University of Michigan

Displaying 161-200 of 266 results

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    DAC: Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation for Wireless Relay Networks

    Cooperative relay is a communication paradigm that aims to realize the capacity of multi-antenna arrays in a distributed manner. However, the symbol-level synchronization requirement among distributed relays limits its use in practice. The authors propose to circumvent this barrier with a cross-layer protocol called Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation (DAC). With DAC,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Spatio-Temporal Fusion for Small-Scale Primary Detection in Cognitive Radio Networks

    In Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs), detecting small-scale primary devices - such as Wireless Microphones (WMs) - is a challenging, but very important, problem that has not yet been addressed well. The authors identify the data-fusion range as a key factor that enables effective cooperative sensing for detection of small-scale primary...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Pegging The Future West African Single Currency In Regard To Internal/external Competitiveness: A Counterfactual Analysis

    This paper compares different nominal anchors in the case of a fixed exchange rate regime for the future single regional currency of the Economic Community Of the West African States (ECOWAS). The authors study the anchor choice when the countries focus the exchange rate policy to promote internal and external...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Identifying Social Entrepreneurs Serving The Poor At The BoP

    The concept of social entrepreneurship as a characterization of social responsibility for business organizations has gained considerable popularity. There is growing belief in international development and donor communities that this form of for? Profit activity might be the long?]sought panacea for solving poverty at the so? called Base of the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) - Service Level Agreement (SLA)

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) offers virtual servers for departments at the University of Michigan. By submitting a virtual server request / purchasing a virtual server, one will agree to abide by the terms of this Service Level Agreement. ITS may update this SLA occasionally. The service will be available...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Maestro: Orchestrating Lifetime Reliability in Chip Multiprocessors

    As CMOS feature sizes venture deep into the nanometer regime, wearout mechanisms including negative-bias temperature instability and time-dependent dielectric breakdown can severely reduce processor operating lifetimes and performance. This paper presents an introspective reliability management system, Maestro, to tackle reliability challenges in future Chip MultiProcessors (CMPs) headon. Unlike traditional approaches,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Foreign Ownership And Corporate Restructuring: Direct Investment By Emerging-Market Firms In The United States

    This paper examines the recent upsurge in foreign direct investment by emerging-market firms into the United States. Traditionally, direct investment flowed from developed to developing countries, bringing with it superior technology, organizational capital, and access to international capital markets, yet increasingly there is a trend towards "Capital flowing uphill" with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access: A Case of Restless Bandits With Multiple Plays

    This paper considers the following stochastic control problem that arises in opportunistic spectrum access: a system consists of n channels where the state ("Good" or "Bad") of each channel evolves as independent and identically distributed Markov processes. A user can select exactly k channels to sense and access (based on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Motivating Contributions For Home Computer Security

    Recently, malicious computer users have been compromising computers en masse and combining them to form coordinated botnets. The rise of botnets has brought the problem of home computers to the forefront of security. Home computer users commonly have insecure systems; these users do not have the knowledge, experience, and skills...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Inflation Dynamics And The New Keynesian Phillips Curve In EU-4

    The paper seeks to shed light on inflation dynamics of four new EU member states (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia). To this end, the New Keynesian Phillips curve augmented for open economies is estimated and additional statistical tests applied. The authors find the following: The claim of New...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    A Simple Power Analysis Attack on the Serpent Key Schedule

    The authors describe an SPA attack on an 8-bit smart card implementation of the Serpent block cipher. The attack uses measurements taken during an on-the-fly key expansion together with linearity in the cipher's key schedule algorithm to drastically reduce the search time for an initial key. An implementation finds 256-bit...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Behind the Great Firewall: The Internet and Democratization in China

    The Internet has changed China profoundly. For the government, the Internet offers prospects to develop economics, education, and technology. For the public, the Internet provides unprecedented opportunities for the free flow of information and communication. Many believe that the Internet will ultimately bring democracy to China, one of the few...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Defeating Vanish With Low-Cost Sybil Attacks Against Large DHTs

    Researchers at the University of Washington recently proposed Vanish, a system for creating messages that automatically "Self-destruct" after a period of time. Vanish works by encrypting each message with a random key and storing shares of the key in a large, public Distributed Hash Table (DHT). Normally, DHTs expunge data...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Application-Layer Intrusion Detection in MANETs

    Security has become important to Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) due mainly to their use for many mission- and life-critical applications. However, the broadcast nature of inter-node communications and node mobility in MANETs make it very challenging to secure MANETs. Moreover, their constantly-changing topology causes network node density and neighbor...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Adaptive Online Testing for Efficient Hard Fault Detection

    With growing semiconductor integration, the reliability of individual transistors is expected to rapidly decline in future technology generations. In such a scenario, processors would need to be equipped with fault tolerance mechanisms to tolerate in-field silicon defects. Periodic online testing is a popular technique to detect such failures; however, it...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Flextream: Adaptive Compilation of Streaming Applications for Heterogeneous Architectures

    Increasing demand for performance and efficiency has driven the computer industry toward multicore systems. These systems have become the industry standard in almost all segments of the computer market from high-end servers to handheld devices. In order to efficiently use these systems, an extensive amount of research and industry support...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Attack-Tolerant Distributed Sensing for Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks

    Accurate sensing of the spectrum condition is of crucial importance to the mitigation of the spectrum scarcity problem in Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) networks. Specifically, distributed sensing has been recognized as a viable means to enhance the incumbent signal detection by exploiting the diversity of sensors. However, it is challenging...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Marking Social Security's Open Group Liability To Market

    This paper marks Social Security's open group liability to market taking into account the riskiness of its aggregate benefit payments and tax receipts. The open group liability references the present value of the system's net cash flow from now through the indefinite future. The authors treat the growth rates of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Social Security Literacy And Retirement Well-Being

    The authors build upon the growing literature on financial literacy, which studies the prevalence of lack of knowledge about various financial issues, and analyze how much people know about the Social Security rules using a small pilot survey conducted in 2007, and a follow-up and extended survey funded by MRRC...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Mortality Contingent Claims: Impact Of Capital Market, Income, And Interest Rate Risk

    In this paper, the authors consider optimal insurance, portfolio allocation, and consumption rules for a stochastic wage earner with CRRA preferences whose lifetime is random. In a continuous time framework, the investor has to decide among short and long positions in mortality contingent claims a.k.a. life insurance, stocks, bonds, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Once Bitten, Twice Shy: Experiences Of A Banking Crisis And Expectations Of Future Crises

    Survey data from Bulgaria show that people who had experienced a loss during a banking crisis are significantly more likely to expect a new crisis. This result holds despite 12 years between the earlier crisis and the survey, and the dramatically improved performance of the financial sector and the economy...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Chinese State?s Economic Cooperation Related Investment: An Investigation Of Its Direction And Some Implications For Outward Investment

    The Chinese state undertakes large scale investments in a number of countries under the auspices of Economic Cooperation related Investment (ECI). While there are suggestions that it is an extension of China's soft power aimed at facilitating Chinese FDI in those countries, often for access to natural resources, there is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Price of Anarchy for Cognitive MAC Games

    In this paper, the authors model and analyze the interactions between secondary users in a spectrum overlay cognitive system as a cognitive MAC game. In this game, each secondary user can sense (and transmit) one of several channels, the availability of each channel is determined by the activity of the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Dynamic Clock Calibration Via Temperature Measurement

    The authors study a clock calibration problem for an ultra-low power timer on a sensor node platform. When the sensor is put into sleep mode, this timer is the only thing left running, so power consumption is extremely low. However, this power savings comes at the expense of loss in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Bargaining Power And Industry Dependence In Mergers

    The author proposes a new hypothesis based on product market relationships to explain the division of gains between targets and bidders in mergers. In vertical mergers, targets that have greater dependence upon acquirers either as key suppliers or as key customers have lower bargaining power relative to acquirers. In horizontal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Extending Likages Between Organizational Analysis And Social Structure: A Case Study Of The Celebrity-construction Of A Chinese Marketplace

    This paper examines the emergence of firm-celebrity, both an intangible-asset, and a facilitator of competitive advantage. Institutional approaches have asserted that organizations from the same organizational field and characterized by comparable structural positions face similar structural forces. These result in isomorphic tendencies, and similarities among firms. But, in any organizational...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    SPAN: A Unified Framework and Toolkit for Querying Heterogeneous Access Policies

    Incorrect policy configurations are a major cause of security failures in large-scale systems. Policy analyzers and testing tools can help with this, but often the tools are specific to one type of policy (e.g., firewalls). In contrast, the most insidious security problems often require understanding the interactions of policies across...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Do You Know Where Your Data's Been? - Tamper-Evident Database Provenance

    Database provenance chronicles the history of updates and modifications to data, and has received much attention due to its central role in scientific data management. However, the use of provenance information still requires a leap of faith. Without additional protections, provenance records are vulnerable to accidental corruption, and even malicious...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Validation of a Wireless Traffic Vibration Monitoring System for the Voigt Bridge

    Recently, a variety of wireless structural health monitoring systems has been demonstrated as viable substitutes for traditional high-cost tethered monitoring systems. In this study, a prototype wireless sensing system is deployed upon the Voigt Bridge (La Jolla, CA) to validate its performance against a cabled monitoring system. Using 20 wireless...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Capital Inflows, Household Debt And The Boom Bust Cycle In Estonia

    From 2000 to 2007, Estonia was one of the fastest growing emerging market economies. A housing boom, fuelled by capital inflows and credit, resulted in skyrocketing house prices and an over-expanded construction sector. However, the currency board limited the Bank of Estonia's ability to curb credit growth, while the fiscal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Market Globalization By Firms From Emerging Markets And Small Countries: An Application Of The Neoclassical Trade Model

    The changes in globalization and the world of international business make it necessary to rethink the basic model of the economics of international business. For most of the second part of the 20th century international business was about how large companies in the developed countries increase their value via international...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Power-Efficient Medical Image Processing Using PUMA

    Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are becoming an increasingly popular platform to run applications that require a high computation throughput. They are limited, however, by memory bandwidth and power and, as such, cannot always achieve their full potential. This paper presents the PUMA architecture - a domain-specific accelerator designed specifically for...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Private-Pond: Outsourced Management of Web Corpuses

    With the rise of cloud computing, it is increasingly attractive for end-users (organizations and individuals) to outsource the management of their data to a small number of large-scale service providers. In this paper, the authors consider a user who wants to outsource storage and search for a corpus of web...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Business Value Of Information Sharing And The Role Of Emerging Technologies

    Information Technology has brought significant benefits to organizations by allowing greater information sharing within and across firm boundaries leading to performance improvements. Emerging technologies such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web2.0 have transformed the volume and process of information sharing. However, a comprehensive understanding of how information sharing beyond...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Statistical Problems in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) is a new technology which allows monitoring natural phenomena in space and time. Originally, wireless sensor networks were used for military applications, but currently they are employed in a variety of civil applications, including surveillance, chemical and biological agent monitoring, security in critical infrastructures, environmental and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Trade Specialisation And Economic Convergence: Evidence From Two Eastern European Countries

    This paper analyses trade specialisation dynamics in two Eastern European countries (Romania and Bulgaria - EEC-2) vis-?-vis the core EU member states (EU-15) over the period 1990-2006. Specifically, the authors focus on whether there is a shift towards intra-industry trade leading to economic convergence and technological catch-up. They use recently...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Oil Prices And Stock Markets: What Drives What In The Gulf Corporation Council Countries?

    In the empirical literature, only few studies have focused on the relationship between oil prices and stock markets in net oil-importing countries. In net oil-exporting countries this relationship has not been widely researched. This paper implements the panel-data approach of Konya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    On The Influence Of Oil Prices On Stock Markets: Evidence From Panel Analysis In GCC Countries

    This paper implements recent bootstrap panel co-integration techniques and Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) methods to investigate the existence of a long-run relationship between oil prices and Gulf Corporation Countries (GCC) stock markets. Since GCC countries are major world energy market players, their stock markets are likely to be susceptible to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Protecting Confidential Data on Personal Computers With Storage Capsules

    Protecting confidential information is a major concern for organizations and individuals alike, who stand to suffer huge losses if private data falls into the wrong hands. One of the primary threats to confidentiality is malicious software on personal computers, which is estimated to already reside on 100 to 150 million...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2009

    Strategic Modeling of Information Sharing Among Data Privacy Attackers

    Research in privacy-preserving data publishing has revealed the necessity of accounting for an adversary's background knowledge when reasoning about the protection afforded by various anonymization schemes. Most existing work models the background knowledge of one individual adversary or privacy attacker, or makes a worst-case assumption that attackers will act as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    A Spreadsheet Algebra for a Direct Data Manipulation Query Interface

    A spreadsheet-like "Direct manipulation" interface is more intuitive for many non-technical database users compared to traditional alternatives, such as visual query builders. The construction of such a direct manipulation interface may appear straightforward, but there are some significant challenges. First, individual direct manipulation operations cannot be too complex, so expressive...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Sensor Scheduling for Multi-Parameter Estimation Under an Energy Constraint

    The authors consider a sensor scheduling problem for estimating multiple independent Gaussian random variables under an energy constraint. The sensor measurements are described by a linear observation model; the observation noise is assumed to be Gaussian. They formulate this problem as a stochastic sequential allocation problem. Due to the Gaussian...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Counting Twig Matches in a Tree

    The authors describe efficient algorithms for accurately estimating the number of matches of a small node-labeled tree, i.e., a twig, in a large node-labeled tree, using a summary data structure. This problem is of interest for queries on XML and other hierarchical data, to provide query feedback and for cost-based...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Online Design Bug Detection: RTL Analysis, Flexible Mechanisms, and Evaluation

    Higher level of resource integration and the addition of new features in modern multi-processors put a significant pressure on their verification. Although a large amount of resources and time are devoted to the verification phase of modern processors, many design bugs escape the verification process and slip into processors operating...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Software?-Based Online Detection of Hardware Defects: Mechanisms, Architectural Support, and Evaluation

    As silicon process technology scales deeper into the nanometer regime, hardware defects are becoming more common. Such defects are bound to hinder the correct operation of future processor systems, unless new online techniques become available to detect and to tolerate them while preserving the integrity of software applications running on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Term Premium Dynamics And The Taylor Rule

    The authors explore the bond-pricing implications of an endowment economy where preference shocks result in time-varying term premiums in real yields, and a monetary policy Taylor rule determines inflation and nominal term premiums. A calibrated version of the model matches the observed term structure of both the mean and volatility...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Maestro: Orchestrating Lifetime Reliability in Chip Multiprocessors

    As CMOS feature sizes venture deep into the nanometer regime, wearout mechanisms including negative-bias temperature instability and time-dependent dielectric breakdown can severely reduce processor operating lifetimes and performance. This paper presents an introspective reliability management system, Maestro, to tackle reliability challenges in future Chip MultiProcessors (CMPs) headon. Unlike traditional approaches,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Bridging the Computation Gap Between Programmable Processors and Hardwired Accelerators

    New media and signal processing applications demand ever higher performance while operating within the tight power constraints of mobile devices. A range of hardware implementations is available to deliver computation with varying degrees of area and power efficiency, from general-purpose processors to Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). The tradeoff of moving...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2009

    Stream Compilation for Real-Time Embedded Multicore Systems

    Multicore systems have not only become ubiquitous in the desktop and server worlds, but are also becoming the standard in the embedded space. Multicore offers programmability and flexibility over traditional ASIC solutions. However, many of the advantages of switching to multicore hinge on the assumption that software development is simpler...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    Inflation Differentials In EU New Member States: An Empirical Evidence

    In this paper, the authors examine the determinants of inflation differentials in a panel of the new European Union member states vis-?-vis the euro area in 1997-2007. The main results are as follows. Exchange rate appreciation and higher price level in the new EU members is associated with narrower inflation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Regional Determinants Of FDI Distribution In Poland

    In this paper the authors examine the location determinants of the inflow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Poland, at a regional level. Using survey data from an online questionnaire in February 2005 and a multinomial legit model incorporating the investor's specific characteristics, they show that knowledge-seeking factors alongside market...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    The Role Of Financial Factors In The Trade Collapse: A Skeptics View

    This paper explores the role of financial factors in the 2008-9 collapse of U.S. imports and exports. Using highly disaggregated international trade data, the authors examine whether the cross-sectoral variation in how much imports or exports fell during this episode can be explained by financial variables. To do this, they...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    International Trade and Institutional Change

    This paper analyzes the impact of international trade on the quality of institutions, such as contract enforcement, property rights, or investor protection. It presents a model in which institutional differences play two roles: They create rents for some parties within the economy, and they are a source of comparative advantage...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2008

    Does Asymmetric Information Drive Capital Structure Decisions?

    Using a novel information asymmetry index based on measures of adverse selection developed by the market microstructure literature, the authors test whether information asymmetry is an important determinant of capital structure decisions, as suggested by the pecking order theory. The index relies exclusively on measures of the market's assessment of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Multi-Channel Opportunistic Access: A Case of Restless Bandits With Multiple Plays

    This paper considers the following stochastic control problem that arises in opportunistic spectrum access: a system consists of n channels where the state ("Good" or "Bad") of each channel evolves as independent and identically distributed Markov processes. A user can select exactly k channels to sense and access (based on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Does Low-Power Design Imply Energy Efficiency for Data Centers?

    Data center efficiency has quickly become a first-class design goal. In response, many studies have emerged from the academic community and industry using low-power design to help improve the energy efficiency of server hardware. Generally, these proposals hold the assumption that low-power design is inherently better for energy efficiency; this...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Towards a Scalable Data Center-Level Evaluation Methodology

    As the popularity of Internet services continues to rise, the need to understand the design of the data center systems hosting these workloads becomes increasingly important. Unfortunately, research in this area has been stifled, primarily due to a lack of tools, workloads, and rigorous evaluation methodology. Traditional tools, such as...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    Practical Off-Chip Meta-Data for Temporal Memory Streaming

    Prior research demonstrates that temporal memory streaming and related address-correlating prefetchers improve performance of commercial server workloads through increased memory level parallelism. Unfortunately, these prefetchers require large on-chip meta-data storage, making previously-proposed designs impractical. Hence, to improve practicality, researchers have sought ways to enable timely prefetch while locating meta-data entirely...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Price Convergence And Market Integration In Russia

    After a period of growing disconnectedness of regional markets following the 1992 price liberalization in Russia, a process of improvement in market integration started since about 1994. This paper analyzes the spatial pattern of goods market integration in the country in 1994-2000, characterizing Russian regions into three states: integrated with...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Bank Efficiency In Transitional Countries: Sensitivity To Stochastic Frontier Design

    This paper provides an empirical insight on the heterogeneity in the estimates of banking efficiency produced by the stochastic frontier approach. Using data from five countries of Central and Eastern Europe, the authors study the sensitivity of the efficiency score and the efficiency ranking to a change in the design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    EU Enlargement And Monetary Regimes From The Insurance Model Perspectives

    Some ten years ago, Michael Dooley (Dooley, 1997; Dooley, 2000) put forward an insurance model of currency crises, which after some modifications gives a good theoretical basis for explanation of the overall dynamics of the post communist transformation and diversity across countries and periods. The paper analyses, within the framework...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Ascertaining the Reality of Network Neutrality Violation in Backbone ISPs

    On the Internet today, a growing number of QoS sensitive network applications exist, such as VoIP, imposing more stringent requirements on ISPs besides the basic reachability assurance. Thus, the demand on ISPs for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with better guarantees is increasing. However, despite overprovisioning in core ISP networks, resource...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices

    This paper presents an ultra low power programmable processor architecture for wireless devices that support 4G wireless communications and video decoding. To derive such an architecture, first the authors analyzed the kernel algorithms that constitute these applications. The characteristics of these algorithms helped define the wide-SIMD architecture, where the SIMD...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2008

    Temporal Streams in Commercial Server Applications

    Commercial server applications remain memory bound on modern multiprocessor systems because of their large data footprints, frequent sharing, complex non-strided access patterns, and long chains of dependant misses. To improve memory system performance despite these challenging access patterns, researchers have proposed prefetchers that exploit temporal streams - recurring sequences of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Stochastic Queuing Simulation for Data Center Workloads

    Data center systems and workloads are increasing in importance, yet there are few methods for evaluating potential changes to these systems. This paper introduces a new methodology for exascale evaluation, called Statistical Queuing Simulation (SQS). At its heart, SQS is a parallel, large-scale stochastic discrete time simulation of generalized queueing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Epoch Parallelism: One Execution Is Not Enough

    The conventional approach for using multiprocessors requires programmers to write correct, scalable parallel programs. Unfortunately, writing such programs remains a daunting task, despite decades of research on parallel languages, programming models, static and dynamic analysis tools, and synchronization primitives. The authors argue that it is futile to expect programmers to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Tolerating Latency in Replicated State Machines Through Client Speculation

    Replicated state machines are an important and widely studied methodology for tolerating a wide range of faults. Unfortunately, while replicas should be distributed geographically for maximum fault tolerance, current replicated state machine protocols tend to magnify the effects of high network latencies caused by geographic distribution. In this paper, the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Analyzing Intrusions Using Operating System Level Information Flow

    Modern computer systems are under attack, making computer security an important topic to understand. Malicious people (called hackers or attackers) search for computer systems (hosts) that are vulnerable to attacks. Vulnerable hosts range from Personal Computers (PCs) used in a home environment to corporate networks that are professionally managed and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    A Laplace Transform-Based Method to Stochastic Path Finding

    Finding the most likely path satisfying a requested additive Quality-of-Service (QoS) value, such as delay, when link metrics are defined as random variables by known probability distributions is NP-Hard. The authors transform the probability distributions into the Laplace domain, find the Laplace Transform of their convolutions and numerically inverse to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Security and Privacy in Emerging Wireless Networks

    Wireless communication continues to make in-roads into many facets of the society and gradually becomes more and more ubiquitous. While, in the past, wireless communication (as well as mobility) was largely limited to first and last transmission hops, today's wireless networks are starting to offer purely wireless, often mobile, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2008

    The Risk Content Of Exports: A Portfolio View Of International Trade

    It has been suggested that countries whose exports are in especially risky sectors will experience higher output volatility. This paper develops a measure of the riskiness of a country's pattern of export specialization, and illustrates its features across countries and over time. The exercise reveals large cross-country differences in the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Unemployment And Finance: How Do Financial And Labour Market Factors Interact?

    Using annual data for 18 OECD countries over the period 1980-2004, the authors investigate how labor and financial factors interact to determine unemployment by estimating a dynamic panel model using the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). They show that the impact of financial variables depends strongly on the labor...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Direct And Indirect Effects Of FDI In Emerging European Markets: A Survey And Meta-analysis

    The authors review a large body of literature dealing with the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economies during their transformation from a command economic system toward a market system. They report the results of a meta-analysis based on the literature on externalities from FDI. The studies on emerging...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Implications Of Bank Ownership For The Credit Channel Of Monetary Policy Transmission: Evidence From India

    Many developing and emerging markets have high degrees of state bank ownership. In addition, the recent global financial crisis has led to significant state ownership of banking assets in developed countries such as the United Kingdom. These observations beg the question of whether the effectiveness of monetary policy through a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Do Innovative Workplace Practices Foster Mutual Gains? Evidence From Croatia

    New survey data for more than 470 employees (more than 80% of production workers) in a single Croatian manufacturing firm exhibits large variation in participation in Innovative Work Practices (IWPs) notably online teams, offline teams, employee ownership, and incentive pay. Amongst IWPs, probit estimates reveal that membership in offline teams...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    DAC: Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation for Wireless Relay Networks

    Cooperative relay is a communication paradigm that aims to realize the capacity of multi-antenna arrays in a distributed manner. However, the symbol-level synchronization requirement among distributed relays limits its use in practice. The authors propose to circumvent this barrier with a cross-layer protocol called Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation (DAC). With DAC,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Investigation of Triangular Spamming: A Stealthy and Efficient Spamming Technique

    Spam is increasingly accepted as a problem associated with compromised hosts or email accounts. This problem not only makes the tracking of spam sources difficult but also enables a massive amount of illegitimate or unwanted emails to be disseminated quickly. Various attempts have been made to analyze, backtrack, detect, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On Network-Level Clusters for Spam Detection

    IP-based blacklist is an effective way to filter spam emails. However, building and maintaining individual IP addresses in the blacklist is difficult, as new malicious hosts continuously appear and their IP addresses may also change over time. To mitigate this problem, researchers have proposed to replace individual IP ad-dresses in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    MIDAS: An Impact Scale for DDoS Attacks

    The authors usually have well-defined classification scales to estimate the intensity and impact of natural disasters. Prominent examples are the Richter and the Fujita scales for measuring earthquakes and tornadoes respectively. In this paper, the authors apply similar ideas to estimate the impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan