technology has brought significant benefits to organizations by allowing greater information sharing within and across firm boundaries leading to performance improvements. Emerging technologies such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web2.0 have transformed the volume and process of information sharing. However, a comprehensive understanding of how information sharing beyond...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Motivating Contributions For Home Computer Security

    Recently, malicious computer users have been compromising computers en masse and combining them to form coordinated botnets. The rise of botnets has brought the problem of home computers to the forefront of security. Home computer users commonly have insecure systems; these users do not have the knowledge, experience, and skills...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) - Service Level Agreement (SLA)

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) offers virtual servers for departments at the University of Michigan. By submitting a virtual server request / purchasing a virtual server, one will agree to abide by the terms of this Service Level Agreement. ITS may update this SLA occasionally. The service will be available...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On Software Protection in Embedded Systems

    The authors argue that the conventional privilege separation of a processor has inherent limitations in protecting software with higher security requirements, and hence, a new system of protection should be devised to overcome these limitations. To enable the new protection, an operating system needs to be restructured into two layers:...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Validation of a Wireless Traffic Vibration Monitoring System for the Voigt Bridge

    Recently, a variety of wireless structural health monitoring systems has been demonstrated as viable substitutes for traditional high-cost tethered monitoring systems. In this study, a prototype wireless sensing system is deployed upon the Voigt Bridge (La Jolla, CA) to validate its performance against a cabled monitoring system. Using 20 wireless...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Accurate Real-Time Identification of IP Prefix Hijacking

    The authors present novel and practical techniques to accurately detect IP prefix hijacking attacks in real time to facilitate mitigation. Attacks may hijack victim's address space to disrupt network services or perpetrate malicious activities such as spamming and DoS attacks without disclosing identity. They propose novel ways to significantly improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Software?-Based Online Detection of Hardware Defects: Mechanisms, Architectural Support, and Evaluation

    As silicon process technology scales deeper into the nanometer regime, hardware defects are becoming more common. Such defects are bound to hinder the correct operation of future processor systems, unless new online techniques become available to detect and to tolerate them while preserving the integrity of software applications running on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Maestro: Orchestrating Lifetime Reliability in Chip Multiprocessors

    As CMOS feature sizes venture deep into the nanometer regime, wearout mechanisms including negative-bias temperature instability and time-dependent dielectric breakdown can severely reduce processor operating lifetimes and performance. This paper presents an introspective reliability management system, Maestro, to tackle reliability challenges in future Chip MultiProcessors (CMPs) headon. Unlike traditional approaches,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Stream Compilation for Real-Time Embedded Multicore Systems

    Multicore systems have not only become ubiquitous in the desktop and server worlds, but are also becoming the standard in the embedded space. Multicore offers programmability and flexibility over traditional ASIC solutions. However, many of the advantages of switching to multicore hinge on the assumption that software development is simpler...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign News And Spillovers In Emerging European Stock Markets

    The authors analyze foreign news and spillovers in the emerging EU stock markets (the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland). They employ high-frequency five-minute intraday data on stock market index returns and four classes of EU and U.S. macroeconomic announcements during 2004 - 2007. They account for the difference of each...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Which Foreigners Are Worth Wooing? A Meta-analysis Of Vertical Spillovers From FDI

    The principal argument for subsidizing foreign investment, especially in developing and transition economies, is the assumed spillover of technology to local firms. Yet researchers report mixed results on spillovers. To examine the phenomenon in a systematic way, the authors collected 3,626 estimates from 57 empirical studies on between-sector spillovers and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Environmental Regulation And Competitiveness: Evidence From Romania

    According to the pollution haven hypotheses differences in environmental regulation affect trade flows and plant location. Specifically, environmental stringency should decrease exports and increase imports of "Dirty" goods. This paper estimates a gravity model to establish whether the implementation of more stringent regulations in Romania has indeed affected its competitiveness...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Pollution Abatement And Control Expenditure In Romania: A Multilevel Analysis

    The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe was associated with growing environmental awareness. This paper analyses the determinants of Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure (PACE) at plant level in the case of Romania using survey data and a Multilevel Regression Model (MRM). The authors' findings suggest that, although Romania...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Firm And Employee Effects Of An Enterprise Information System: Micro-econometric Evidence

    The authors investigate the impact of adopting an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system on performance changes and employee outcomes in a retail chain. They find that: sales and inventory turnover initially drop by 7 % and recover in 6-12 months; inventory turnover recovers more quickly for establishments that adopt ERP...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The VARying Effect Of Foreign Shocks In Central And Eastern Europe

    This paper investigates the impact of international shocks - interest rate, commodity price and industrial production shocks - on key macroeconomic variables in ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries by using near-VAR models and monthly data from the early 1990s to 2009. In contrast to previous work, the empirical...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Methodologies Of Analyzing Inter-regional Income Inequality And Their Applications To Russia

    This paper provides an overview of methodologies used to analyze inter-regional income inequality, and a critical survey of empirical studies that deal with Russian regions. It discusses implications of the growth theory regarding dynamics of inter-economy income inequality. Methodologies for empirically analyzing income inequality are classified as the cross-section approach,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    The Economic And Monetary Union's Effect On (International) Trade: The Case Of Slovenia Before Euro Adoption

    The main objective of the following paper is to present the key findings of the existent research in the field of the influence the introduction of the euro had on the trade of the member states of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The intention of this paper is also...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    In Time Of Troubles: Challenges And Prospects In The Middle East And North Africa

    The recent crises concerning food and finances highlight the extreme fragility of the MENA countries and question the sustainability of the development processes. The social stress and economic instability caused by these challenges give a good indication of what might be expected in the future. This paper intends to provide...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Financial Stability, Monetary Autonomy And Fiscal Interference: Bulgaria In Search Of Its Way, 1879-1913

    The Bulgarian monetary system was established, immediately after independence. Having experienced it already under Ottoman rule, newly independent Bulgaria adopted the bimetallic standard. Without being a member of the Latin Monetary Union, it tried broadly to follow the principles of the convention, yet with some exceptions, the most important of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Data Collection Procedures Equivalence In International Business Research

    Following the work undertaken by Hult el al., (2008) on data equivalence in cross-cultural international business research, this paper examines mail survey administration procedures equivalence within 94 studies published in the Journal of International Business Studies from 2000- 2008.The results show that, despite the existence of a well established theoretical...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Modeling Institutions, Start-Ups And Productivity During Transition

    The transition paths from plan to market have varied markedly across countries. Central and Eastern European and the Baltic countries, which opted for a fast and profound transformation of their institutions including business climates, rapidly narrowed the productivity gap with advanced economies. In contrast, in countries of the Commonwealth of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Pegging The Future West African Single Currency In Regard To Internal/external Competitiveness: A Counterfactual Analysis

    This paper compares different nominal anchors in the case of a fixed exchange rate regime for the future single regional currency of the Economic Community Of the West African States (ECOWAS). The authors study the anchor choice when the countries focus the exchange rate policy to promote internal and external...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Free Trade Agreements And Governance Of The Global Trading System

    This paper explores how far Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have strengthened or weakened global governance of the trading system. The authors open with an analysis of the altered political and economic context within which countries have come, in recent years, to assign a new importance to regional and bilateral trade...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Participation And Contributions In Tax-Deferred Retirement Accounts: Evidence From Social Security Records

    Social Security Administration W-2 records contain employee annual tax-deferred contributions for 1990-2003 and sufficient information to calculate tax-deferred contributions for 1984-1989. The authors use this information to compare tax-deferred contribution profiles of three cohorts of respondents in the Health and Retirement Study to determine whether younger cohorts saved relatively more...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    How Common Is "Parking" Among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries? Evidence From The 1999 Change In The Level Of Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)

    Fewer Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries have their earnings suspended or terminated because of work than those who are actually working, partly because beneficiaries "Park" earnings at a level below Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) to retain benefits. The authors assess the extent of parking by examining how beneficiary earnings...

    Provided By University of Michigan