University of Michigan

Displaying 41-80 of 238 results

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Is Economic Growth Associated With Reduction In Child Undernutrition In India?

    Economic growth is widely perceived as a major policy instrument in reducing childhood undernutrition in India. The authors assessed the association between changes in state per capita income and the risk of undernutrition among children in India. Data for this analysis came from three cross-sectional waves of the National Family...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    KnowOps: Towards an Embedded Knowledge Base for Network Management and Operations

    The domain knowledge required to manage and operate modern communications networks is still largely captured in human-readable documents. In this paper, the authors take the position that an embedded machine readable knowledge base that directly supports network management and operations systems is required. They present a framework for such an...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Robust Cooperative Sensing Via State Estimation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Cooperative sensing, a key enabling technology for dynamic spectrum access, is vulnerable to various sensing targeted attacks, such as the primary user emulation or spectrum sensing data falsification. These attacks can easily disrupt the primary signal detection process, thus crippling the operation of dynamic spectrum access. While such sensing-targeted attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Towards a Scalable Data Center-Level Evaluation Methodology

    As the popularity of Internet services continues to rise, the need to understand the design of the data center systems hosting these workloads becomes increasingly important. Unfortunately, research in this area has been stifled, primarily due to a lack of tools, workloads, and rigorous evaluation methodology. Traditional tools, such as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Online Learning of Rested and Restless Bandits

    In this paper, the authors considered the rested and restless multi-armed bandit problem with Markovian rewards and multiple plays. They showed that a simple extension to UCB1 produces logarithmic regret uniformly over time. They then constructed an algorithm RCA-M that utilizes regenerative cycles of a Markov chain to compute a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Latency-Optimizing File Splitting for Transmission Over a Large Multi-Hop Network

    The authors consider the problem of latency-optimizing file splitting for transmission over a large multi-hop network. They utilize recent results from random matrix theory to analytically express the latency distribution as a function of the relevant network parameters and the file size. The resulting minimax problem can be solved using...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Power Allocation and Spectrum Sharing in Multi-User, Multi-Channel Systems With Strategic Users

    The authors consider the decentralized power allocation and spectrum sharing problem in multi-user, multichannel systems with strategic users. They resent a mechanism/game form that has the following desirable features. It is individually rational. It is budget balanced at every Nash equilibrium of the game induced by the game form as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Automated Construction of Fast and Accurate System-Level Models for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Rapidly and accurately estimating the impact of design decisions on performance metrics is critical to both the manual and automated design of wireless sensor networks. Estimating system-level performance metrics such as lifetime, data loss rate, and network connectivity is particularly challenging because they depend on many factors, including network design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Wi-Fi 2.0: Price and Quality Competitions of Duopoly Cognitive Radio Wireless Service Providers With Time-Varying Spectrum Availability

    The WhiteSpaces (WS) in the legacy spectrum provide new opportunities for the future Wi-Fi-like Internet access, often called Wi-Fi 2.0, since service quality can be greatly enhanced thanks to the better propagation characteristics of the WS than the ISM bands. In the Wi-Fi 2.0 networks, each Wireless Service Provider (WSP)...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Competitive Intensity On The Profitability Of Investments And Future Stock Returns

    In this paper, the authors investigate how management's perception of their competitive environment is related to the firm's future profitability and future stock returns. Financial statement analysis textbooks commonly recommend starting the evaluation process by considering the firm's competitive environment and its strategy for operating in its environment (Healy and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Investment In Relationship-specific Assets: Does Finance Matter?

    Existing literature sees opportunistic behaviour of contractual partners as the main reason why rational agents under-invest in relationship-specific assets. The authors look beyond this well-know holdup problem and argue that financial vulnerability and short-term planning horizon can also lead to such underinvestment. Subsequently, banks can stimulate growth-enhancing investment in relationship-specific...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    CapEst: Estimating Wireless Link Capacity in Multi-Hop Networks

    Estimating link capacity in a wireless network is a complex task because the available capacity at a link is a function of not only the current arrival rate at that link, but also of the arrival rate at links which interfere with that link as well as of the nature...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios

    Abstract - Cognitive Radios (CRs) can mitigate the impending spectrum scarcity problem by utilizing their capability of accessing licensed spectrum bands opportunistically. While most existing work focuses on enabling such opportunistic spectrum access for stationary CRs, mobility is an important concern to Secondary Users (SUs) because future mobile devices are...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Dynamically Accelerating Client-Side Web Applications Through Decoupled Execution

    The emergence and wide adoption of web applications have moved the client-side component, often written in JavaScript, to the forefront of computing on the web. Web application developers try to move more computation to the client side to avoid unnecessary network traffic and make the applications more responsive. Therefore, JavaScript...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A 5.42nW/kB Retention Power Logic-Compatible Embedded DRAM With 2T Dual-Vt Gain Cell for Low Power Sensing Applications

    A logic-compatible 2T dual-Vt embedded DRAM (eDRAM) is proposed for ultra-small sensing systems to achieve 8? longer retention time, 5? lower refresh power and 30% reduced area compared with the lowest power eDRAM previously reported. With an area-efficient single inverter sensing scheme designed for R/W speed compatibility with ultralow power...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Free Trade Agreements And Governance Of The Global Trading System

    This paper explores how far Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have strengthened or weakened global governance of the trading system. The authors open with an analysis of the altered political and economic context within which countries have come, in recent years, to assign a new importance to regional and bilateral trade...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    MIDAS: An Impact Scale for DDoS Attacks

    The authors usually have well-defined classification scales to estimate the intensity and impact of natural disasters. Prominent examples are the Richter and the Fujita scales for measuring earthquakes and tornadoes respectively. In this paper, the authors apply similar ideas to estimate the impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Tussle in Routing: Who Determines Internet Paths?

    End-users today have little control over how traffic reaches the intended destination. Most end-users residing in edge networks just rely on their upstream provider to deliver outgoing traffic to the destination networks. Even Multihoming provides only limited control in the form of choosing the first hop AS among limited choices...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Differentiated BGP Update Processing for Improved Routing Convergence

    Internet routers today can be overwhelmed by a large number of BGP updates triggered by events such as session resets, link failures, and policy changes. Such excessive updates can delay routing convergence, which, in turn, degrades the performance of delay- and jitter-sensitive applications. This paper proposes a simple and novel...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Ascertaining the Reality of Network Neutrality Violation in Backbone ISPs

    On the Internet today, a growing number of QoS sensitive network applications exist, such as VoIP, imposing more stringent requirements on ISPs besides the basic reachability assurance. Thus, the demand on ISPs for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with better guarantees is increasing. However, despite overprovisioning in core ISP networks, resource...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    When Virtual Is Better Than Real

    This position paper argues that the operating system and applications currently running on a real machine should relocate into a virtual machine. This structure enables services to be added below the operating system and to do so without trusting or modifying the operating system or applications. To demonstrate the usefulness...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Asymptotic Connectivity of Low Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

    In this paper the authors study the asymptotic connectivity of a low duty-cycled wireless sensor network, where all sensors are randomly duty-cycled such that they are on/active at any time with a fixed probability. A wireless network is often said to be asymptotically connected if there exists a path from...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Minimizing Power Consumption in Sensor Networks With Quality of Service Requirement

    Minimizing energy and power consumption in wireless sensor networks is critical in extending the lifetime of the network. In this paper the authors consider efficient power/rate allocation strategies with certain quality of service constraints. The transmission rate achieved and the power used are related by a power-rate function for a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Counting Twig Matches in a Tree

    The authors describe efficient algorithms for accurately estimating the number of matches of a small node-labeled tree, i.e., a twig, in a large node-labeled tree, using a summary data structure. This problem is of interest for queries on XML and other hierarchical data, to provide query feedback and for cost-based...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Analyzing Intrusions Using Operating System Level Information Flow

    Modern computer systems are under attack, making computer security an important topic to understand. Malicious people (called hackers or attackers) search for computer systems (hosts) that are vulnerable to attacks. Vulnerable hosts range from Personal Computers (PCs) used in a home environment to corporate networks that are professionally managed and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Improving Scalability of Task Allocation and Scheduling in Large Distributed Real-Time Systems Using Shared Buffers

    Scheduling precedence-constrained tasks in a distributed real-time system is an NP-hard problem. As a result, the task allocation and scheduling algorithms that use these heuristics do not scale when applied to large distributed systems. This paper proposes a novel approach that eliminates inter-task dependencies using shared buffers between dependent tasks....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On Software Protection in Embedded Systems

    The authors argue that the conventional privilege separation of a processor has inherent limitations in protecting software with higher security requirements, and hence, a new system of protection should be devised to overcome these limitations. To enable the new protection, an operating system needs to be restructured into two layers:...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Accurate Real-Time Identification of IP Prefix Hijacking

    The authors present novel and practical techniques to accurately detect IP prefix hijacking attacks in real time to facilitate mitigation. Attacks may hijack victim's address space to disrupt network services or perpetrate malicious activities such as spamming and DoS attacks without disclosing identity. They propose novel ways to significantly improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Software?-Based Online Detection of Hardware Defects: Mechanisms, Architectural Support, and Evaluation

    As silicon process technology scales deeper into the nanometer regime, hardware defects are becoming more common. Such defects are bound to hinder the correct operation of future processor systems, unless new online techniques become available to detect and to tolerate them while preserving the integrity of software applications running on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Supporting Africa's Post-Crisis Growth: The Role Of Macroeconomic Policies

    The objective of this paper is to discuss macroeconomic policies that would help African countries, especially the low income countries, reach strong, sustained and shared growth in the post-crisis world. The paper first reviews, with a special focus on LICs, macroeconomic policies in Africa prior to the crisis. It then...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    How Prior Military Experience Influences The Future Militarized Behavior Of Leaders

    This paper joins a growing number of studies that are moving beyond the question of simply whether leaders matter for international politics to examine the scope conditions under which leaders matter. This is not to say that structural and unit-level variables do not matter. The people should, however, take full...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    MiBench: A Free, Commercially Representative Embedded Benchmark Suite

    This paper examines a set of commercially representative embedded programs and compares them to an existing benchmark suite, SPEC2000. A new version of SimpleScalar that has been adapted to the ARM instruction set is used to characterize the performance of the benchmarks using configurations similar to current and next generation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Selfcalibrating Online Wearout Detection

    Technology scaling, characterized by decreasing feature size, thinning gate oxide, and non-ideal voltage scaling, will become a major hindrance to microprocessor reliability in future technology generations. Physical analysis of device failure mechanisms has shown that most wearout mechanisms projected to plague future technology generations are progressive, meaning that the circuit-level...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Compilerdirected Data Partitioning for Multicluster Processors

    Multicluster architectures overcome the scaling problem of centralized resources by distributing the datapath, register file, and memory subsystem across multiple clusters connected by a communication network. Traditional compiler partitioning algorithms focus solely on distributing operations across the clusters to maximize instruction-level parallelism. The distribution of data objects is generally ignored....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Analysis of Energy Consumption and Lifetime of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    The paper examines the performance as well as energy consumption issues of a wireless sensor network providing periodic data from a sensing field to a remote receiver. The sensors are assumed to be randomly deployed. The authors distinguish between two types of sensor organizations, one with a single layer of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Dynamic Parallelization of JavaScript Applications Using an Ultra-lightweight Speculation Mechanism

    As the web becomes the platform of choice for execution of more complex applications, a growing portion of computation is handed off by developers to the client side to reduce network traffic and improve application responsiveness. Therefore, the client-side component, often written in JavaScript, is becoming larger and more compute-intensive,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Performance and Convergence of Multi-User Online Learning

    The authors study the problem of allocating multiple users to a set of wireless channels in a decentralized manner when the channel qualities are time-varying and unknown to the users, and accessing the same channel by multiple users leads to reduced quality (e.g., data rates) received by the users due...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Post-Retirement Adjustments In Defined Benefit Pensions

    Few private defined benefit pension plans commit to indexing benefits after a worker begins receiving them. Previous (now dated) research found that most plans did, nonetheless, make "Voluntary" adjustments, which compensated for roughly 40 percent of the price increases experienced since retirement. In analyzing changes in pension benefits reported by...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Public Investment And Fiscal Performance In New EU Member States

    In this paper, the authors analyze the dynamics of public investment and public finance in new members of the European Union, and also how these sectors were affected by changes in economic freedom and corruption. When they assess the role of regulation and corruption on public investment, they find that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Is Monetary Policy In New Members States Asymmetric?

    Estimated Taylor rules became popular as a description of monetary policy conduct. There are numerous reasons why real monetary policy can be asymmetric and estimated Taylor rule nonlinear. This paper tests whether monetary policy can be described as asymmetric in three new European Union (EU) members (the Czech Republic, Hungary...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Channel Estimation for Opportunistic Spectrum Sensing: Uniform and Random Sensing

    The knowledge of channel statistics, as a result of random fading, interference, and primary user activities, can be very helpful for a secondary user in making sound opportunistic spectrum access decisions in a cognitive radio network. It is therefore desirable to be able to efficiently and accurately estimate channel statistics,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Asymptotic Connectivity of Low Duty-Cycled Wireless Sensor Networks

    In this paper the authors study the asymptotic connectivity of a low duty-cycled wireless sensor network, where all sensors are randomly duty-cycled such that they are on/active at any time with a fixed probability. A wireless network is often said to be asymptotically connected if there exists a path from...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Minimizing Power Consumption in Sensor Networks With Quality of Service Requirement

    Minimizing energy and power consumption in wireless sensor networks is critical in extending the lifetime of the network. In this paper the authors consider efficient power/rate allocation strategies with certain quality of service constraints. The transmission rate achieved and the power used are related by a power-rate function for a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Do You Know Where Your Data's Been? - Tamper-Evident Database Provenance

    Database provenance chronicles the history of updates and modifications to data, and has received much attention due to its central role in scientific data management. However, the use of provenance information still requires a leap of faith. Without additional protections, provenance records are vulnerable to accidental corruption, and even malicious...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    SPAN: A Unified Framework and Toolkit for Querying Heterogeneous Access Policies

    Incorrect policy configurations are a major cause of security failures in large-scale systems. Policy analyzers and testing tools can help with this, but often the tools are specific to one type of policy (e.g., firewalls). In contrast, the most insidious security problems often require understanding the interactions of policies across...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Strategic Modeling of Information Sharing Among Data Privacy Attackers

    Research in privacy-preserving data publishing has revealed the necessity of accounting for an adversary's background knowledge when reasoning about the protection afforded by various anonymization schemes. Most existing work models the background knowledge of one individual adversary or privacy attacker, or makes a worst-case assumption that attackers will act as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Private-Pond: Outsourced Management of Web Corpuses

    With the rise of cloud computing, it is increasingly attractive for end-users (organizations and individuals) to outsource the management of their data to a small number of large-scale service providers. In this paper, the authors consider a user who wants to outsource storage and search for a corpus of web...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Sensor Scheduling for Multi-Parameter Estimation Under an Energy Constraint

    The authors consider a sensor scheduling problem for estimating multiple independent Gaussian random variables under an energy constraint. The sensor measurements are described by a linear observation model; the observation noise is assumed to be Gaussian. They formulate this problem as a stochastic sequential allocation problem. Due to the Gaussian...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Counting Twig Matches in a Tree

    The authors describe efficient algorithms for accurately estimating the number of matches of a small node-labeled tree, i.e., a twig, in a large node-labeled tree, using a summary data structure. This problem is of interest for queries on XML and other hierarchical data, to provide query feedback and for cost-based...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Role Of Financial Factors In The Trade Collapse: A Skeptics View

    This paper explores the role of financial factors in the 2008-9 collapse of U.S. imports and exports. Using highly disaggregated international trade data, the authors examine whether the cross-sectoral variation in how much imports or exports fell during this episode can be explained by financial variables. To do this, they...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access: A Case of Restless Bandits With Multiple Plays

    This paper considers the following stochastic control problem that arises in opportunistic spectrum access: a system consists of n channels where the state ("Good" or "Bad") of each channel evolves as independent and identically distributed Markov processes. A user can select exactly k channels to sense and access (based on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Does Low-Power Design Imply Energy Efficiency for Data Centers?

    Data center efficiency has quickly become a first-class design goal. In response, many studies have emerged from the academic community and industry using low-power design to help improve the energy efficiency of server hardware. Generally, these proposals hold the assumption that low-power design is inherently better for energy efficiency; this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Towards a Scalable Data Center-Level Evaluation Methodology

    As the popularity of Internet services continues to rise, the need to understand the design of the data center systems hosting these workloads becomes increasingly important. Unfortunately, research in this area has been stifled, primarily due to a lack of tools, workloads, and rigorous evaluation methodology. Traditional tools, such as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Practical Off-Chip Meta-Data for Temporal Memory Streaming

    Prior research demonstrates that temporal memory streaming and related address-correlating prefetchers improve performance of commercial server workloads through increased memory level parallelism. Unfortunately, these prefetchers require large on-chip meta-data storage, making previously-proposed designs impractical. Hence, to improve practicality, researchers have sought ways to enable timely prefetch while locating meta-data entirely...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Analyzing Intrusions Using Operating System Level Information Flow

    Modern computer systems are under attack, making computer security an important topic to understand. Malicious people (called hackers or attackers) search for computer systems (hosts) that are vulnerable to attacks. Vulnerable hosts range from Personal Computers (PCs) used in a home environment to corporate networks that are professionally managed and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    A Laplace Transform-Based Method to Stochastic Path Finding

    Finding the most likely path satisfying a requested additive Quality-of-Service (QoS) value, such as delay, when link metrics are defined as random variables by known probability distributions is NP-Hard. The authors transform the probability distributions into the Laplace domain, find the Laplace Transform of their convolutions and numerically inverse to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Security and Privacy in Emerging Wireless Networks

    Wireless communication continues to make in-roads into many facets of the society and gradually becomes more and more ubiquitous. While, in the past, wireless communication (as well as mobility) was largely limited to first and last transmission hops, today's wireless networks are starting to offer purely wireless, often mobile, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    International Trade In Used Vehicles: The Environmental Consequences Of NAFTA

    Previous studies of trade and the environment overwhelmingly focus on how trade affects where goods are produced. However, trade also affects where goods are consumed. In this paper the authors describe a model of trade with durable goods and non-homothetic preferences. In autarky, used goods are relatively inexpensive in high-income...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Ownership And Corporate Restructuring: Direct Investment By Emerging-Market Firms In The United States

    This paper examines the recent upsurge in foreign direct investment by emerging-market firms into the United States. Traditionally, direct investment flowed from developed to developing countries, bringing with it superior technology, organizational capital, and access to international capital markets, yet increasingly there is a trend towards "Capital flowing uphill" with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Fairness In The WTO Trading System

    The authors first provide a brief critique of the utilitarian principle as a guide to fairness in the world trading system. They then turn to the alternative conception of fairness in terms of economic equity, exploring the meaning of its two components: equality of opportunity and distributive justice. They thereafter...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Free Trade Agreements And Governance Of The Global Trading System

    This paper explores how far Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) have strengthened or weakened global governance of the trading system. The authors open with an analysis of the altered political and economic context within which countries have come, in recent years, to assign a new importance to regional and bilateral trade...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Participation And Contributions In Tax-Deferred Retirement Accounts: Evidence From Social Security Records

    Social Security Administration W-2 records contain employee annual tax-deferred contributions for 1990-2003 and sufficient information to calculate tax-deferred contributions for 1984-1989. The authors use this information to compare tax-deferred contribution profiles of three cohorts of respondents in the Health and Retirement Study to determine whether younger cohorts saved relatively more...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    How Common Is "Parking" Among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries? Evidence From The 1999 Change In The Level Of Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)

    Fewer Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries have their earnings suspended or terminated because of work than those who are actually working, partly because beneficiaries "Park" earnings at a level below Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) to retain benefits. The authors assess the extent of parking by examining how beneficiary earnings...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Growth In Social Security Benefits Among The Retirement Age Population From Increases In The Cap On Covered Earnings

    This paper investigates how increases in the level of maximum earnings subject to the Social Security payroll tax have affected Social Security benefits and taxes. The analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to ask how different the present value of own benefits and taxes would be for...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well-Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Personality, Lifetime Earnings, And Retirement Wealth

    Studies of adolescents and young adults have shown that schooling impacts economic outcomes beyond its impact on cognitive ability. Research has also shown that the personality trait of conscientiousness predicts health outcomes, academic outcomes, and divorce. Using the Big Five taxonomy of personality traits, this paper examines whether non-cognitive traits...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Occupational Learning, Financial Knowledge, And The Accumulation Of Retirement Wealth

    This paper explores the relationship between general human capital investment, financial knowledge, occupational spillovers, and the accumulation of wealth in a primarily descriptive manner. Drawing upon human capital theory and following previous related work by Delavande, Rohwedder and Willis (2008), the authors hypothesized that individuals with daily exposure to financial...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Post-Retirement Adjustments In Defined Benefit Pensions

    Few private defined benefit pension plans commit to indexing benefits after a worker begins receiving them. Previous (now dated) research found that most plans did, nonetheless, make "Voluntary" adjustments, which compensated for roughly 40 percent of the price increases experienced since retirement. In analyzing changes in pension benefits reported by...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    How Much Do Respondents In The Health And Retirement Study Know About Their Tax-Deferred Contribution Plans? A Crosscohort Comparison

    The authors use information from Social Security earnings records to examine the accuracy of survey responses regarding participation in tax-deferred pension plans. As employer-provided defined benefit pensions are replaced by voluntary contribution plans, employees' understanding of the link between their annual contribution decisions and their post-retirement wealth is becoming increasingly...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Social Security Literacy And Retirement Well-Being

    The authors build upon the growing literature on financial literacy, which studies the prevalence of lack of knowledge about various financial issues, and analyze how much people know about the Social Security rules using a small pilot survey conducted in 2007, and a follow-up and extended survey funded by MRRC...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Mortality Contingent Claims: Impact Of Capital Market, Income, And Interest Rate Risk

    In this paper, the authors consider optimal insurance, portfolio allocation, and consumption rules for a stochastic wage earner with CRRA preferences whose lifetime is random. In a continuous time framework, the investor has to decide among short and long positions in mortality contingent claims a.k.a. life insurance, stocks, bonds, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Design of SMS Commanded-and-Controlled and P2P-Structured Mobile Botnets

    Botnets have become one of the most serious security threats to the Internet and PC users and applications. Although botnets have not yet caused major outbreaks in mobile networks, with the rapidly-growing popularity of smartphones such as Apple's iPhone, TMobile's G1, and Google's Nexus One that store more personal data...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Eliminating Redundant Custom Formats (or How to Really Take Advantage of PROC SQL, PROC CATALOG, and the DATA Step)

    Custom formats are invaluable to the SAS programmer. Their functionality provides for much more than simply a mechanism for explicitly labeling values in a data set. There can be, however, a major limitation - the DATA step can accommodate only 4,096 formats at a time. It is unlikely that a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Drive-Thru: Fast, Accurate Evaluation of Storage Power Management

    Running traces of realistic user activity is an important step in evaluating storage power management. Unfortunately, existing methodologies that replay traces as fast as possible on a live system cannot be used to evaluate timeout-based power management policies. Other methodologies that slow down replay to preserve the recorded delays between...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    A Highly Resilient Routing Algorithm for FaultTolerant NoCs

    Current trends in technology scaling foreshadow worsening transistor reliability as well as greater numbers of transistors in each system. The combination of these factors will soon make long-term product reliability extremely difficult in complex modern systems such as Systems on a Chip (SoC) and Chip MultiProcessor (CMP) designs, where even...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Distance Education in a Cost Accounting Course: Instruction, Interaction, and Multiple Measures of Learning Outcomes

    Distance education in its various forms has proven that it is here to stay. These delivery forms include courses that are completely online, those that include a few in-class meetings while otherwise relying on the internet, and a range of other methods that do not require students to attend class....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Behind the Great Firewall: The Internet and Democratization in China

    The Internet has changed China profoundly. For the government, the Internet offers prospects to develop economics, education, and technology. For the public, the Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for the free flow of information and communication. Many believe that the Internet will ultimately bring democracy to China, one of the few...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Statistical Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a new technology which allows monitoring natural phenomena in space and time. Originally, wireless sensor networks were used for military applications, but currently they are employed in a variety of civil applications, including surveillance, chemical and biological agent monitoring, security in critical infrastructures, environmental and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Social Media And Social Networking

    Social media are those which spread information through social, collaborative, or shared means. In its most ideal uses, social media relies on consumer- or user-generated content. Online and for external audiences, this often takes the form of blogs, comments, wikis, Twitter feeds, syndicated news feeds, video sharing, and other interactive...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Bargaining Power And Industry Dependence In Mergers

    The author proposes a new hypothesis based on product market relationships to explain the division of gains between targets and bidders in mergers. In vertical mergers, targets that have greater dependence upon acquirers either as key suppliers or as key customers have lower bargaining power relative to acquirers. In horizontal...

    Provided By University of Michigan