University of Michigan

Displaying 81-120 of 202 results

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Counting Twig Matches in a Tree

    The authors describe efficient algorithms for accurately estimating the number of matches of a small node-labeled tree, i.e., a twig, in a large node-labeled tree, using a summary data structure. This problem is of interest for queries on XML and other hierarchical data, to provide query feedback and for cost-based...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Supporting Africa's Post-Crisis Growth: The Role Of Macroeconomic Policies

    The objective of this paper is to discuss macroeconomic policies that would help African countries, especially the low income countries, reach strong, sustained and shared growth in the post-crisis world. The paper first reviews, with a special focus on LICs, macroeconomic policies in Africa prior to the crisis. It then...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    How Prior Military Experience Influences The Future Militarized Behavior Of Leaders

    This paper joins a growing number of studies that are moving beyond the question of simply whether leaders matter for international politics to examine the scope conditions under which leaders matter. This is not to say that structural and unit-level variables do not matter. The people should, however, take full...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Analysis of Energy Consumption and Lifetime of Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    The paper examines the performance as well as energy consumption issues of a wireless sensor network providing periodic data from a sensing field to a remote receiver. The sensors are assumed to be randomly deployed. The authors distinguish between two types of sensor organizations, one with a single layer of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Compilerdirected Data Partitioning for Multicluster Processors

    Multicluster architectures overcome the scaling problem of centralized resources by distributing the datapath, register file, and memory subsystem across multiple clusters connected by a communication network. Traditional compiler partitioning algorithms focus solely on distributing operations across the clusters to maximize instruction-level parallelism. The distribution of data objects is generally ignored....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    MiBench: A Free, Commercially Representative Embedded Benchmark Suite

    This paper examines a set of commercially representative embedded programs and compares them to an existing benchmark suite, SPEC2000. A new version of SimpleScalar that has been adapted to the ARM instruction set is used to characterize the performance of the benchmarks using configurations similar to current and next generation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Selfcalibrating Online Wearout Detection

    Technology scaling, characterized by decreasing feature size, thinning gate oxide, and non-ideal voltage scaling, will become a major hindrance to microprocessor reliability in future technology generations. Physical analysis of device failure mechanisms has shown that most wearout mechanisms projected to plague future technology generations are progressive, meaning that the circuit-level...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Dynamic Parallelization of JavaScript Applications Using an Ultra-lightweight Speculation Mechanism

    As the web becomes the platform of choice for execution of more complex applications, a growing portion of computation is handed off by developers to the client side to reduce network traffic and improve application responsiveness. Therefore, the client-side component, often written in JavaScript, is becoming larger and more compute-intensive,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Performance and Convergence of Multi-User Online Learning

    The authors study the problem of allocating multiple users to a set of wireless channels in a decentralized manner when the channel qualities are time-varying and unknown to the users, and accessing the same channel by multiple users leads to reduced quality (e.g., data rates) received by the users due...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Post-Retirement Adjustments In Defined Benefit Pensions

    Few private defined benefit pension plans commit to indexing benefits after a worker begins receiving them. Previous (now dated) research found that most plans did, nonetheless, make "Voluntary" adjustments, which compensated for roughly 40 percent of the price increases experienced since retirement. In analyzing changes in pension benefits reported by...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Cognitive Radios for Dynamic Spectrum Access: From Concept to Reality

    This paper provides a comprehensive survey of cognitive radio technology, focusing on its application to dynamic spectrum access, especially from the perspective of realizing consumer-oriented CR networks. They first overview the state of the art in CR technology and identify its key functions across the protocol stack, such as spectrum...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Public Investment And Fiscal Performance In New EU Member States

    In this paper, the authors analyze the dynamics of public investment and public finance in new members of the European Union, and also how these sectors were affected by changes in economic freedom and corruption. When they assess the role of regulation and corruption on public investment, they find that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Is Monetary Policy In New Members States Asymmetric?

    Estimated Taylor rules became popular as a description of monetary policy conduct. There are numerous reasons why real monetary policy can be asymmetric and estimated Taylor rule nonlinear. This paper tests whether monetary policy can be described as asymmetric in three new European Union (EU) members (the Czech Republic, Hungary...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Erasing Core Boundaries for Robust and Configurable Performance

    Single-thread performance, reliability and power efficiency are critical design challenges of future multicore systems. Although point solutions have been proposed to address these issues, a more fundamental change to the fabric of multicore systems is necessary to seamlessly combat these challenges. Towards this end, this paper proposes CoreGenesis, a dynamically...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    A General Purpose Feature Extractor for Light Detection and Ranging Data

    Feature extraction is a central step of processing LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. Existing detectors tend to exploit characteristics of specific environments: corners and lines from indoor (rectilinear) environments, and trees from outdoor environments. While these detectors work well in their intended environments, their performance in different environments can...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices

    This paper presents an ultra low power programmable processor architecture for wireless devices that support 4G wireless communications and video decoding. To derive such an architecture, first the authors analyzed the kernel algorithms that constitute these applications. The characteristics of these algorithms helped define the wide-SIMD architecture, where the SIMD...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Harnessing Knowledge From Ad Hoc Queries by Creating a Zone of Standardization

    Business Intelligence drives strategic business decisions by providing timely and accurate information. Beneath the demand for constantly changing information-needs usually lay a highly complex entangled mesh of business rules, data sets, query logic and custom-ad hoc Reports. The discrete nature of ad hoc reports may lead to inefficiencies in processing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Assessing Mondragon: Stability & Managed Change In The Face Of Globalization

    By drawing on new interview evidence gathered during several field trips and new financial and economic data from both external and internal sources, the authors document and assess the changing economic importance and performance of the Mondragon group of cooperatives as well as the two largest sectors within the group....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Fairness In The WTO Trading System

    The authors first provide a brief critique of the utilitarian principle as a guide to fairness in the world trading system. They then turn to the alternative conception of fairness in terms of economic equity, exploring the meaning of its two components: equality of opportunity and distributive justice. They thereafter...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    How Common Is "Parking" Among Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) Beneficiaries? Evidence From The 1999 Change In The Level Of Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA)

    Fewer Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries have their earnings suspended or terminated because of work than those who are actually working, partly because beneficiaries "Park" earnings at a level below Substantial Gainful Activity (SGA) to retain benefits. The authors assess the extent of parking by examining how beneficiary earnings...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Personality, Lifetime Earnings, And Retirement Wealth

    Studies of adolescents and young adults have shown that schooling impacts economic outcomes beyond its impact on cognitive ability. Research has also shown that the personality trait of conscientiousness predicts health outcomes, academic outcomes, and divorce. Using the Big Five taxonomy of personality traits, this paper examines whether non-cognitive traits...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Occupational Learning, Financial Knowledge, And The Accumulation Of Retirement Wealth

    This paper explores the relationship between general human capital investment, financial knowledge, occupational spillovers, and the accumulation of wealth in a primarily descriptive manner. Drawing upon human capital theory and following previous related work by Delavande, Rohwedder and Willis (2008), the authors hypothesized that individuals with daily exposure to financial...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Online Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access: A Restless Bandit Approach

    The authors consider an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem where the time-varying condition of each channel (e.g., as a result of random fading or certain primary users' activities) is modeled as an arbitrary finite-state Markov chain. At each instance of time, a (secondary) user probes a channel and collects a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    The Social Security Early Retirement Benefit As Safety Net

    In this paper, the authors used the Health and Retirement Study to examine the health and economic status of those who collect Social Security retirement benefits prior to the full retirement age. They used a propensity score reweighting method to estimate the fraction of early retirees who use early retirement...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Money Market Integration And Sovereign CDS Spreads Dynamics In The New EU States

    When the first phase of the crisis focused primarily on the interbank market volatility, the second phase spread on the instability of public finance. Although the overall stance of public finances of the new members is better than the old member countries, the differences within the new group are significant...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Modeling Transition In Central Asia: The Case Of Kazakhstan

    This paper presents a small macro-econometric model of Kazakhstan to study the impact of various economic policies. It uses a new approach to test the existence of a level relationship between a dependent variable and a set of regressors, when the characteristics of the regressors' non-stationarity are not known with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Unlocking Productive Entrepreneurship In Ethiopia: Which Incentives Matter?

    Twenty years after the launch of market reforms, productive entrepreneurship and vibrant Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Ethiopia remain limited, the recent growth acceleration notwithstanding. This paper develops a model of entrepreneurial start ups in an economy with frictions in the product and labor markets and a large informal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well?]Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Automating Configuration Troubleshooting With Dynamic Information Flow Analysis

    Software misconfigurations are time-consuming and enormously frustrating to troubleshoot. In this paper, the authors show that dynamic information flow analysis helps solve these problems by pinpointing the root cause of configuration errors. They have built a tool called ConfAid that instruments application binaries to monitor the causal dependencies introduced through...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    SimPL: An Effective Placement Algorithm

    In this paper, the authors propose a self-contained, flat, force directed algorithm for global placement that is simpler than existing placers and easier to integrate into timing closure flows. It maintains lower-bound and upper-bound placements that converge to a final solution. The upper bound placement is produced by a novel...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    TOP: Tail Optimization Protocol for Cellular Radio Resource Allocation

    In 3G cellular networks, the release of radio resources is controlled by inactivity timers. However, the timeout value itself, also known as the tail time, can last up to 15 seconds due to the necessity of trading off resource utilization efficiency for low management overhead and good stability, thus wasting...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Epoch Parallelism: One Execution Is Not Enough

    The conventional approach for using multiprocessors requires programmers to write correct, scalable parallel programs. Unfortunately, writing such programs remains a daunting task, despite decades of research on parallel languages, programming models, static and dynamic analysis tools, and synchronization primitives. The authors argue that it is futile to expect programmers to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Growth In Social Security Benefits Among The Retirement Age Population From Increases In The Cap On Covered Earnings

    This paper investigates how increases in the level of maximum earnings subject to the Social Security payroll tax have affected Social Security benefits and taxes. The analysis uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to ask how different the present value of own benefits and taxes would be for...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well-Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Joint Labor Supply Decision Of Married Couples And The Social Security Pension System

    The current U.S. Social Security program redistributes resources from high wage workers to low wage workers and from two-earner couples to one-earner couples. The present paper extends a standard general-equilibrium overlapping-generations model with uninsurable wage shocks to analyze the effect of spousal and survivors benefits on the labor supply of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Mortgage Contract Decisions And Mortgage Distress: Family And Financial Life-cycle Factors

    The U.S. economy experienced a dramatic rise in the price of owner occupied housing during 1999-2007, and then a precipitous decline from 2007 through 2009. In this paper, the authors utilize data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) during 1999-2009 to study first the factors and borrowing decisions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Price Convergence And Market Integration In Russia

    After a period of growing disconnectedness of regional markets following the 1992 price liberalization in Russia, a process of improvement in market integration started since about 1994. This paper analyzes the spatial pattern of goods market integration in the country in 1994-2000, characterizing Russian regions into three states: integrated with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Bank Efficiency In Transitional Countries: Sensitivity To Stochastic Frontier Design

    This paper provides an empirical insight on the heterogeneity in the estimates of banking efficiency produced by the stochastic frontier approach. Using data from five countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the authors study the sensitivity of the efficiency score and the efficiency ranking to a change in the design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Revealing Social Networks Of Spammers

    The magnitude of the spam problem has not gone unnoticed by the US government. In 2003, the United States government drafted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to address the issue. CAN-SPAM provided guidelines on unsolicited email practices and specified how unsolicited email could be...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Is Economic Growth Associated With Reduction In Child Undernutrition In India?

    Economic growth is widely perceived as a major policy instrument in reducing childhood undernutrition in India. The authors assessed the association between changes in state per capita income and the risk of undernutrition among children in India. Data for this analysis came from three cross-sectional waves of the National Family...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    How Prior Military Experience Influences The Future Militarized Behavior Of Leaders

    This paper joins a growing number of studies that are moving beyond the question of simply whether leaders matter for international politics to examine the scope conditions under which leaders matter. This is not to say that structural and unit-level variables do not matter. The people should, however, take full...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Mortgage Contract Decisions And Mortgage Distress: Family And Financial Life-cycle Factors

    The U.S. economy experienced a dramatic rise in the price of owner occupied housing during 1999-2007, and then a precipitous decline from 2007 through 2009. In this paper, the authors utilize data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) during 1999-2009 to study first the factors and borrowing decisions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    The Impact Of Competitive Intensity On The Profitability Of Investments And Future Stock Returns

    In this paper, the authors investigate how management's perception of their competitive environment is related to the firm's future profitability and future stock returns. Financial statement analysis textbooks commonly recommend starting the evaluation process by considering the firm's competitive environment and its strategy for operating in its environment (Healy and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    On Sensing - Access Tradeoff in Cognitive Radio Networks

    In Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), the design of an optimal spectrum sensing scheme is an important problem that has recently been drawing consideration attention. Various sensing-related performance tradeoffs have been studied as an efficient means to maximize the secondary network performance. Despite its importance, however, the sensing - access tradeoff...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Cognitive Radios for Dynamic Spectrum Access: From Concept to Reality

    This paper provides a comprehensive survey of cognitive radio technology, focusing on its application to dynamic spectrum access, especially from the perspective of realizing consumer-oriented CR networks. They first overview the state of the art in CR technology and identify its key functions across the protocol stack, such as spectrum...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Opportunistic Spectrum Access for Mobile Cognitive Radios

    Abstract - Cognitive Radios (CRs) can mitigate the impending spectrum scarcity problem by utilizing their capability of accessing licensed spectrum bands opportunistically. While most existing work focuses on enabling such opportunistic spectrum access for stationary CRs, mobility is an important concern to Secondary Users (SUs) because future mobile devices are...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Wi-Fi 2.0: Price and Quality Competitions of Duopoly Cognitive Radio Wireless Service Providers With Time-Varying Spectrum Availability

    The WhiteSpaces (WS) in the legacy spectrum provide new opportunities for the future Wi-Fi-like Internet access, often called Wi-Fi 2.0, since service quality can be greatly enhanced thanks to the better propagation characteristics of the WS than the ISM bands. In the Wi-Fi 2.0 networks, each Wireless Service Provider (WSP)...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2011

    Access Point Selection Under Emerging Wireless Technologies

    Users of wireless networks increasingly face a choice among multiple available access points. Clients generally make this decision with limited information about the access points or traffic trends in the system. The authors examine the strategic implications of an emerging wireless technology: utilizing multiple Access Points (APs) simultaneously. Clients using...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Robust Cooperative Sensing Via State Estimation in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Cooperative sensing, a key enabling technology for dynamic spectrum access, is vulnerable to various sensing targeted attacks, such as the primary user emulation or spectrum sensing data falsification. These attacks can easily disrupt the primary signal detection process, thus crippling the operation of dynamic spectrum access. While such sensing-targeted attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Chorus: Collision Resolution for Efficient Wireless Broadcast

    Traditional wireless broadcast protocols rely heavily on the 802.11-based CSMA/CA model, which avoids interference and collision by conservatively scheduling transmissions. While CSMA/CA is amenable to multiple concurrent unicasts, it tends to degrade broadcast performance, especially when there are a large number of nodes and links are lossy. In this paper,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Spatio-Temporal Fusion for Small-Scale Primary Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    In Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), detecting small-scale primary devices - such as Wireless Microphones (WMs) - is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. The authors identify the data-fusion range as a key factor that enables effective cooperative sensing for detection of small-scale primary...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    The Effects Of The Financial Crisis On The Well?]Being Of Older Americans: Evidence From The Cognitive Economics Study

    This paper uses the Cognitive Economics Study (CogEcon) to assess the effect of the financial crisis on the well-being of older Americans. Financial wealth fell by about 15 percent for the median household. These financial losses were concentrated among households with high levels of wealth and high cognitive capacities, which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Price Convergence And Market Integration In Russia

    After a period of growing disconnectedness of regional markets following the 1992 price liberalization in Russia, a process of improvement in market integration started since about 1994. This paper analyzes the spatial pattern of goods market integration in the country in 1994-2000, characterizing Russian regions into three states: integrated with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Bank Efficiency In Transitional Countries: Sensitivity To Stochastic Frontier Design

    This paper provides an empirical insight on the heterogeneity in the estimates of banking efficiency produced by the stochastic frontier approach. Using data from five countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the authors study the sensitivity of the efficiency score and the efficiency ranking to a change in the design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    EU Enlargement And Monetary Regimes From The Insurance Model Perspectives

    Some ten years ago, Michael Dooley (Dooley, 1997; Dooley, 2000) put forward an insurance model of currency crises, which after some modifications gives a good theoretical basis for explanation of the overall dynamics of the post communist transformation and diversity across countries and periods. The paper analyses, within the framework...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Which Foreigners Are Worth Wooing? A Meta-analysis Of Vertical Spillovers From FDI

    The principal argument for subsidizing foreign investment, especially in developing and transition economies, is the assumed spillover of technology to local firms. Yet researchers report mixed results on spillovers. To examine the phenomenon in a systematic way, the authors collected 3,626 estimates from 57 empirical studies on between-sector spillovers and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Environmental Regulation And Competitiveness: Evidence From Romania

    According to the pollution haven hypotheses differences in environmental regulation affect trade flows and plant location. Specifically, environmental stringency should decrease exports and increase imports of "Dirty" goods. This paper estimates a gravity model to establish whether the implementation of more stringent regulations in Romania has indeed affected its competitiveness...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Pollution Abatement And Control Expenditure In Romania: A Multilevel Analysis

    The transition process in Central and Eastern Europe was associated with growing environmental awareness. This paper analyses the determinants of Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditure (PACE) at plant level in the case of Romania using survey data and a Multilevel Regression Model (MRM). The authors' findings suggest that, although Romania...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Firm And Employee Effects Of An Enterprise Information System: Micro-econometric Evidence

    The authors investigate the impact of adopting an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system on performance changes and employee outcomes in a retail chain. They find that: sales and inventory turnover initially drop by 7 % and recover in 6-12 months; inventory turnover recovers more quickly for establishments that adopt ERP...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    The VARying Effect Of Foreign Shocks In Central And Eastern Europe

    This paper investigates the impact of international shocks - interest rate, commodity price and industrial production shocks - on key macroeconomic variables in ten Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries by using near-VAR models and monthly data from the early 1990s to 2009. In contrast to previous work, the empirical...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Methodologies Of Analyzing Inter-regional Income Inequality And Their Applications To Russia

    This paper provides an overview of methodologies used to analyze inter-regional income inequality, and a critical survey of empirical studies that deal with Russian regions. It discusses implications of the growth theory regarding dynamics of inter-economy income inequality. Methodologies for empirically analyzing income inequality are classified as the cross-section approach,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    The Economic And Monetary Union's Effect On (International) Trade: The Case Of Slovenia Before Euro Adoption

    The main objective of the following paper is to present the key findings of the existent research in the field of the influence the introduction of the euro had on the trade of the member states of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). The intention of this paper is also...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    In Time Of Troubles: Challenges And Prospects In The Middle East And North Africa

    The recent crises concerning food and finances highlight the extreme fragility of the MENA countries and question the sustainability of the development processes. The social stress and economic instability caused by these challenges give a good indication of what might be expected in the future. This paper intends to provide...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Financial Stability, Monetary Autonomy And Fiscal Interference: Bulgaria In Search Of Its Way, 1879-1913

    The Bulgarian monetary system was established, immediately after independence. Having experienced it already under Ottoman rule, newly independent Bulgaria adopted the bimetallic standard. Without being a member of the Latin Monetary Union, it tried broadly to follow the principles of the convention, yet with some exceptions, the most important of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Data Collection Procedures Equivalence In International Business Research

    Following the work undertaken by Hult el al., (2008) on data equivalence in cross-cultural international business research, this paper examines mail survey administration procedures equivalence within 94 studies published in the Journal of International Business Studies from 2000- 2008.The results show that, despite the existence of a well established theoretical...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Modeling Institutions, Start-Ups And Productivity During Transition

    The transition paths from plan to market have varied markedly across countries. Central and Eastern European and the Baltic countries, which opted for a fast and profound transformation of their institutions including business climates, rapidly narrowed the productivity gap with advanced economies. In contrast, in countries of the Commonwealth of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Pegging The Future West African Single Currency In Regard To Internal/external Competitiveness: A Counterfactual Analysis

    This paper compares different nominal anchors in the case of a fixed exchange rate regime for the future single regional currency of the Economic Community Of the West African States (ECOWAS). The authors study the anchor choice when the countries focus the exchange rate policy to promote internal and external...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Public Investment And Fiscal Performance In New EU Member States

    In this paper, the authors analyze the dynamics of public investment and public finance in new members of the European Union, and also how these sectors were affected by changes in economic freedom and corruption. When they assess the role of regulation and corruption on public investment, they find that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Is Monetary Policy In New Members States Asymmetric?

    Estimated Taylor rules became popular as a description of monetary policy conduct. There are numerous reasons why real monetary policy can be asymmetric and estimated Taylor rule nonlinear. This paper tests whether monetary policy can be described as asymmetric in three new European Union (EU) members (the Czech Republic, Hungary...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Assessing Mondragon: Stability & Managed Change In The Face Of Globalization

    By drawing on new interview evidence gathered during several field trips and new financial and economic data from both external and internal sources, the authors document and assess the changing economic importance and performance of the Mondragon group of cooperatives as well as the two largest sectors within the group....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Money Market Integration And Sovereign CDS Spreads Dynamics In The New EU States

    When the first phase of the crisis focused primarily on the interbank market volatility, the second phase spread on the instability of public finance. Although the overall stance of public finances of the new members is better than the old member countries, the differences within the new group are significant...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Modeling Transition In Central Asia: The Case Of Kazakhstan

    This paper presents a small macro-econometric model of Kazakhstan to study the impact of various economic policies. It uses a new approach to test the existence of a level relationship between a dependent variable and a set of regressors, when the characteristics of the regressors' non-stationarity are not known with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2010

    Unlocking Productive Entrepreneurship In Ethiopia: Which Incentives Matter?

    Twenty years after the launch of market reforms, productive entrepreneurship and vibrant Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Ethiopia remain limited, the recent growth acceleration notwithstanding. This paper develops a model of entrepreneurial start ups in an economy with frictions in the product and labor markets and a large informal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Inflation Dynamics And The New Keynesian Phillips Curve In EU-4

    The paper seeks to shed light on inflation dynamics of four new EU member states (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia). To this end, the New Keynesian Phillips curve augmented for open economies is estimated and additional statistical tests applied. The authors find the following: The claim of New...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Design of SMS Commanded-and-Controlled and P2P-Structured Mobile Botnets

    Botnets have become one of the most serious security threats to the Internet and PC users and applications. Although botnets have not yet caused major outbreaks in mobile networks, with the rapidly-growing popularity of smartphones such as Apple's iPhone, TMobile's G1, and Google's Nexus One that store more personal data...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Eliminating Redundant Custom Formats (or How to Really Take Advantage of PROC SQL, PROC CATALOG, and the DATA Step)

    Custom formats are invaluable to the SAS programmer. Their functionality provides for much more than simply a mechanism for explicitly labeling values in a data set. There can be, however, a major limitation - the DATA step can accommodate only 4,096 formats at a time. It is unlikely that a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Low Power Interconnects for SIMD Computers

    Driven by continued scaling of Moore's Law, the number of processing elements on a die is increasing dramatically. Recently there has been a surge of wide single instruction multiple data architectures designed to handle computationally intensive applications like 3D graphics, high definition video, image processing, and wireless communication. A limit...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Bloom Filter Guided Transaction Scheduling

    Contention management is an important design component to a transactional memory system. Without effective contention management to ensure forward progress, a transactional memory system can experience live-lock, which is difficult to debug in parallel programs. Early work in contention management focused on heuristic managers that reacted to conflicts between transactions...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    State Fiscal Policies And Transitory Income Fluctuations

    State and local expenditure and tax revenue respond less to the business cycle than do federal spending and revenue, thereby reducing the countercyclicality of total government expenditure and revenue. This paper considers forces responsible for the cyclical pattern of state expenditure and revenue. Annual fluctuations in state personal income are...

    Provided By University of Michigan