University of Michigan

Displaying 81-120 of 228 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Cognitive Radios for Dynamic Spectrum Access: From Concept to Reality

    This paper provides a comprehensive survey of cognitive radio technology, focusing on its application to dynamic spectrum access, especially from the perspective of realizing consumer-oriented CR networks. They first overview the state of the art in CR technology and identify its key functions across the protocol stack, such as spectrum...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Erasing Core Boundaries for Robust and Configurable Performance

    Single-thread performance, reliability and power efficiency are critical design challenges of future multicore systems. Although point solutions have been proposed to address these issues, a more fundamental change to the fabric of multicore systems is necessary to seamlessly combat these challenges. Towards this end, this paper proposes CoreGenesis, a dynamically...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    A General Purpose Feature Extractor for Light Detection and Ranging Data

    Feature extraction is a central step of processing LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. Existing detectors tend to exploit characteristics of specific environments: corners and lines from indoor (rectilinear) environments, and trees from outdoor environments. While these detectors work well in their intended environments, their performance in different environments can...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices

    This paper presents an ultra low power programmable processor architecture for wireless devices that support 4G wireless communications and video decoding. To derive such an architecture, first the authors analyzed the kernel algorithms that constitute these applications. The characteristics of these algorithms helped define the wide-SIMD architecture, where the SIMD...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Harnessing Knowledge From Ad Hoc Queries by Creating a Zone of Standardization

    Business Intelligence drives strategic business decisions by providing timely and accurate information. Beneath the demand for constantly changing information-needs usually lay a highly complex entangled mesh of business rules, data sets, query logic and custom-ad hoc Reports. The discrete nature of ad hoc reports may lead to inefficiencies in processing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Assessing Mondragon: Stability & Managed Change In The Face Of Globalization

    By drawing on new interview evidence gathered during several field trips and new financial and economic data from both external and internal sources, the authors document and assess the changing economic importance and performance of the Mondragon group of cooperatives as well as the two largest sectors within the group....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Fairness In The WTO Trading System

    The authors first provide a brief critique of the utilitarian principle as a guide to fairness in the world trading system. They then turn to the alternative conception of fairness in terms of economic equity, exploring the meaning of its two components: equality of opportunity and distributive justice. They thereafter...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Online Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access: A Restless Bandit Approach

    The authors consider an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem where the time-varying condition of each channel (e.g., as a result of random fading or certain primary users' activities) is modeled as an arbitrary finite-state Markov chain. At each instance of time, a (secondary) user probes a channel and collects a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    How Common Is "Parking" Among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries? Evidence From The 1999 Change In The Level Of Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)

    Fewer Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries have their earnings suspended or terminated because of work than those who are actually working, partly because beneficiaries "Park" earnings at a level below Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) to retain benefits. The authors assess the extent of parking by examining how beneficiary earnings...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Personality, Lifetime Earnings, And Retirement Wealth

    Studies of adolescents and young adults have shown that schooling impacts economic outcomes beyond its impact on cognitive ability. Research has also shown that the personality trait of conscientiousness predicts health outcomes, academic outcomes, and divorce. Using the Big Five taxonomy of personality traits, this paper examines whether non-cognitive traits...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Occupational Learning, Financial Knowledge, And The Accumulation Of Retirement Wealth

    This paper explores the relationship between general human capital investment, financial knowledge, occupational spillovers, and the accumulation of wealth in a primarily descriptive manner. Drawing upon human capital theory and following previous related work by Delavande, Rohwedder and Willis (2008), the authors hypothesized that individuals with daily exposure to financial...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Unlocking Productive Entrepreneurship In Ethiopia: Which Incentives Matter?

    Twenty years after the launch of market reforms, productive entrepreneurship and vibrant Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Ethiopia remain limited, the recent growth acceleration notwithstanding. This paper develops a model of entrepreneurial start ups in an economy with frictions in the product and labor markets and a large informal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Money Market Integration And Sovereign CDS Spreads Dynamics In The New EU States

    When the first phase of the crisis focused primarily on the interbank market volatility, the second phase spread on the instability of public finance. Although the overall stance of public finances of the new members is better than the old member countries, the differences within the new group are significant...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Modeling Transition In Central Asia: The Case Of Kazakhstan

    This paper presents a small macro-econometric model of Kazakhstan to study the impact of various economic policies. It uses a new approach to test the existence of a level relationship between a dependent variable and a set of regressors, when the characteristics of the regressors' non-stationarity are not known with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Social Security Early Retirement Benefit As Safety Net

    In this paper, the authors used the Health and Retirement Study to examine the health and economic status of those who collect Social Security retirement benefits prior to the full retirement age. They used a propensity score reweighting method to estimate the fraction of early retirees who use early retirement...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well?]Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Automating Configuration Troubleshooting With Dynamic Information Flow Analysis

    Software misconfigurations are time-consuming and enormously frustrating to troubleshoot. In this paper, the authors show that dynamic information flow analysis helps solve these problems by pinpointing the root cause of configuration errors. They have built a tool called ConfAid that instruments application binaries to monitor the causal dependencies introduced through...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    TOP: Tail Optimization Protocol for Cellular Radio Resource Allocation

    In 3G cellular networks, the release of radio resources is controlled by inactivity timers. However, the timeout value itself, also known as the tail time, can last up to 15 seconds due to the necessity of trading off resource utilization efficiency for low management overhead and good stability, thus wasting...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Epoch Parallelism: One Execution Is Not Enough

    The conventional approach for using multiprocessors requires programmers to write correct, scalable parallel programs. Unfortunately, writing such programs remains a daunting task, despite decades of research on parallel languages, programming models, static and dynamic analysis tools, and synchronization primitives. The authors argue that it is futile to expect programmers to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Growth In Social Security Benefits Among The Retirement Age Population From Increases In The Cap On Covered Earnings

    This paper investigates how increases in the level of maximum earnings subject to the Social Security payroll tax have affected Social Security benefits and taxes. The analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to ask how different the present value of own benefits and taxes would be for...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well-Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Price Convergence And Market Integration In Russia

    After a period of growing disconnectedness of regional markets following the 1992 price liberalization in Russia, a process of improvement in market integration started since about 1994. This paper analyzes the spatial pattern of goods market integration in the country in 1994-2000, characterizing Russian regions into three states: integrated with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Bank Efficiency In Transitional Countries: Sensitivity To Stochastic Frontier Design

    This paper provides an empirical insight on the heterogeneity in the estimates of banking efficiency produced by the stochastic frontier approach. Using data from five countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the authors study the sensitivity of the efficiency score and the efficiency ranking to a change in the design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Mortgage Contract Decisions And Mortgage Distress: Family And Financial Life-cycle Factors

    The U.S. economy experienced a dramatic rise in the price of owner occupied housing during 1999-2007, and then a precipitous decline from 2007 through 2009. In this paper, the authors utilize data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) during 1999-2009 to study first the factors and borrowing decisions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Joint Labor Supply Decision Of Married Couples And The Social Security Pension System

    The current U.S. Social Security program redistributes resources from high wage workers to low wage workers and from two-earner couples to one-earner couples. The present paper extends a standard general-equilibrium overlapping-generations model with uninsurable wage shocks to analyze the effect of spousal and survivors benefits on the labor supply of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Revealing Social Networks Of Spammers

    The magnitude of the spam problem has not gone unnoticed by the US government. In 2003, the United States government drafted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to address the issue. CAN-SPAM provided guidelines on unsolicited email practices and specified how unsolicited email could be...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    MobLab: A Mobility Emulation Platform

    Mobility powered systems provide the core routing mechanism in many adhoc and delay tolerant networks. Evaluating such systems under real life scenarios is often not practical because they involve multiple moving participants over a wide area. As a result, the principal way these systems are evaluated is though discrete event...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Role Of Financial Factors In The Trade Collapse: A Skeptics View

    This paper explores the role of financial factors in the 2008-9 collapse of U.S. imports and exports. Using highly disaggregated international trade data, the authors examine whether the cross-sectoral variation in how much imports or exports fell during this episode can be explained by financial variables. To do this, they...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Robit: An Extensible Auction-Based Market Platform for Challenged Environments

    Open and competitive marketplaces, like those enabled by the internet, bring enormous value to consumers while fostering innovation and growth across a wide variety of businesses. Electronic commerce has forever changed how people trade goods and services. Last year alone, US consumers spent more than $150 billion dollars on internet...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Online Algorithms for the Multi-Armed Bandit Problem With Markovian Rewards

    The authors consider the classical multi-armed bandit problem with Markovian rewards. When played an arm changes its state in a Markovian fashion while it remains frozen when not played. The player receives a state-dependent reward each time it plays an arm. The number of states and the state transition probabilities...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Passive Solution to the Sensor Synchronization Problem

    Knowing the time at which sensors acquired data is critical to the proper processing and interpretation of that data, particularly for mobile robots attempting to project sensor data into a consistent coordinate frame. Unfortunately, many popular commercial sensors provide no support for synchronization, rendering conventional synchronization algorithms useless. In this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Graph-Based Segmentation for Colored 3D Laser Point Clouds

    The authors present an efficient graph-theoretic algorithm for segmenting a colored laser point cloud derived from a laser scanner and camera. Segmentation of raw sensor data is a crucial first step for many high level tasks such as object recognition, obstacle avoidance and terrain classification. Their method enables combination of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    A Simulation Study of IEEE 802.11 With Optimal Rate Control in Multi-Hop Topologies

    The most commonly used scheduling scheme to build wireless multi-hop networks is CSMA-CA as off-the shelf IEEE 802.11 radios can be used to easily and cheaply deploy a multi-hop network. However, several researchers have observed that using CSMA-CA with either TCP or without any rate control and pumping data as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    On the Achievable Rates of Sources Having a Group Alphabet in a Distributed Source Coding Setting

    The authors consider the problem of compression via homomorphic encoding of a source having a group alphabet. This is motivated by the problem of distributed function computation, where it is known that if one is only interested in computing a function of several sources, then one can at times improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2010

    Distance Education in a Cost Accounting Course: Instruction, Interaction, and Multiple Measures of Learning Outcomes

    Distance education in its various forms has proven that it is here to stay. These delivery forms include courses that are completely online, those that include a few in-class meetings while otherwise relying on the internet, and a range of other methods that do not require students to attend class....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Which Foreigners Are Worth Wooing? A Meta-analysis Of Vertical Spillovers From FDI

    The principal argument for subsidizing foreign investment, especially in developing and transition economies, is the assumed spillover of technology to local firms. Yet researchers report mixed results on spillovers. To examine the phenomenon in a systematic way, the authors collected 3,626 estimates from 57 empirical studies on between-sector spillovers and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    EGS: A Cortex M3-Based Mote Platform

    The authors introduce the Egs mote platform based on the Cortex M3 microcontroller that focuses on medical sensing applications. Egs uses an Atmel SAM3U microcontroller that runs up to 96 MHz and has up to 52 KB of RAM and 256 KB of Flash. Egs combines this microcontroller with two...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Catching-Up And Inflation In Europe: Balassa-Samuelson, Engel's Law And Other Culprits

    This paper analyses the impact of economic catching-up on annual inflation rates in the European Union with a special focus on the new member countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Using an array of estimation methods, the authors show that the Balassa-Samuelson effect is not an important driver of inflation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    EU Enlargement And Monetary Regimes From The Insurance Model Perspectives

    Some ten years ago, Michael Dooley (Dooley, 1997; Dooley, 2000) put forward an insurance model of currency crises, which after some modifications gives a good theoretical basis for explanation of the overall dynamics of the post communist transformation and diversity across countries and periods. The paper analyses, within the framework...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Revealing Social Networks Of Spammers

    The magnitude of the spam problem has not gone unnoticed by the US government. In 2003, the United States government drafted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to address the issue. CAN-SPAM provided guidelines on unsolicited email practices and specified how unsolicited email could be...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Business Value Of Information Sharing And The Role Of Emerging Technologies

    Information Technology has brought significant benefits to organizations by allowing greater information sharing within and across firm boundaries leading to performance improvements. Emerging technologies such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web2.0 have transformed the volume and process of information sharing. However, a comprehensive understanding of how information sharing beyond...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Motivating Contributions For Home Computer Security

    Recently, malicious computer users have been compromising computers en masse and combining them to form coordinated botnets. The rise of botnets has brought the problem of home computers to the forefront of security. Home computer users commonly have insecure systems; these users do not have the knowledge, experience, and skills...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) - Service Level Agreement (SLA)

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) offers virtual servers for departments at the University of Michigan. By submitting a virtual server request / purchasing a virtual server, one will agree to abide by the terms of this Service Level Agreement. ITS may update this SLA occasionally. The service will be available...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On Software Protection in Embedded Systems

    The authors argue that the conventional privilege separation of a processor has inherent limitations in protecting software with higher security requirements, and hence, a new system of protection should be devised to overcome these limitations. To enable the new protection, an operating system needs to be restructured into two layers:...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Qunits: Queried Units for Database Search

    Keyword search against structured databases has become a popular topic of investigation, since many users find structured queries too hard to express, and enjoy the freedom of a "Google-like" query box into which search terms can be entered. Attempts to address this problem face a fundamental dilemma. Database querying is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Validation of a Wireless Traffic Vibration Monitoring System for the Voigt Bridge

    Recently, a variety of wireless structural health monitoring systems has been demonstrated as viable substitutes for traditional high-cost tethered monitoring systems. In this study, a prototype wireless sensing system is deployed upon the Voigt Bridge (La Jolla, CA) to validate its performance against a cabled monitoring system. Using 20 wireless...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Accurate Real-Time Identification of IP Prefix Hijacking

    The authors present novel and practical techniques to accurately detect IP prefix hijacking attacks in real time to facilitate mitigation. Attacks may hijack victim's address space to disrupt network services or perpetrate malicious activities such as spamming and DoS attacks without disclosing identity. They propose novel ways to significantly improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Software?-Based Online Detection of Hardware Defects: Mechanisms, Architectural Support, and Evaluation

    As silicon process technology scales deeper into the nanometer regime, hardware defects are becoming more common. Such defects are bound to hinder the correct operation of future processor systems, unless new online techniques become available to detect and to tolerate them while preserving the integrity of software applications running on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Maestro: Orchestrating Lifetime Reliability in Chip Multiprocessors

    As CMOS feature sizes venture deep into the nanometer regime, wearout mechanisms including negative-bias temperature instability and time-dependent dielectric breakdown can severely reduce processor operating lifetimes and performance. This paper presents an introspective reliability management system, Maestro, to tackle reliability challenges in future Chip MultiProcessors (CMPs) headon. Unlike traditional approaches,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Unlocking Productive Entrepreneurship In Ethiopia: Which Incentives Matter?

    Twenty years after the launch of market reforms, productive entrepreneurship and vibrant Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Ethiopia remain limited, the recent growth acceleration notwithstanding. This paper develops a model of entrepreneurial start ups in an economy with frictions in the product and labor markets and a large informal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Inflation Dynamics And The New Keynesian Phillips Curve In EU-4

    The paper seeks to shed light on inflation dynamics of four new EU member states (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia). To this end, the New Keynesian Phillips curve augmented for open economies is estimated and additional statistical tests applied. The authors find the following: The claim of New...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Once Bitten, Twice Shy: Experiences Of A Banking Crisis And Expectations Of Future Crises

    Survey data from Bulgaria show that people who had experienced a loss during a banking crisis are significantly more likely to expect a new crisis. This result holds despite 12 years between the earlier crisis and the survey, and the dramatically improved performance of the financial sector and the economy...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Extending Likages Between Organizational Analysis And Social Structure: A Case Study Of The Celebrity-construction Of A Chinese Marketplace

    This paper examines the emergence of firm-celebrity, both an intangible-asset, and a facilitator of competitive advantage. Institutional approaches have asserted that organizations from the same organizational field and characterized by comparable structural positions face similar structural forces. These result in isomorphic tendencies, and similarities among firms. But, in any organizational...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Chinese State?s Economic Cooperation Related Investment: An Investigation Of Its Direction And Some Implications For Outward Investment

    The Chinese state undertakes large scale investments in a number of countries under the auspices of Economic Cooperation related Investment (ECI). While there are suggestions that it is an extension of China's soft power aimed at facilitating Chinese FDI in those countries, often for access to natural resources, there is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Capital Inflows, Household Debt And The Boom Bust Cycle In Estonia

    From 2000 to 2007, Estonia was one of the fastest growing emerging market economies. A housing boom, fuelled by capital inflows and credit, resulted in skyrocketing house prices and an over-expanded construction sector. However, the currency board limited the Bank of Estonia's ability to curb credit growth, while the fiscal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Market Globalization By Firms From Emerging Markets And Small Countries: An Application Of The Neoclassical Trade Model

    The changes in globalization and the world of international business make it necessary to rethink the basic model of the economics of international business. For most of the second part of the 20th century international business was about how large companies in the developed countries increase their value via international...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Trade Specialisation And Economic Convergence: Evidence From Two Eastern European Countries

    This paper analyses trade specialisation dynamics in two Eastern European countries (Romania and Bulgaria - EEC-2) vis-?-vis the core EU member states (EU-15) over the period 1990-2006. Specifically, the authors focus on whether there is a shift towards intra-industry trade leading to economic convergence and technological catch-up. They use recently...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Inflation Differentials In The Euro Area And Their Determinants ? An Empirical View

    In this paper, the authors present evidence on the statistical features of observed dispersion in HICP inflation rates in the Euro area. The descriptive exercise shows that there is still a remarkable dispersion of HICP inflation rates across the member countries. They find that most of dispersion originates in the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Infrastructure And Growth: Empirical Evidence

    Investment in network infrastructure can boost long-term economic growth in OECD countries. Moreover, infrastructure investment can have a positive effect on growth that goes beyond the effect of the capital stock because of economies of scale, the existence of network externalities competition enhancing effects. This paper analyses the empirical relationship...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Infrastructure Investment In Network Industries: The Role Of Incentive Regulation And Regulatory Independence

    This paper finds that coherent regulatory policies can boost investment in network industries of OECD economies. Rate-of-return regulation is generally thought to result in overinvestment, while incentive regulation is believed to entail underinvestment. Yet, previous empirical work has generally found that the introduction of incentive regulation has not systematically changed...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    The Impact Of Monetary And Commodity Fundamentals, Macro News And Central Bank Communication On The Exchange Rate: Evidence From South Africa

    This paper studies drivers of high-frequency (daily) dynamics of the South African rand vis-?-vis the dollar from January 2001 to July 2007. The authors find strong nonlinear effects of commodity prices, perceived country and emerging market risk premium and changes in the dollar-euro exchange rates on changes in daily returns...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Family Ownership, Tunneling And Earnings Management: A Review Of The Literature

    In this paper, the authors bring together a number of aspects of family firms that are ubiquitous in a number of institutional contexts, often as part of larger business groups. They pay particular attention to the mechanisms by which families retain control over firms, and the incentives of the families...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    An Analytic Approach To Selecting A Nonprofit

    Charity giving continues to be an important aspect of the economic and social fabric of the United States. The number and total assets of nonprofits registered with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) under the section 501(c) (3) of the tax code have grown significantly over the past decade. Given the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    The Monetary Union: The Decade Ahead. The Case Of Non-member States

    What are the prospects for New Member States to join the euro-zone in the not too distant future? They seem to be in a catch-22 situation Because of the current financial crisis some Maastricht criteria would be more difficult to fulfill in the short and medium term, which would make...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Bootstrap Panel Granger-Causality Between Government Spending And Revenue In The EU

    Using bootstrap panel analysis, allowing for cross-country correlation, without the need of pre-testing for unit roots, the authors study the causality between government revenue and spending for the EU in the period 1960-2006. Spend-and-tax causality is found for Italy, France, Spain, Greece, and Portugal, while tax-and-spend evidence is present for...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Do Choice & Speed Of Reforms Matter For Human Rights During Transition?

    Conventional wisdom posits absence of systematic relationship between economic reforms and human rights. Taking the case of transition economies, Vadlamannati & Soysa (2008) shows significant positive relationship between economic reforms and various forms of human rights. This brings us to the next question on the impact of choice and speed...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Defeating Vanish With Low-Cost Sybil Attacks Against Large DHTs

    Researchers at the University of Washington recently proposed Vanish, a system for creating messages that automatically "Self-destruct" after a period of time. Vanish works by encrypting each message with a random key and storing shares of the key in a large, public Distributed Hash Table (DHT). Normally, DHTs expunge data...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Recognizing Human Actions by Attributes

    In this paper, the authors explore the idea of using high-level se-mantic concepts, also called attributes, to represent human actions from videos and argue that attributes enable the construction of more descriptive models for human action recognition. They propose a unified framework wherein manually specified attributes are: selected in a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Application-Layer Intrusion Detection in MANETs

    Security has become important to Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) due mainly to their use for many mission- and life-critical applications. However, the broadcast nature of inter-node communications and node mobility in MANETs make it very challenging to secure MANETs. Moreover, their constantly-changing topology causes network node density and neighbor...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Automating Configuration Troubleshooting With Dynamic Information Flow Analysis

    Software misconfigurations are time-consuming and enormously frustrating to troubleshoot. In this paper, the authors show that dynamic information flow analysis helps solve these problems by pinpointing the root cause of configuration errors. They have built a tool called ConfAid that instruments application binaries to monitor the causal dependencies introduced through...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Supporting Africa's Post-Crisis Growth: The Role Of Macroeconomic Policies

    The objective of this paper is to discuss macroeconomic policies that would help African countries, especially the low income countries, reach strong, sustained and shared growth in the post-crisis world. The paper first reviews, with a special focus on LICs, macroeconomic policies in Africa prior to the crisis. It then...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Automated Construction of Fast and Accurate System-Level Models for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Rapidly and accurately estimating the impact of design decisions on performance metrics is critical to both the manual and automated design of wireless sensor networks. Estimating system-level performance metrics such as lifetime, data loss rate, and network connectivity is particularly challenging because they depend on many factors, including network design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Access Point Selection Under Emerging Wireless Technologies

    Users of wireless networks increasingly face a choice among multiple available access points. Clients generally make this decision with limited information about the access points or traffic trends in the system. The authors examine the strategic implications of an emerging wireless technology: utilizing multiple Access Points (APs) simultaneously. Clients using...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios

    Abstract - Cognitive Radios (CRs) can mitigate the impending spectrum scarcity problem by utilizing their capability of accessing licensed spectrum bands opportunistically. While most existing work focuses on enabling such opportunistic spectrum access for stationary CRs, mobility is an important concern to Secondary Users (SUs) because future mobile devices are...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Wi-Fi 2.0: Price and Quality Competitions of Duopoly Cognitive Radio Wireless Service Providers With Time-Varying Spectrum Availability

    The WhiteSpaces (WS) in the legacy spectrum provide new opportunities for the future Wi-Fi-like Internet access, often called Wi-Fi 2.0, since service quality can be greatly enhanced thanks to the better propagation characteristics of the WS than the ISM bands. In the Wi-Fi 2.0 networks, each Wireless Service Provider (WSP)...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Robust Cooperative Sensing Via State Estimation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Cooperative sensing, a key enabling technology for dynamic spectrum access, is vulnerable to various sensing targeted attacks, such as the primary user emulation or spectrum sensing data falsification. These attacks can easily disrupt the primary signal detection process, thus crippling the operation of dynamic spectrum access. While such sensing-targeted attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Chorus: Collision Resolution for Efficient Wireless Broadcast

    Traditional wireless broadcast protocols rely heavily on the 802.11-based CSMA/CA model, which avoids interference and collision by conservatively scheduling transmissions. While CSMA/CA is amenable to multiple concurrent unicasts, it tends to degrade broadcast performance, especially when there are a large number of nodes and links are lossy. In this paper,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Spatio-Temporal Fusion for Small-Scale Primary Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    In Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), detecting small-scale primary devices - such as Wireless Microphones (WMs) - is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. The authors identify the data-fusion range as a key factor that enables effective cooperative sensing for detection of small-scale primary...

    Provided By University of Michigan