University of Michigan

Displaying 81-120 of 214 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Cognitive Radios for Dynamic Spectrum Access: From Concept to Reality

    This paper provides a comprehensive survey of cognitive radio technology, focusing on its application to dynamic spectrum access, especially from the perspective of realizing consumer-oriented CR networks. They first overview the state of the art in CR technology and identify its key functions across the protocol stack, such as spectrum...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Public Investment And Fiscal Performance In New EU Member States

    In this paper, the authors analyze the dynamics of public investment and public finance in new members of the European Union, and also how these sectors were affected by changes in economic freedom and corruption. When they assess the role of regulation and corruption on public investment, they find that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Is Monetary Policy In New Members States Asymmetric?

    Estimated Taylor rules became popular as a description of monetary policy conduct. There are numerous reasons why real monetary policy can be asymmetric and estimated Taylor rule nonlinear. This paper tests whether monetary policy can be described as asymmetric in three new European Union (EU) members (the Czech Republic, Hungary...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    A General Purpose Feature Extractor for Light Detection and Ranging Data

    Feature extraction is a central step of processing LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. Existing detectors tend to exploit characteristics of specific environments: corners and lines from indoor (rectilinear) environments, and trees from outdoor environments. While these detectors work well in their intended environments, their performance in different environments can...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices

    This paper presents an ultra low power programmable processor architecture for wireless devices that support 4G wireless communications and video decoding. To derive such an architecture, first the authors analyzed the kernel algorithms that constitute these applications. The characteristics of these algorithms helped define the wide-SIMD architecture, where the SIMD...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Harnessing Knowledge From Ad Hoc Queries by Creating a Zone of Standardization

    Business Intelligence drives strategic business decisions by providing timely and accurate information. Beneath the demand for constantly changing information-needs usually lay a highly complex entangled mesh of business rules, data sets, query logic and custom-ad hoc Reports. The discrete nature of ad hoc reports may lead to inefficiencies in processing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Assessing Mondragon: Stability & Managed Change In The Face Of Globalization

    By drawing on new interview evidence gathered during several field trips and new financial and economic data from both external and internal sources, the authors document and assess the changing economic importance and performance of the Mondragon group of cooperatives as well as the two largest sectors within the group....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Fairness In The WTO Trading System

    The authors first provide a brief critique of the utilitarian principle as a guide to fairness in the world trading system. They then turn to the alternative conception of fairness in terms of economic equity, exploring the meaning of its two components: equality of opportunity and distributive justice. They thereafter...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    How Common Is "Parking" Among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries? Evidence From The 1999 Change In The Level Of Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)

    Fewer Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries have their earnings suspended or terminated because of work than those who are actually working, partly because beneficiaries "Park" earnings at a level below Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) to retain benefits. The authors assess the extent of parking by examining how beneficiary earnings...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Personality, Lifetime Earnings, And Retirement Wealth

    Studies of adolescents and young adults have shown that schooling impacts economic outcomes beyond its impact on cognitive ability. Research has also shown that the personality trait of conscientiousness predicts health outcomes, academic outcomes, and divorce. Using the Big Five taxonomy of personality traits, this paper examines whether non-cognitive traits...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Occupational Learning, Financial Knowledge, And The Accumulation Of Retirement Wealth

    This paper explores the relationship between general human capital investment, financial knowledge, occupational spillovers, and the accumulation of wealth in a primarily descriptive manner. Drawing upon human capital theory and following previous related work by Delavande, Rohwedder and Willis (2008), the authors hypothesized that individuals with daily exposure to financial...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Online Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access: A Restless Bandit Approach

    The authors consider an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem where the time-varying condition of each channel (e.g., as a result of random fading or certain primary users' activities) is modeled as an arbitrary finite-state Markov chain. At each instance of time, a (secondary) user probes a channel and collects a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Social Security Early Retirement Benefit As Safety Net

    In this paper, the authors used the Health and Retirement Study to examine the health and economic status of those who collect Social Security retirement benefits prior to the full retirement age. They used a propensity score reweighting method to estimate the fraction of early retirees who use early retirement...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Money Market Integration And Sovereign CDS Spreads Dynamics In The New EU States

    When the first phase of the crisis focused primarily on the interbank market volatility, the second phase spread on the instability of public finance. Although the overall stance of public finances of the new members is better than the old member countries, the differences within the new group are significant...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Modeling Transition In Central Asia: The Case Of Kazakhstan

    This paper presents a small macro-econometric model of Kazakhstan to study the impact of various economic policies. It uses a new approach to test the existence of a level relationship between a dependent variable and a set of regressors, when the characteristics of the regressors' non-stationarity are not known with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Unlocking Productive Entrepreneurship In Ethiopia: Which Incentives Matter?

    Twenty years after the launch of market reforms, productive entrepreneurship and vibrant Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Ethiopia remain limited, the recent growth acceleration notwithstanding. This paper develops a model of entrepreneurial start ups in an economy with frictions in the product and labor markets and a large informal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well?]Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Automating Configuration Troubleshooting With Dynamic Information Flow Analysis

    Software misconfigurations are time-consuming and enormously frustrating to troubleshoot. In this paper, the authors show that dynamic information flow analysis helps solve these problems by pinpointing the root cause of configuration errors. They have built a tool called ConfAid that instruments application binaries to monitor the causal dependencies introduced through...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    TOP: Tail Optimization Protocol for Cellular Radio Resource Allocation

    In 3G cellular networks, the release of radio resources is controlled by inactivity timers. However, the timeout value itself, also known as the tail time, can last up to 15 seconds due to the necessity of trading off resource utilization efficiency for low management overhead and good stability, thus wasting...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Epoch Parallelism: One Execution Is Not Enough

    The conventional approach for using multiprocessors requires programmers to write correct, scalable parallel programs. Unfortunately, writing such programs remains a daunting task, despite decades of research on parallel languages, programming models, static and dynamic analysis tools, and synchronization primitives. The authors argue that it is futile to expect programmers to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Growth In Social Security Benefits Among The Retirement Age Population From Increases In The Cap On Covered Earnings

    This paper investigates how increases in the level of maximum earnings subject to the Social Security payroll tax have affected Social Security benefits and taxes. The analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to ask how different the present value of own benefits and taxes would be for...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well-Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Price Convergence And Market Integration In Russia

    After a period of growing disconnectedness of regional markets following the 1992 price liberalization in Russia, a process of improvement in market integration started since about 1994. This paper analyzes the spatial pattern of goods market integration in the country in 1994-2000, characterizing Russian regions into three states: integrated with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Bank Efficiency In Transitional Countries: Sensitivity To Stochastic Frontier Design

    This paper provides an empirical insight on the heterogeneity in the estimates of banking efficiency produced by the stochastic frontier approach. Using data from five countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the authors study the sensitivity of the efficiency score and the efficiency ranking to a change in the design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Mortgage Contract Decisions And Mortgage Distress: Family And Financial Life-cycle Factors

    The U.S. economy experienced a dramatic rise in the price of owner occupied housing during 1999-2007, and then a precipitous decline from 2007 through 2009. In this paper, the authors utilize data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) during 1999-2009 to study first the factors and borrowing decisions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Joint Labor Supply Decision Of Married Couples And The Social Security Pension System

    The current U.S. Social Security program redistributes resources from high wage workers to low wage workers and from two-earner couples to one-earner couples. The present paper extends a standard general-equilibrium overlapping-generations model with uninsurable wage shocks to analyze the effect of spousal and survivors benefits on the labor supply of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Revealing Social Networks Of Spammers

    The magnitude of the spam problem has not gone unnoticed by the US government. In 2003, the United States government drafted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to address the issue. CAN-SPAM provided guidelines on unsolicited email practices and specified how unsolicited email could be...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    MobLab: A Mobility Emulation Platform

    Mobility powered systems provide the core routing mechanism in many adhoc and delay tolerant networks. Evaluating such systems under real life scenarios is often not practical because they involve multiple moving participants over a wide area. As a result, the principal way these systems are evaluated is though discrete event...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Role Of Financial Factors In The Trade Collapse: A Skeptics View

    This paper explores the role of financial factors in the 2008-9 collapse of U.S. imports and exports. Using highly disaggregated international trade data, the authors examine whether the cross-sectoral variation in how much imports or exports fell during this episode can be explained by financial variables. To do this, they...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Robit: An Extensible Auction-Based Market Platform for Challenged Environments

    Open and competitive marketplaces, like those enabled by the internet, bring enormous value to consumers while fostering innovation and growth across a wide variety of businesses. Electronic commerce has forever changed how people trade goods and services. Last year alone, US consumers spent more than $150 billion dollars on internet...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Online Algorithms for the Multi-Armed Bandit Problem With Markovian Rewards

    The authors consider the classical multi-armed bandit problem with Markovian rewards. When played an arm changes its state in a Markovian fashion while it remains frozen when not played. The player receives a state-dependent reward each time it plays an arm. The number of states and the state transition probabilities...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Passive Solution to the Sensor Synchronization Problem

    Knowing the time at which sensors acquired data is critical to the proper processing and interpretation of that data, particularly for mobile robots attempting to project sensor data into a consistent coordinate frame. Unfortunately, many popular commercial sensors provide no support for synchronization, rendering conventional synchronization algorithms useless. In this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Graph-Based Segmentation for Colored 3D Laser Point Clouds

    The authors present an efficient graph-theoretic algorithm for segmenting a colored laser point cloud derived from a laser scanner and camera. Segmentation of raw sensor data is a crucial first step for many high level tasks such as object recognition, obstacle avoidance and terrain classification. Their method enables combination of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Simulation Study of IEEE 802.11 With Optimal Rate Control in Multi-Hop Topologies

    The most commonly used scheduling scheme to build wireless multi-hop networks is CSMA-CA as off-the shelf IEEE 802.11 radios can be used to easily and cheaply deploy a multi-hop network. However, several researchers have observed that using CSMA-CA with either TCP or without any rate control and pumping data as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    On the Achievable Rates of Sources Having a Group Alphabet in a Distributed Source Coding Setting

    The authors consider the problem of compression via homomorphic encoding of a source having a group alphabet. This is motivated by the problem of distributed function computation, where it is known that if one is only interested in computing a function of several sources, then one can at times improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Distance Education in a Cost Accounting Course: Instruction, Interaction, and Multiple Measures of Learning Outcomes

    Distance education in its various forms has proven that it is here to stay. These delivery forms include courses that are completely online, those that include a few in-class meetings while otherwise relying on the internet, and a range of other methods that do not require students to attend class....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Which Foreigners Are Worth Wooing? A Meta-analysis Of Vertical Spillovers From FDI

    The principal argument for subsidizing foreign investment, especially in developing and transition economies, is the assumed spillover of technology to local firms. Yet researchers report mixed results on spillovers. To examine the phenomenon in a systematic way, the authors collected 3,626 estimates from 57 empirical studies on between-sector spillovers and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    EGS: A Cortex M3-Based Mote Platform

    The authors introduce the Egs mote platform based on the Cortex M3 microcontroller that focuses on medical sensing applications. Egs uses an Atmel SAM3U microcontroller that runs up to 96 MHz and has up to 52 KB of RAM and 256 KB of Flash. Egs combines this microcontroller with two...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Environmental Regulation And Competitiveness: Evidence From Romania

    According to the pollution haven hypotheses differences in environmental regulation affect trade flows and plant location. Specifically, environmental stringency should decrease exports and increase imports of "Dirty" goods. This paper estimates a gravity model to establish whether the implementation of more stringent regulations in Romania has indeed affected its competitiveness...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Competitive Intensity On The Profitability Of Investments And Future Stock Returns

    In this paper, the authors investigate how management's perception of their competitive environment is related to the firm's future profitability and future stock returns. Financial statement analysis textbooks commonly recommend starting the evaluation process by considering the firm's competitive environment and its strategy for operating in its environment (Healy and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Investment In Relationship-specific Assets: Does Finance Matter?

    Existing literature sees opportunistic behaviour of contractual partners as the main reason why rational agents under-invest in relationship-specific assets. The authors look beyond this well-know holdup problem and argue that financial vulnerability and short-term planning horizon can also lead to such underinvestment. Subsequently, banks can stimulate growth-enhancing investment in relationship-specific...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    The Global Financial Meltdown And Financial Regulation: Shirking And Learning - Canada In An International Context

    The overarching mission of prudential regulators of financial services is "To preserve a safe and sound financial system." This is a widely accepted yet simple and straightforward objective. The meltdown in global financial markets began in early 2007, but reached crisis proportions in September 2008. It is the assertion in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State Fiscal Policies And Transitory Income Fluctuations

    State and local expenditure and tax revenue respond less to the business cycle than do federal spending and revenue, thereby reducing the countercyclicality of total government expenditure and revenue. This paper considers forces responsible for the cyclical pattern of state expenditure and revenue. Annual fluctuations in state personal income are...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    KnowOps: Towards an Embedded Knowledge Base for Network Management and Operations

    The domain knowledge required to manage and operate modern communications networks is still largely captured in human-readable documents. In this paper, the authors take the position that an embedded machine readable knowledge base that directly supports network management and operations systems is required. They present a framework for such an...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Information Rates of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data: Distributed Vector Quantization and Scalar Quantization With Transforms

    Motivated by the question of the efficiency of dense sensor networks for sampling and encoding spatial random fields, this paper investigates the rates attainable by several lossy schemes for coding a Gaussian random field to a specified mean-squared error distortion based on sampling at asymptotically large rates. In the first,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    On the Achievable Rates of Sources Having a Group Alphabet in a Distributed Source Coding Setting

    The authors consider the problem of compression via homomorphic encoding of a source having a group alphabet. This is motivated by the problem of distributed function computation, where it is known that if one is only interested in computing a function of several sources, then one can at times improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Transform Coding of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data

    With mean-squared error D as a goal, it is well known that one may approach the Rate-Distortion function R(D) of a non-bandlimited, continuous-time Gaussian source by sampling at a sufficiently high rate, applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform to sufficiently long blocks, and then independently coding the transform coefficients of each type....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Error Exponent for Multiple-Access Channels: Upper Bounds

    The problem of bounding the reliability function of a Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) is studied. Two new upper bounds on the error exponent of a two-user Discrete Memoryless (DM) Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) are derived. The first bound (sphere packing) is an upper bound on the average error exponent and is the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Representation of Correlated Sources Into Graphs for Transmission Over Broadcast Channels

    In this paper, the authors consider the communication problem that involves transmission of correlated sources over broadcast channels. They consider a graph-based framework for this information transmission problem. The system involves a source coding module and a channel coding module. In the source coding module, the sources are efficiently represented...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Trusted Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

    Collaborative spectrum sensing is a key technology in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). It is inaccurate if spectrum sensing nodes are malicious. Although mobility is an inherent property of wireless networks, there has been no prior work studying the detection of malicious users for collaborative spectrum sensing in mobile CRNs. Existing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    You Can Run, But You Can't Hide: Exposing Network Location for Targeted DoS Attacks in Cellular Networks

    An important class of attacks against cellular network infrastructures, i.e., signaling DoS attack, paging channel overload, and channel exhaustion attack, operates by sending low rate data traffic to a large number of mobile devices at a particular location to exhaust bottleneck resources such as radio resource and radio resource controller....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Designing Scalable and Effective Decision Support for Mitigating Attacks in Large Enterprise Networks

    Managing numerous security vulnerabilities has long been a difficult and daunting task especially due to the complexity, heterogeneity, and various operational constraints of the network. In this paper, the authors focus on the task of mitigating and managing network-device-specific vulnerabilities automatically and intelligently. They achieve the goal by a scalable,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    TOP: Tail Optimization Protocol for Cellular Radio Resource Allocation

    In 3G cellular networks, the release of radio resources is controlled by inactivity timers. However, the timeout value itself, also known as the tail time, can last up to 15 seconds due to the necessity of trading off resource utilization efficiency for low management overhead and good stability, thus wasting...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Full-System Analysis and Characterization of Interactive Smartphone Applications

    Smartphones have recently overtaken PCs as the primary consumer computing device in terms of annual unit shipments. Given this rapid market growth, it is important that mobile system designers and computer architects analyze the characteristics of the interactive applications users have come to expect on these platforms. With the introduction...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    System-Level Implications of Disaggregated Memory

    Recent research on memory disaggregation introduces a new architectural building block - the memory blade - as a cost-effective approach for memory capacity expansion and sharing for an ensemble of blade servers. Memory blades augment blade servers' local memory capacity with a second-level (remote) memory that can be dynamically apportioned...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Atomic Congestion Games on Graphs and Its Applications in Networking

    In this paper, the authors introduce and analyze the properties of a class of game, the Atomic Congestion Game on Graphs (ACGG), which is a generalization of the classical congestion game. In particular, the ACGG captures the spatial information which is often ignored in the classical congestion game. This is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    An Analysis of Single-Layer Networks in Unsupervised Feature Learning

    A great deal of research has focused on algorithms for learning features from unlabeled data. Indeed, much progress has been made on benchmark datasets like NORB and CIFAR by employing increasingly complex unsupervised learning algorithms and deep models. In this paper, however, the authors show that several simple factors, such...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    A Survey of Botnet Technology and Defenses

    Global Internet threats have undergone a profound transformation from attacks designed solely to disable infrastructure to those that also target people and organizations. At the center of many of these attacks are collections of compromised computers, or Botnets, remotely controlled by the attackers, and whose members are located in homes,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Iterative Path Optimization for Practical Robot Planning

    The authors present a hybrid path planner that combines two common methods for robotic planning: a Dijkstra graph search for the minimum distance path through the configuration space and an optimization scheme to iteratively improve grid-based paths. Their formulation is novel because they first commit to the minimum distance path,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    AprilTag: A Robust and Flexible Visual Fiducial System

    While the use of naturally-occurring features is a central focus of machine perception, artificial features (fiducials) play an important role in creating controllable experiments, ground truthing, and in simplifying the development of systems where perception is not the central objective. The authors describe a new visual fiducial system that uses...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Passive Solution to the Sensor Synchronization Problem

    Knowing the time at which sensors acquired data is critical to the proper processing and interpretation of that data, particularly for mobile robots attempting to project sensor data into a consistent coordinate frame. Unfortunately, many popular commercial sensors provide no support for synchronization, rendering conventional synchronization algorithms useless. In this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Graph-Based Segmentation for Colored 3D Laser Point Clouds

    The authors present an efficient graph-theoretic algorithm for segmenting a colored laser point cloud derived from a laser scanner and camera. Segmentation of raw sensor data is a crucial first step for many high level tasks such as object recognition, obstacle avoidance and terrain classification. Their method enables combination of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    A General Purpose Feature Extractor for Light Detection and Ranging Data

    Feature extraction is a central step of processing LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. Existing detectors tend to exploit characteristics of specific environments: corners and lines from indoor (rectilinear) environments, and trees from outdoor environments. While these detectors work well in their intended environments, their performance in different environments can...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Protecting Confidential Data on Personal Computers With Storage Capsules

    Protecting confidential information is a major concern for organizations and individuals alike, who stand to suffer huge losses if private data falls into the wrong hands. One of the primary threats to confidentiality is malicious software on personal computers, which is estimated to already reside on 100 to 150 million...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Quantifying Information Leaks in Outbound Web Traffic

    As the Internet grows and network bandwidth continues to increase, administrators are faced with the task of keeping confidential information from leaving their networks. Today's network traffic is so voluminous that manual inspection would be unreasonably expensive. In response, researchers have created data loss prevention systems that check outgoing traffic...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Simulation Study of IEEE 802.11 With Optimal Rate Control in Multi-Hop Topologies

    The most commonly used scheduling scheme to build wireless multi-hop networks is CSMA-CA as off-the shelf IEEE 802.11 radios can be used to easily and cheaply deploy a multi-hop network. However, several researchers have observed that using CSMA-CA with either TCP or without any rate control and pumping data as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Scalability and Efficiency of Push-Driven P2PTV Systems

    TeleVision transmitted over IP (IPTV) presents numerous opportunities for users as well as service providers, and has attracted significant interest from industry as well as research communities in recent years. Among the emerging IPTV delivery architectures, the peer-to-peer based delivery mechanism is considered attractive due to the relative ease of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    On the Scalability of P2P-Based Push-Driven Live Streaming Systems

    TeleVision transmitted over IP (IPTV) presents numerous opportunities for users as well as service providers, and has attracted significant interest from business and research communities in recent years. Among the emerging IPTV delivery architectures, the peer-to-peer based delivery mechanism is considered attractive due to the relative ease of service deployment....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Approximately Optimal Adaptive Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    In this paper, the authors develop an adaptive learning algorithm which is approximately optimal for an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem with polynomial complexity. In this OSA problem each channel is modeled as a two state discrete time Markov chain with a bad state which yields no reward and a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Is Diversity Gain Worth the Pain: Performance Comparison Between Opportunistic Multi-Channel MAC and Single-Channel MAC

    In this paper, the authors analyze the delay performance of an opportunistic multi-channel medium access control scheme and compare it to that of the corresponding single channel MAC scheme. In the opportunistic multi-channel MAC scheme, they assume that the pair of sender/receiver is able to evaluate the channel quality after...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Performance and Convergence of Multi-User Online Learning

    The authors study the problem of allocating multiple users to a set of wireless channels in a decentralized manner when the channel qualities are time-varying and unknown to the users, and accessing the same channel by multiple users leads to reduced quality (e.g., data rates) received by the users due...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Online Algorithms for the Multi-Armed Bandit Problem With Markovian Rewards

    The authors consider the classical multi-armed bandit problem with Markovian rewards. When played an arm changes its state in a Markovian fashion while it remains frozen when not played. The player receives a state-dependent reward each time it plays an arm. The number of states and the state transition probabilities...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Dynamic Clock Calibration Via Temperature Measurement

    The authors study a clock calibration problem for an ultra-low power timer on a sensor node platform. When the sensor is put into sleep mode, this timer is the only thing left running, so power consumption is extremely low. However, this power savings comes at the expense of loss in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Congestion Games With Resource Reuse and Applications in Spectrum Sharing

    In this paper, the authors consider an extension to the classical definition of Congestion Games (CG) in which multiple users share the same set of resources and their payoff for using any resource is a function of the total number of users sharing it. The classical congestion games enjoy some...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    The Effect of Node Density and Propagation Model on Throughput Scaling of Wireless Networks

    The paper has led to many studies of scaling laws for the asymptotically achievable throughput in wireless networks under a variety of network models and assumptions. Such scaling laws help one understand the fundamental performance limits of these networks and how efficiency changes as network conditions change. Some examples include...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Towards Name-Based Trust and Security for Content-Centric Network

    Trust and security have been considered as built-in properties for future Internet architecture. Leveraging the concept of named content in recently proposed information centric network, the authors propose a name-based trust and security protection mechanism. Their scheme is built with Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC), where the identity of a user or...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Off-Path TCP Sequence Number Inference Attack How Firewall Middleboxes Reduce Security

    In this paper, the authors report a newly discovered "Off-path TCP sequence number inference" attack enabled by firewall middle-boxes. It allows an off-path (i.e., not man-in-the-middle) attacker to hijack a TCP connection and inject malicious content, effectively granting the attacker write-only permission on the connection. For instance, with the help...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Detecting and Surviving Data Races Using Complementary Schedules

    Data races are a common source of errors in multithreaded programs. In this paper, the authors show how to protect a program from data race errors at runtime by executing multiple replicas of the program with complementary thread schedules. Complementary schedules are a set of replica thread schedules crafted to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Automatic Root-Cause Diagnosis of Performance Anomalies in Production Software

    Troubleshooting the performance of complex production software is challenging. Most existing tools, such as profiling, tracing, and logging systems, reveal what events occurred during performance anomalies. However, the users of such tools must then infer why these events occurred during a particular execution; e.g., that their execution was due to...

    Provided By University of Michigan