University of Michigan

Displaying 1-40 of 205 results

  • White Papers // Mar 2014

    Towards a General Method for Building Predictive Models of Learner Success Using Educational Time Series Data

    In this paper, the authors present a pedagogical and instructional-technology general method for building predictive models for education from time series log data. While it is common for models of learner achievement to include cognitive features, they instead are data mining only resource accesses in the learning environment. This has...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Off-Path TCP Sequence Number Inference Attack How Firewall Middleboxes Reduce Security

    In this paper, the authors report a newly discovered "Off-path TCP sequence number inference" attack enabled by firewall middle-boxes. It allows an off-path (i.e., not man-in-the-middle) attacker to hijack a TCP connection and inject malicious content, effectively granting the attacker write-only permission on the connection. For instance, with the help...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Low Power Interconnects for SIMD Computers

    Driven by continued scaling of Moore's Law, the number of processing elements on a die is increasing dramatically. Recently there has been a surge of wide single instruction multiple data architectures designed to handle computationally intensive applications like 3D graphics, high definition video, image processing, and wireless communication. A limit...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Trusted Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

    Collaborative spectrum sensing is a key technology in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). It is inaccurate if spectrum sensing nodes are malicious. Although mobility is an inherent property of wireless networks, there has been no prior work studying the detection of malicious users for collaborative spectrum sensing in mobile CRNs. Existing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    System-Level Implications of Disaggregated Memory

    Recent research on memory disaggregation introduces a new architectural building block - the memory blade - as a cost-effective approach for memory capacity expansion and sharing for an ensemble of blade servers. Memory blades augment blade servers' local memory capacity with a second-level (remote) memory that can be dynamically apportioned...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Is Diversity Gain Worth the Pain: Performance Comparison Between Opportunistic Multi-Channel MAC and Single-Channel MAC

    In this paper, the authors analyze the delay performance of an opportunistic multi-channel medium access control scheme and compare it to that of the corresponding single channel MAC scheme. In the opportunistic multi-channel MAC scheme, they assume that the pair of sender/receiver is able to evaluate the channel quality after...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Approximately Optimal Adaptive Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    In this paper, the authors develop an adaptive learning algorithm which is approximately optimal for an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem with polynomial complexity. In this OSA problem each channel is modeled as a two state discrete time Markov chain with a bad state which yields no reward and a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    The Effect of Node Density and Propagation Model on Throughput Scaling of Wireless Networks

    The paper has led to many studies of scaling laws for the asymptotically achievable throughput in wireless networks under a variety of network models and assumptions. Such scaling laws help one understand the fundamental performance limits of these networks and how efficiency changes as network conditions change. Some examples include...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Transform Coding of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data

    With mean-squared error D as a goal, it is well known that one may approach the Rate-Distortion function R(D) of a non-bandlimited, continuous-time Gaussian source by sampling at a sufficiently high rate, applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform to sufficiently long blocks, and then independently coding the transform coefficients of each type....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Representation of Correlated Sources Into Graphs for Transmission Over Broadcast Channels

    In this paper, the authors consider the communication problem that involves transmission of correlated sources over broadcast channels. They consider a graph-based framework for this information transmission problem. The system involves a source coding module and a channel coding module. In the source coding module, the sources are efficiently represented...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    BulletProof: A Defect?Tolerant CMP Switch Architecture

    As silicon technologies move into the nanometer regime, transistor reliability is expected to wane as devices become subject to extreme process variation, particle-induced transient errors, and transistor wear-out. Unless these challenges are addressed, computer vendors can expect low yields and short mean-times-to-failure. In this paper, the authors examine the challenges...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SODA: A Lowpower Architecture for Software Radio

    The physical layer of most wireless protocols is traditionally implemented in custom hardware to satisfy the heavy computational requirements while keeping power consumption to a minimum. These implementations are time consuming to design and difficult to verify. A programmable hardware platform capable of supporting software implementations of the physical layer,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SPEX: A Programming Language for Software Defined Radio

    High-throughput, low-power Software Defined Radio(SDR) solutions require multi-core SIMD DSP processors to meet real-time performance requirements. Given the difficulty in programming traditional DSPs, these new multi-core signal processors provide even greater challenges for programmers and compilers. In this paper, the authors describe SPEX, a programming language which is aimed at...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Data Access Partitioning for Fine-Grain Parallelism on Multicore Architectures

    The recent design shift towards multicore processors has spawned a significant amount of research in the area of program parallelization. The future abundance of cores on a single chip requires programmer and compiler intervention to increase the amount of parallel work possible. Much of the recent work has fallen into...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Extending Multicore Architectures to Exploit Hybrid Parallelism in Single-Thread Applications

    Chip multiprocessors with multiple simpler cores are gaining popularity because they have the potential to drive future performance gains without exacerbating the problems of power dissipation and complexity. Current chip multiprocessors increase throughput by utilizing multiple cores to perform computation in parallel. These designs provide real benefits for server-class applications...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Atomic Congestion Games on Graphs and Its Applications in Networking

    In this paper, the authors introduce and analyze the properties of a class of game, the Atomic Congestion Game on Graphs (ACGG), which is a generalization of the classical congestion game. In particular, the ACGG captures the spatial information which is often ignored in the classical congestion game. This is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Full-System Analysis and Characterization of Interactive Smartphone Applications

    Smartphones have recently overtaken PCs as the primary consumer computing device in terms of annual unit shipments. Given this rapid market growth, it is important that mobile system designers and computer architects analyze the characteristics of the interactive applications users have come to expect on these platforms. With the introduction...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Information Rates of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data: Distributed Vector Quantization and Scalar Quantization With Transforms

    Motivated by the question of the efficiency of dense sensor networks for sampling and encoding spatial random fields, this paper investigates the rates attainable by several lossy schemes for coding a Gaussian random field to a specified mean-squared error distortion based on sampling at asymptotically large rates. In the first,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Scalability and Efficiency of Push-Driven P2PTV Systems

    TeleVision transmitted over IP (IPTV) presents numerous opportunities for users as well as service providers, and has attracted significant interest from industry as well as research communities in recent years. Among the emerging IPTV delivery architectures, the peer-to-peer based delivery mechanism is considered attractive due to the relative ease of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    You Can Run, But You Can't Hide: Exposing Network Location for Targeted DoS Attacks in Cellular Networks

    An important class of attacks against cellular network infrastructures, i.e., signaling DoS attack, paging channel overload, and channel exhaustion attack, operates by sending low rate data traffic to a large number of mobile devices at a particular location to exhaust bottleneck resources such as radio resource and radio resource controller....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Error Exponent for Multiple-Access Channels: Upper Bounds

    The problem of bounding the reliability function of a Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) is studied. Two new upper bounds on the error exponent of a two-user Discrete Memoryless (DM) Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) are derived. The first bound (sphere packing) is an upper bound on the average error exponent and is the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    PEPSC: A Power-Efficient Processor for Scientific Computing

    The rapid advancements in the computational capabilities of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) as well as the deployment of general programming models for these devices have made the vision of a desktop supercomputer a reality. It is now possible to assemble a system that provides several TFLOPs of performance on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Automatic Root-Cause Diagnosis of Performance Anomalies in Production Software

    Troubleshooting the performance of complex production software is challenging. Most existing tools, such as profiling, tracing, and logging systems, reveal what events occurred during performance anomalies. However, the users of such tools must then infer why these events occurred during a particular execution; e.g., that their execution was due to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Low Overhead Control Channels in Wireless Networks

    Low-latency, low-overhead and reliable control channels are essential to the efficient operation of wireless networks. However, control channels that utilize current in-band and out-of-band designs do not fully meet this requirement. In this paper, the authors design and implement Aileron, a novel control channel based on automatic modulation recognition that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Detecting and Surviving Data Races Using Complementary Schedules

    Data races are a common source of errors in multithreaded programs. In this paper, the authors show how to protect a program from data race errors at runtime by executing multiple replicas of the program with complementary thread schedules. Complementary schedules are a set of replica thread schedules crafted to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Network Coding Aware Dynamic Subcarrier Assignment in OFDMA Based Wireless Networks

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been integrated into emerging broadband wireless systems such as the 802.16 wirelessMAN. A critical problem in OFDMA is to assign multiple frequency bands (called subcarriers) to different users. Taking advantage of the frequency diversity and multiuser diversity in OFDMA systems, dynamic subcarrier assignment...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Towards Name-Based Trust and Security for Content-Centric Network

    Trust and security have been considered as built-in properties for future Internet architecture. Leveraging the concept of named content in recently proposed information centric network, the authors propose a name-based trust and security protection mechanism. Their scheme is built with Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC), where the identity of a user or...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Functional Correctness for CMP Interconnects

    As transistor counts continue to scale, modern designs are transitioning towards large Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs). In order to match the advancing performance of CMPs, on-chip interconnects are becoming increasingly complex, commonly deploying advanced Network-on-Chip (NoC) structures. Ensuring the correct operation of these system-level infrastructures has become increasingly problematic and, in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Post-Silicon Bug Diagnosis With Inconsistent Executions

    The complexity of modern chips intensifies verification challenges, and an increasing share of this verification effort is shouldered by post-silicon validation. Focusing on the first silicon prototypes, post-silicon validation poses critical new challenges such as intermittent failures, where multiple executions of a same test do not yield a consistent outcome....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Nonparametric Steganalysis of QIM Steganography Using Approximate Entropy

    This paper proposes an active steganalysis method for Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) based steganography. The proposed nonparametric steganalysis method uses irregularity (or randomness) in the test-image to distinguish between the cover-image and the stego-image. The authors have shown that plain quantization (quantization without message embedding) induces regularity in the resulting...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Designing Scalable and Effective Decision Support for Mitigating Attacks in Large Enterprise Networks

    Managing numerous security vulnerabilities has long been a difficult and daunting task especially due to the complexity, heterogeneity, and various operational constraints of the network. In this paper, the authors focus on the task of mitigating and managing network-device-specific vulnerabilities automatically and intelligently. They achieve the goal by a scalable,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Iterative Path Optimization for Practical Robot Planning

    The authors present a hybrid path planner that combines two common methods for robotic planning: a Dijkstra graph search for the minimum distance path through the configuration space and an optimization scheme to iteratively improve grid-based paths. Their formulation is novel because they first commit to the minimum distance path,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Cooperative Carrier Signaling: Harmonizing Coexisting WPAN and WLAN Devices

    The unlicensed ISM spectrum is getting crowded by WLAN and WPAN users and devices. Spectrum sharing within the same network of devices can be arbitrated by existing MAC protocols, but the coexistence between WPAN and WLAN (e.g., ZigBee and Wi-Fi) remains a challenging problem. The traditional MAC protocols are ineffective...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    AprilTag: A Robust and Flexible Visual Fiducial System

    While the use of naturally-occurring features is a central focus of machine perception, artificial features (fiducials) play an important role in creating controllable experiments, ground truthing, and in simplifying the development of systems where perception is not the central objective. The authors describe a new visual fiducial system that uses...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Access Point Selection Under Emerging Wireless Technologies

    Users of wireless networks increasingly face a choice among multiple available access points. Clients generally make this decision with limited information about the access points or traffic trends in the system. The authors examine the strategic implications of an emerging wireless technology: utilizing multiple Access Points (APs) simultaneously. Clients using...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Does Low-Power Design Imply Energy Efficiency for Data Centers?

    Data center efficiency has quickly become a first-class design goal. In response, many studies have emerged from the academic community and industry using low-power design to help improve the energy efficiency of server hardware. Generally, these proposals hold the assumption that low-power design is inherently better for energy efficiency; this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State Fiscal Policies And Transitory Income Fluctuations

    State and local expenditure and tax revenue respond less to the business cycle than do federal spending and revenue, thereby reducing the countercyclicality of total government expenditure and revenue. This paper considers forces responsible for the cyclical pattern of state expenditure and revenue. Annual fluctuations in state personal income are...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Bloom Filter Guided Transaction Scheduling

    Contention management is an important design component to a transactional memory system. Without effective contention management to ensure forward progress, a transactional memory system can experience live-lock, which is difficult to debug in parallel programs. Early work in contention management focused on heuristic managers that reacted to conflicts between transactions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Improving TCP Performance Over Wireless Networks With Collaborative Multi-Homed Mobile Hosts

    Multi-homed mobile hosts situated in physical proximity may spontaneously team up to run high-bandwidth applications by pooling their low Wireless Wide-Area Network (WWAN) bandwidths together for communication with a remote application server and utilizing their high-bandwidth Wireless Local-Area Network (WLAN) in ad-hoc mode for aggregation and distribution of application contents...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    An Analysis of Single-Layer Networks in Unsupervised Feature Learning

    A great deal of research has focused on algorithms for learning features from unlabeled data. Indeed, much progress has been made on benchmark datasets like NORB and CIFAR by employing increasingly complex unsupervised learning algorithms and deep models. In this paper, however, the authors show that several simple factors, such...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2014

    Towards a General Method for Building Predictive Models of Learner Success Using Educational Time Series Data

    In this paper, the authors present a pedagogical and instructional-technology general method for building predictive models for education from time series log data. While it is common for models of learner achievement to include cognitive features, they instead are data mining only resource accesses in the learning environment. This has...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Design of SMS Commanded-and-Controlled and P2P-Structured Mobile Botnets

    Botnets have become one of the most serious security threats to the Internet and PC users and applications. Although botnets have not yet caused major outbreaks in mobile networks, with the rapidly-growing popularity of smartphones such as Apple's iPhone, TMobile's G1, and Google's Nexus One that store more personal data...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Eliminating Redundant Custom Formats (or How to Really Take Advantage of PROC SQL, PROC CATALOG, and the DATA Step)

    Custom formats are invaluable to the SAS programmer. Their functionality provides for much more than simply a mechanism for explicitly labeling values in a data set. There can be, however, a major limitation - the DATA step can accommodate only 4,096 formats at a time. It is unlikely that a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Drive-Thru: Fast, Accurate Evaluation of Storage Power Management

    Running traces of realistic user activity is an important step in evaluating storage power management. Unfortunately, existing methodologies that replay traces as fast as possible on a live system cannot be used to evaluate timeout-based power management policies. Other methodologies that slow down replay to preserve the recorded delays between...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Distance Education in a Cost Accounting Course: Instruction, Interaction, and Multiple Measures of Learning Outcomes

    Distance education in its various forms has proven that it is here to stay. These delivery forms include courses that are completely online, those that include a few in-class meetings while otherwise relying on the internet, and a range of other methods that do not require students to attend class....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Behind the Great Firewall: The Internet and Democratization in China

    The Internet has changed China profoundly. For the government, the Internet offers prospects to develop economics, education, and technology. For the public, the Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for the free flow of information and communication. Many believe that the Internet will ultimately bring democracy to China, one of the few...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Statistical Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a new technology which allows monitoring natural phenomena in space and time. Originally, wireless sensor networks were used for military applications, but currently they are employed in a variety of civil applications, including surveillance, chemical and biological agent monitoring, security in critical infrastructures, environmental and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Social Media And Social Networking

    Social media are those which spread information through social, collaborative, or shared means. In its most ideal uses, social media relies on consumer- or user-generated content. Online and for external audiences, this often takes the form of blogs, comments, wikis, Twitter feeds, syndicated news feeds, video sharing, and other interactive...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Bargaining Power And Industry Dependence In Mergers

    The author proposes a new hypothesis based on product market relationships to explain the division of gains between targets and bidders in mergers. In vertical mergers, targets that have greater dependence upon acquirers either as key suppliers or as key customers have lower bargaining power relative to acquirers. In horizontal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    TrapperKeeper: The Case for Using Virtualization to Add Type Awareness to File Systems

    TrapperKeeper is a system that enables the development of type aware file system functionality. In contrast to existing plug-in-based architectures that require a software developer to write and maintain code for each file type, TrapperKeeper requires no type-specific code. Instead, TrapperKeeper executes existing software applications that already parse the desired...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Cloud Services Privacy and Data Security Task Force Committee Report

    In its broadest usage, the term cloud computing refers to the delivery of scalable IT resources over the Internet, as opposed to hosting and operating those resources locally, such as on a college or university network. Those resources can include applications and services, as well as the infrastructure on which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    IRRES: Intrusion-Resilient Remote Email Storage

    Both individuals and corporations increasingly rely on email to exchange important and, often sensitive, information. With the advent of ubiquitous computing and miniaturization of end-devices, many users leave email on remote servers, thus facilitating anywhere/anytime access from any networked device. Since private and sensitive information is often contained in email,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Pricing And Assortment Selection With Demand Uncertainty

    Many firms make pricing and assortment decisions on an ongoing basis. Furthermore, such decisions are often made in the face of demand uncertainty and must take into account associated inventory costs. The assortment, prices and inventory decisions interact in ways that should not be overlooked when making decisions. However, such...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Software?-Based Online Detection of Hardware Defects: Mechanisms, Architectural Support, and Evaluation

    As silicon process technology scales deeper into the nanometer regime, hardware defects are becoming more common. Such defects are bound to hinder the correct operation of future processor systems, unless new online techniques become available to detect and to tolerate them while preserving the integrity of software applications running on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Accurate Real-Time Identification of IP Prefix Hijacking

    The authors present novel and practical techniques to accurately detect IP prefix hijacking attacks in real time to facilitate mitigation. Attacks may hijack victim's address space to disrupt network services or perpetrate malicious activities such as spamming and DoS attacks without disclosing identity. They propose novel ways to significantly improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign News And Spillovers In Emerging European Stock Markets

    The authors analyze foreign news and spillovers in the emerging EU stock markets (the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland). They employ high-frequency five-minute intraday data on stock market index returns and four classes of EU and U.S. macroeconomic announcements during 2004 - 2007. They account for the difference of each...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Exports and Property Prices In France: Are They Connected?

    France has seen a marked deterioration in its export performance in the last 10 years or so. Previous empirical research pointed out that weak export performance was due to vigorous domestic demand; lower mark-ups due to head-to-head competition with Germany; low non-price competitiveness of French export goods; off shoring of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Does FDI Spur Innovation, Productivity And Knowledge Sourcing By Incumbent Firms? Evidence From Manufacturing Industry In Estonia

    Does FDI affect productivity growth, innovation, and knowledge sourcing activities of domestic firms? This study employs detailed firm-level panel-data from Estonia's manufacturing sector to investigate different channels through which FDI can affect domestic firms. The author uses instrumental variables approach to identify the effects. The author finds no evidence of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Catching-Up And Inflation In Europe: Balassa-Samuelson, Engel's Law And Other Culprits

    This paper analyses the impact of economic catching-up on annual inflation rates in the European Union with a special focus on the new member countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Using an array of estimation methods, the authors show that the Balassa-Samuelson effect is not an important driver of inflation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Improving Scalability of Task Allocation and Scheduling in Large Distributed Real-Time Systems Using Shared Buffers

    Scheduling precedence-constrained tasks in a distributed real-time system is an NP-hard problem. As a result, the task allocation and scheduling algorithms that use these heuristics do not scale when applied to large distributed systems. This paper proposes a novel approach that eliminates inter-task dependencies using shared buffers between dependent tasks....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) - Service Level Agreement (SLA)

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) offers virtual servers for departments at the University of Michigan. By submitting a virtual server request / purchasing a virtual server, one will agree to abide by the terms of this Service Level Agreement. ITS may update this SLA occasionally. The service will be available...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Validation of a Wireless Traffic Vibration Monitoring System for the Voigt Bridge

    Recently, a variety of wireless structural health monitoring systems has been demonstrated as viable substitutes for traditional high-cost tethered monitoring systems. In this study, a prototype wireless sensing system is deployed upon the Voigt Bridge (La Jolla, CA) to validate its performance against a cabled monitoring system. Using 20 wireless...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Maestro: Orchestrating Lifetime Reliability in Chip Multiprocessors

    As CMOS feature sizes venture deep into the nanometer regime, wearout mechanisms including negative-bias temperature instability and time-dependent dielectric breakdown can severely reduce processor operating lifetimes and performance. This paper presents an introspective reliability management system, Maestro, to tackle reliability challenges in future Chip MultiProcessors (CMPs) headon. Unlike traditional approaches,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On Software Protection in Embedded Systems

    The authors argue that the conventional privilege separation of a processor has inherent limitations in protecting software with higher security requirements, and hence, a new system of protection should be devised to overcome these limitations. To enable the new protection, an operating system needs to be restructured into two layers:...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Business Value Of Information Sharing And The Role Of Emerging Technologies

    Information Technology has brought significant benefits to organizations by allowing greater information sharing within and across firm boundaries leading to performance improvements. Emerging technologies such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web2.0 have transformed the volume and process of information sharing. However, a comprehensive understanding of how information sharing beyond...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Motivating Contributions For Home Computer Security

    Recently, malicious computer users have been compromising computers en masse and combining them to form coordinated botnets. The rise of botnets has brought the problem of home computers to the forefront of security. Home computer users commonly have insecure systems; these users do not have the knowledge, experience, and skills...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2007

    Specialty Drug Whitepaper

    Specialty drugs are generally considered high-cost injectable, infused, oral or inhaled drugs that require close supervision and monitoring. To facilitate comparison of the University's experience with specialty drugs with that of the major national pharmacy benefit management companies, this report focuses on specialty drug products from eight therapeutic areas including,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Revealing Social Networks Of Spammers

    The magnitude of the spam problem has not gone unnoticed by the US government. In 2003, the United States government drafted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to address the issue. CAN-SPAM provided guidelines on unsolicited email practices and specified how unsolicited email could be...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A 5.42nW/kB Retention Power Logic-Compatible Embedded DRAM With 2T Dual-Vt Gain Cell for Low Power Sensing Applications

    A logic-compatible 2T dual-Vt embedded DRAM (eDRAM) is proposed for ultra-small sensing systems to achieve 8? longer retention time, 5? lower refresh power and 30% reduced area compared with the lowest power eDRAM previously reported. With an area-efficient single inverter sensing scheme designed for R/W speed compatibility with ultralow power...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Investigation of Triangular Spamming: A Stealthy and Efficient Spamming Technique

    Spam is increasingly accepted as a problem associated with compromised hosts or email accounts. This problem not only makes the tracking of spam sources difficult but also enables a massive amount of illegitimate or unwanted emails to be disseminated quickly. Various attempts have been made to analyze, backtrack, detect, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On Network-Level Clusters for Spam Detection

    IP-based blacklist is an effective way to filter spam emails. However, building and maintaining individual IP addresses in the blacklist is difficult, as new malicious hosts continuously appear and their IP addresses may also change over time. To mitigate this problem, researchers have proposed to replace individual IP ad-dresses in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Personality, Lifetime Earnings, And Retirement Wealth

    Studies of adolescents and young adults have shown that schooling impacts economic outcomes beyond its impact on cognitive ability. Research has also shown that the personality trait of conscientiousness predicts health outcomes, academic outcomes, and divorce. Using the Big Five taxonomy of personality traits, this paper examines whether non-cognitive traits...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Occupational Learning, Financial Knowledge, And The Accumulation Of Retirement Wealth

    This paper explores the relationship between general human capital investment, financial knowledge, occupational spillovers, and the accumulation of wealth in a primarily descriptive manner. Drawing upon human capital theory and following previous related work by Delavande, Rohwedder and Willis (2008), the authors hypothesized that individuals with daily exposure to financial...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Post-Retirement Adjustments In Defined Benefit Pensions

    Few private defined benefit pension plans commit to indexing benefits after a worker begins receiving them. Previous (now dated) research found that most plans did, nonetheless, make "Voluntary" adjustments, which compensated for roughly 40 percent of the price increases experienced since retirement. In analyzing changes in pension benefits reported by...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Social Security Literacy And Retirement Well-Being

    The authors build upon the growing literature on financial literacy, which studies the prevalence of lack of knowledge about various financial issues, and analyze how much people know about the Social Security rules using a small pilot survey conducted in 2007, and a follow-up and extended survey funded by MRRC...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Mortality Contingent Claims: Impact Of Capital Market, Income, And Interest Rate Risk

    In this paper, the authors consider optimal insurance, portfolio allocation, and consumption rules for a stochastic wage earner with CRRA preferences whose lifetime is random. In a continuous time framework, the investor has to decide among short and long positions in mortality contingent claims a.k.a. life insurance, stocks, bonds, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Participation And Contributions In Tax-Deferred Retirement Accounts: Evidence From Social Security Records

    Social Security Administration W-2 records contain employee annual tax-deferred contributions for 1990-2003 and sufficient information to calculate tax-deferred contributions for 1984-1989. The authors use this information to compare tax-deferred contribution profiles of three cohorts of respondents in the Health and Retirement Study to determine whether younger cohorts saved relatively more...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    How Common Is "Parking" Among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries? Evidence From The 1999 Change In The Level Of Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)

    Fewer Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries have their earnings suspended or terminated because of work than those who are actually working, partly because beneficiaries "Park" earnings at a level below Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) to retain benefits. The authors assess the extent of parking by examining how beneficiary earnings...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Growth In Social Security Benefits Among The Retirement Age Population From Increases In The Cap On Covered Earnings

    This paper investigates how increases in the level of maximum earnings subject to the Social Security payroll tax have affected Social Security benefits and taxes. The analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to ask how different the present value of own benefits and taxes would be for...

    Provided By University of Michigan