University of Michigan

Displaying 1-40 of 214 results

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    Signature-based SER Analysis and Design of Logic Circuits

    In this paper, the authors explore the use of signatures, i.e., partial truth tables generated via bit-parallel functional simulation, during soft error analysis and logic synthesis. They first present a signature based CAD framework that incorporates tools for the logic-level Analysis of Soft Error Rate (AnSER) and for Signature-based Design...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    Data Structures and Algorithms for Simplifying Reversible Circuits

    Reversible logic is motivated by low-power design, quantum circuits and nanotechnology. The authors develop a compact representation of small reversible circuits to generate and store optimal circuits for all 40,320 three-input reversible functions and millions of four-input circuits. This allows implementing a function optimally in constant time for use in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    On the Role of Timing Masking in Reliable Logic Circuit Design

    Soft errors, once only of concern in memories, are beginning to affect logic as well. Determining the Soft Error Rate (SER) of a combinational circuit involves three main masking mechanisms: logic, timing and electrical. Most previous papers focus on logic and electrical masking. In this paper, the authors develop static...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    Automating Post-Silicon Debugging and Repair

    Modern IC (Integrated Circuit) designs have reached unparalleled levels of complexity, resulting in more and more bugs discovered after design tape-out However, so far only very few EDA tools for post-silicon debugging have been reported in the literature. In this paper, the authors develop a methodology and new algorithms to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    InVerS: An Incremental Verification System with Circuit Similarity Metrics and Error Visualization

    Dramatic increases in design complexity and advances in IC manufacturing technology affect all aspects of circuit performance and functional correctness. As interconnect increasingly dominates delay and power at the latest technology nodes, much effort is invested in physical synthesis optimizations, posing great challenges in validating the correctness of such optimizations....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    Automatic Error Diagnosis and Correction for RTL Designs

    Recent improvements in design verification strive to automate the error-detection process and greatly enhance engineers' ability to detect functional errors. However, the process of diagnosing the cause of these errors and fixing them remains difficult and requires significant ad-hoc manual effort. The authors' paper proposes improvements to this aspect of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    Enhancing Design Robustness with Reliability-aware Resynthesis and Logic Simulation

    While circuit density and power efficiency increase with each major advance in IC technology, reliability with respect to soft errors tends to decrease. Current solutions to this problem such as TMR (Triple Modular Redundancy) require high area and power overhead. In this paper, soft-error reliability is improved with minimal area...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2015

    On-Chip Test Generation using Linear Subspaces

    A central problem in Built-In Self-Test (BIST) is how to efficiently generate a small set of test vectors that detect all targeted faults. The authors propose a novel solution that uses linear algebraic concepts to partition the vector space of tests into subspaces (clusters). A subspace is defined by a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2014

    Towards a General Method for Building Predictive Models of Learner Success Using Educational Time Series Data

    In this paper, the authors present a pedagogical and instructional-technology general method for building predictive models for education from time series log data. While it is common for models of learner achievement to include cognitive features, they instead are data mining only resource accesses in the learning environment. This has...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2013

    Quipu: High-performance Simulation of Quantum Circuits using Stabilizer Frames

    As quantum information processing gains traction, its simulation becomes increasingly significant for engineering purposes - evaluation, testing and optimization - as well as for theoretical research. Generic quantum-circuit simulation appears intractable for conventional computers. However, the researchers identified an important subclass, called stabilizer circuits, which can be simulated efficiently using...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2012

    Off-Path TCP Sequence Number Inference Attack How Firewall Middleboxes Reduce Security

    In this paper, the authors report a newly discovered "Off-path TCP sequence number inference" attack enabled by firewall middle-boxes. It allows an off-path (i.e., not man-in-the-middle) attacker to hijack a TCP connection and inject malicious content, effectively granting the attacker write-only permission on the connection. For instance, with the help...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Low Power Interconnects for SIMD Computers

    Driven by continued scaling of Moore's Law, the number of processing elements on a die is increasing dramatically. Recently there has been a surge of wide single instruction multiple data architectures designed to handle computationally intensive applications like 3D graphics, high definition video, image processing, and wireless communication. A limit...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Trusted Collaborative Spectrum Sensing for Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks

    Collaborative spectrum sensing is a key technology in Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs). It is inaccurate if spectrum sensing nodes are malicious. Although mobility is an inherent property of wireless networks, there has been no prior work studying the detection of malicious users for collaborative spectrum sensing in mobile CRNs. Existing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    System-Level Implications of Disaggregated Memory

    Recent research on memory disaggregation introduces a new architectural building block - the memory blade - as a cost-effective approach for memory capacity expansion and sharing for an ensemble of blade servers. Memory blades augment blade servers' local memory capacity with a second-level (remote) memory that can be dynamically apportioned...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Is Diversity Gain Worth the Pain: Performance Comparison Between Opportunistic Multi-Channel MAC and Single-Channel MAC

    In this paper, the authors analyze the delay performance of an opportunistic multi-channel medium access control scheme and compare it to that of the corresponding single channel MAC scheme. In the opportunistic multi-channel MAC scheme, they assume that the pair of sender/receiver is able to evaluate the channel quality after...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Approximately Optimal Adaptive Learning in Opportunistic Spectrum Access

    In this paper, the authors develop an adaptive learning algorithm which is approximately optimal for an Opportunistic Spectrum Access (OSA) problem with polynomial complexity. In this OSA problem each channel is modeled as a two state discrete time Markov chain with a bad state which yields no reward and a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    BulletProof: A Defect?Tolerant CMP Switch Architecture

    As silicon technologies move into the nanometer regime, transistor reliability is expected to wane as devices become subject to extreme process variation, particle-induced transient errors, and transistor wear-out. Unless these challenges are addressed, computer vendors can expect low yields and short mean-times-to-failure. In this paper, the authors examine the challenges...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SODA: A Lowpower Architecture for Software Radio

    The physical layer of most wireless protocols is traditionally implemented in custom hardware to satisfy the heavy computational requirements while keeping power consumption to a minimum. These implementations are time consuming to design and difficult to verify. A programmable hardware platform capable of supporting software implementations of the physical layer,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    SPEX: A Programming Language for Software Defined Radio

    High-throughput, low-power Software Defined Radio(SDR) solutions require multi-core SIMD DSP processors to meet real-time performance requirements. Given the difficulty in programming traditional DSPs, these new multi-core signal processors provide even greater challenges for programmers and compilers. In this paper, the authors describe SPEX, a programming language which is aimed at...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Data Access Partitioning for Fine-Grain Parallelism on Multicore Architectures

    The recent design shift towards multicore processors has spawned a significant amount of research in the area of program parallelization. The future abundance of cores on a single chip requires programmer and compiler intervention to increase the amount of parallel work possible. Much of the recent work has fallen into...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Extending Multicore Architectures to Exploit Hybrid Parallelism in Single-Thread Applications

    Chip multiprocessors with multiple simpler cores are gaining popularity because they have the potential to drive future performance gains without exacerbating the problems of power dissipation and complexity. Current chip multiprocessors increase throughput by utilizing multiple cores to perform computation in parallel. These designs provide real benefits for server-class applications...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Transform Coding of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data

    With mean-squared error D as a goal, it is well known that one may approach the Rate-Distortion function R(D) of a non-bandlimited, continuous-time Gaussian source by sampling at a sufficiently high rate, applying the Karhunen-Loeve transform to sufficiently long blocks, and then independently coding the transform coefficients of each type....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Representation of Correlated Sources Into Graphs for Transmission Over Broadcast Channels

    In this paper, the authors consider the communication problem that involves transmission of correlated sources over broadcast channels. They consider a graph-based framework for this information transmission problem. The system involves a source coding module and a channel coding module. In the source coding module, the sources are efficiently represented...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    The Effect of Node Density and Propagation Model on Throughput Scaling of Wireless Networks

    The paper has led to many studies of scaling laws for the asymptotically achievable throughput in wireless networks under a variety of network models and assumptions. Such scaling laws help one understand the fundamental performance limits of these networks and how efficiency changes as network conditions change. Some examples include...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Atomic Congestion Games on Graphs and Its Applications in Networking

    In this paper, the authors introduce and analyze the properties of a class of game, the Atomic Congestion Game on Graphs (ACGG), which is a generalization of the classical congestion game. In particular, the ACGG captures the spatial information which is often ignored in the classical congestion game. This is...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Securely Sealing Multi-FPGA Systems

    The importance of hardware security of electronic systems is rapidly increasing due to the increasing reliance of mass-produced and mission-critical systems on embedded electronics and the ever-growing supply chains that disentangle chip designers and manufacturers from OEMs. The authors work shows how to dramatically reduce vulnerability to Trojan-horse injection and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Full-System Analysis and Characterization of Interactive Smartphone Applications

    Smartphones have recently overtaken PCs as the primary consumer computing device in terms of annual unit shipments. Given this rapid market growth, it is important that mobile system designers and computer architects analyze the characteristics of the interactive applications users have come to expect on these platforms. With the introduction...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Information Rates of Densely Sampled Gaussian Data: Distributed Vector Quantization and Scalar Quantization With Transforms

    Motivated by the question of the efficiency of dense sensor networks for sampling and encoding spatial random fields, this paper investigates the rates attainable by several lossy schemes for coding a Gaussian random field to a specified mean-squared error distortion based on sampling at asymptotically large rates. In the first,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2011

    Scalability and Efficiency of Push-Driven P2PTV Systems

    TeleVision transmitted over IP (IPTV) presents numerous opportunities for users as well as service providers, and has attracted significant interest from industry as well as research communities in recent years. Among the emerging IPTV delivery architectures, the peer-to-peer based delivery mechanism is considered attractive due to the relative ease of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    You Can Run, But You Can't Hide: Exposing Network Location for Targeted DoS Attacks in Cellular Networks

    An important class of attacks against cellular network infrastructures, i.e., signaling DoS attack, paging channel overload, and channel exhaustion attack, operates by sending low rate data traffic to a large number of mobile devices at a particular location to exhaust bottleneck resources such as radio resource and radio resource controller....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Error Exponent for Multiple-Access Channels: Upper Bounds

    The problem of bounding the reliability function of a Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) is studied. Two new upper bounds on the error exponent of a two-user Discrete Memoryless (DM) Multiple-Access Channel (MAC) are derived. The first bound (sphere packing) is an upper bound on the average error exponent and is the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    PEPSC: A Power-Efficient Processor for Scientific Computing

    The rapid advancements in the computational capabilities of the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) as well as the deployment of general programming models for these devices have made the vision of a desktop supercomputer a reality. It is now possible to assemble a system that provides several TFLOPs of performance on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2011

    Automatic Root-Cause Diagnosis of Performance Anomalies in Production Software

    Troubleshooting the performance of complex production software is challenging. Most existing tools, such as profiling, tracing, and logging systems, reveal what events occurred during performance anomalies. However, the users of such tools must then infer why these events occurred during a particular execution; e.g., that their execution was due to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Low Overhead Control Channels in Wireless Networks

    Low-latency, low-overhead and reliable control channels are essential to the efficient operation of wireless networks. However, control channels that utilize current in-band and out-of-band designs do not fully meet this requirement. In this paper, the authors design and implement Aileron, a novel control channel based on automatic modulation recognition that...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Algorithmic Tuning of Clock Trees and Derived Non-Tree Structures

    Clock-network synthesis significantly impacts the performance, area and power dissipation of an integrated circuit and this impact is aggravated when architectural-level pipelining increases the number of clocked elements. This mini-tutorial covers recent research on clock network tuning. It starts with SPICE-accurate optimizations used in winning entries at the ISPD 2009...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2011

    Detecting and Surviving Data Races Using Complementary Schedules

    Data races are a common source of errors in multithreaded programs. In this paper, the authors show how to protect a program from data race errors at runtime by executing multiple replicas of the program with complementary thread schedules. Complementary schedules are a set of replica thread schedules crafted to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Network Coding Aware Dynamic Subcarrier Assignment in OFDMA Based Wireless Networks

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) has been integrated into emerging broadband wireless systems such as the 802.16 wirelessMAN. A critical problem in OFDMA is to assign multiple frequency bands (called subcarriers) to different users. Taking advantage of the frequency diversity and multiuser diversity in OFDMA systems, dynamic subcarrier assignment...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Towards Name-Based Trust and Security for Content-Centric Network

    Trust and security have been considered as built-in properties for future Internet architecture. Leveraging the concept of named content in recently proposed information centric network, the authors propose a name-based trust and security protection mechanism. Their scheme is built with Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC), where the identity of a user or...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Functional Correctness for CMP Interconnects

    As transistor counts continue to scale, modern designs are transitioning towards large Chip Multi-Processors (CMPs). In order to match the advancing performance of CMPs, on-chip interconnects are becoming increasingly complex, commonly deploying advanced Network-on-Chip (NoC) structures. Ensuring the correct operation of these system-level infrastructures has become increasingly problematic and, in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Post-Silicon Bug Diagnosis With Inconsistent Executions

    The complexity of modern chips intensifies verification challenges, and an increasing share of this verification effort is shouldered by post-silicon validation. Focusing on the first silicon prototypes, post-silicon validation poses critical new challenges such as intermittent failures, where multiple executions of a same test do not yield a consistent outcome....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    IRRES: Intrusion-Resilient Remote Email Storage

    Both individuals and corporations increasingly rely on email to exchange important and, often sensitive, information. With the advent of ubiquitous computing and miniaturization of end-devices, many users leave email on remote servers, thus facilitating anywhere/anytime access from any networked device. Since private and sensitive information is often contained in email,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) - Service Level Agreement (SLA)

    Virtualization as a Service (VaaS) offers virtual servers for departments at the University of Michigan. By submitting a virtual server request / purchasing a virtual server, one will agree to abide by the terms of this Service Level Agreement. ITS may update this SLA occasionally. The service will be available...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Bargaining Power And Industry Dependence In Mergers

    The author proposes a new hypothesis based on product market relationships to explain the division of gains between targets and bidders in mergers. In vertical mergers, targets that have greater dependence upon acquirers either as key suppliers or as key customers have lower bargaining power relative to acquirers. In horizontal...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Cloud Services Privacy and Data Security Task Force Committee Report

    In its broadest usage, the term cloud computing refers to the delivery of scalable IT resources over the Internet, as opposed to hosting and operating those resources locally, such as on a college or university network. Those resources can include applications and services, as well as the infrastructure on which...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    TrapperKeeper: The Case for Using Virtualization to Add Type Awareness to File Systems

    TrapperKeeper is a system that enables the development of type aware file system functionality. In contrast to existing plug-in-based architectures that require a software developer to write and maintain code for each file type, TrapperKeeper requires no type-specific code. Instead, TrapperKeeper executes existing software applications that already parse the desired...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Pricing And Assortment Selection With Demand Uncertainty

    Many firms make pricing and assortment decisions on an ongoing basis. Furthermore, such decisions are often made in the face of demand uncertainty and must take into account associated inventory costs. The assortment, prices and inventory decisions interact in ways that should not be overlooked when making decisions. However, such...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Accurate Real-Time Identification of IP Prefix Hijacking

    The authors present novel and practical techniques to accurately detect IP prefix hijacking attacks in real time to facilitate mitigation. Attacks may hijack victim's address space to disrupt network services or perpetrate malicious activities such as spamming and DoS attacks without disclosing identity. They propose novel ways to significantly improve...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Motivating Contributions For Home Computer Security

    Recently, malicious computer users have been compromising computers en masse and combining them to form coordinated botnets. The rise of botnets has brought the problem of home computers to the forefront of security. Home computer users commonly have insecure systems; these users do not have the knowledge, experience, and skills...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2007

    Specialty Drug Whitepaper

    Specialty drugs are generally considered high-cost injectable, infused, oral or inhaled drugs that require close supervision and monitoring. To facilitate comparison of the University's experience with specialty drugs with that of the major national pharmacy benefit management companies, this report focuses on specialty drug products from eight therapeutic areas including,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    Revealing Social Networks Of Spammers

    The magnitude of the spam problem has not gone unnoticed by the US government. In 2003, the United States government drafted the Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act to address the issue. CAN-SPAM provided guidelines on unsolicited email practices and specified how unsolicited email could be...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Validation of a Wireless Traffic Vibration Monitoring System for the Voigt Bridge

    Recently, a variety of wireless structural health monitoring systems has been demonstrated as viable substitutes for traditional high-cost tethered monitoring systems. In this study, a prototype wireless sensing system is deployed upon the Voigt Bridge (La Jolla, CA) to validate its performance against a cabled monitoring system. Using 20 wireless...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Improving Scalability of Task Allocation and Scheduling in Large Distributed Real-Time Systems Using Shared Buffers

    Scheduling precedence-constrained tasks in a distributed real-time system is an NP-hard problem. As a result, the task allocation and scheduling algorithms that use these heuristics do not scale when applied to large distributed systems. This paper proposes a novel approach that eliminates inter-task dependencies using shared buffers between dependent tasks....

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    On Software Protection in Embedded Systems

    The authors argue that the conventional privilege separation of a processor has inherent limitations in protecting software with higher security requirements, and hence, a new system of protection should be devised to overcome these limitations. To enable the new protection, an operating system needs to be restructured into two layers:...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Epoch Parallelism: One Execution Is Not Enough

    The conventional approach for using multiprocessors requires programmers to write correct, scalable parallel programs. Unfortunately, writing such programs remains a daunting task, despite decades of research on parallel languages, programming models, static and dynamic analysis tools, and synchronization primitives. The authors argue that it is futile to expect programmers to...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    Maestro: Orchestrating Lifetime Reliability in Chip Multiprocessors

    As CMOS feature sizes venture deep into the nanometer regime, wearout mechanisms including negative-bias temperature instability and time-dependent dielectric breakdown can severely reduce processor operating lifetimes and performance. This paper presents an introspective reliability management system, Maestro, to tackle reliability challenges in future Chip MultiProcessors (CMPs) headon. Unlike traditional approaches,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Putting Faulty Cores to Work

    Since the non-cache parts of a core are less regular, compared to on-chip caches, tolerating manufacturing defects in the processing core is a more challenging problem. Due to the lack of effective solutions, disabling non-functional cores is a common practice in industry, which results in a significant reduction in system...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Analyzing Intrusions Using Operating System Level Information Flow

    Modern computer systems are under attack, making computer security an important topic to understand. Malicious people (called hackers or attackers) search for computer systems (hosts) that are vulnerable to attacks. Vulnerable hosts range from Personal Computers (PCs) used in a home environment to corporate networks that are professionally managed and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Foreign News And Spillovers In Emerging European Stock Markets

    The authors analyze foreign news and spillovers in the emerging EU stock markets (the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland). They employ high-frequency five-minute intraday data on stock market index returns and four classes of EU and U.S. macroeconomic announcements during 2004 - 2007. They account for the difference of each...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Exports and Property Prices In France: Are They Connected?

    France has seen a marked deterioration in its export performance in the last 10 years or so. Previous empirical research pointed out that weak export performance was due to vigorous domestic demand; lower mark-ups due to head-to-head competition with Germany; low non-price competitiveness of French export goods; off shoring of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Does FDI Spur Innovation, Productivity And Knowledge Sourcing By Incumbent Firms? Evidence From Manufacturing Industry In Estonia

    Does FDI affect productivity growth, innovation, and knowledge sourcing activities of domestic firms? This study employs detailed firm-level panel-data from Estonia's manufacturing sector to investigate different channels through which FDI can affect domestic firms. The author uses instrumental variables approach to identify the effects. The author finds no evidence of...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Catching-Up And Inflation In Europe: Balassa-Samuelson, Engel's Law And Other Culprits

    This paper analyses the impact of economic catching-up on annual inflation rates in the European Union with a special focus on the new member countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Using an array of estimation methods, the authors show that the Balassa-Samuelson effect is not an important driver of inflation...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    An Ultra Low Power SIMD Processor for Wireless Devices

    This paper presents an ultra low power programmable processor architecture for wireless devices that support 4G wireless communications and video decoding. To derive such an architecture, first the authors analyzed the kernel algorithms that constitute these applications. The characteristics of these algorithms helped define the wide-SIMD architecture, where the SIMD...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Stochastic Queuing Simulation for Data Center Workloads

    Data center systems and workloads are increasing in importance, yet there are few methods for evaluating potential changes to these systems. This paper introduces a new methodology for exascale evaluation, called Statistical Queuing Simulation (SQS). At its heart, SQS is a parallel, large-scale stochastic discrete time simulation of generalized queueing...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Ascertaining the Reality of Network Neutrality Violation in Backbone ISPs

    On the Internet today, a growing number of QoS sensitive network applications exist, such as VoIP, imposing more stringent requirements on ISPs besides the basic reachability assurance. Thus, the demand on ISPs for Service Level Agreements (SLAs) with better guarantees is increasing. However, despite overprovisioning in core ISP networks, resource...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    MIDAS: An Impact Scale for DDoS Attacks

    The authors usually have well-defined classification scales to estimate the intensity and impact of natural disasters. Prominent examples are the Richter and the Fujita scales for measuring earthquakes and tornadoes respectively. In this paper, the authors apply similar ideas to estimate the impact of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Tussle in Routing: Who Determines Internet Paths?

    End-users today have little control over how traffic reaches the intended destination. Most end-users residing in edge networks just rely on their upstream provider to deliver outgoing traffic to the destination networks. Even Multihoming provides only limited control in the form of choosing the first hop AS among limited choices...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Differentiated BGP Update Processing for Improved Routing Convergence

    Internet routers today can be overwhelmed by a large number of BGP updates triggered by events such as session resets, link failures, and policy changes. Such excessive updates can delay routing convergence, which, in turn, degrades the performance of delay- and jitter-sensitive applications. This paper proposes a simple and novel...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Investigation of Triangular Spamming: A Stealthy and Efficient Spamming Technique

    Spam is increasingly accepted as a problem associated with compromised hosts or email accounts. This problem not only makes the tracking of spam sources difficult but also enables a massive amount of illegitimate or unwanted emails to be disseminated quickly. Various attempts have been made to analyze, backtrack, detect, and...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    On Network-Level Clusters for Spam Detection

    IP-based blacklist is an effective way to filter spam emails. However, building and maintaining individual IP addresses in the blacklist is difficult, as new malicious hosts continuously appear and their IP addresses may also change over time. To mitigate this problem, researchers have proposed to replace individual IP ad-dresses in...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Software?-Based Online Detection of Hardware Defects: Mechanisms, Architectural Support, and Evaluation

    As silicon process technology scales deeper into the nanometer regime, hardware defects are becoming more common. Such defects are bound to hinder the correct operation of future processor systems, unless new online techniques become available to detect and to tolerate them while preserving the integrity of software applications running on...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Identifying Social Entrepreneurs Serving The Poor At The BoP

    The concept of social entrepreneurship as a characterization of social responsibility for business organizations has gained considerable popularity. There is growing belief in international development and donor communities that this form of for? Profit activity might be the long?]sought panacea for solving poverty at the so? called Base of the...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Unemployment And Finance: How Do Financial And Labour Market Factors Interact?

    Using annual data for 18 OECD countries over the period 1980-2004, the authors investigate how labor and financial factors interact to determine unemployment by estimating a dynamic panel model using the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). They show that the impact of financial variables depends strongly on the labor...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Direct And Indirect Effects Of FDI In Emerging European Markets: A Survey And Meta-analysis

    The authors review a large body of literature dealing with the effects of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economies during their transformation from a command economic system toward a market system. They report the results of a meta-analysis based on the literature on externalities from FDI. The studies on emerging...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Implications Of Bank Ownership For The Credit Channel Of Monetary Policy Transmission: Evidence From India

    Many developing and emerging markets have high degrees of state bank ownership. In addition, the recent global financial crisis has led to significant state ownership of banking assets in developed countries such as the United Kingdom. These observations beg the question of whether the effectiveness of monetary policy through a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Do Innovative Workplace Practices Foster Mutual Gains? Evidence From Croatia

    New survey data for more than 470 employees (more than 80% of production workers) in a single Croatian manufacturing firm exhibits large variation in participation in Innovative Work Practices (IWPs) notably online teams, offline teams, employee ownership, and incentive pay. Amongst IWPs, probit estimates reveal that membership in offline teams...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    A 5.42nW/kB Retention Power Logic-Compatible Embedded DRAM With 2T Dual-Vt Gain Cell for Low Power Sensing Applications

    A logic-compatible 2T dual-Vt embedded DRAM (eDRAM) is proposed for ultra-small sensing systems to achieve 8? longer retention time, 5? lower refresh power and 30% reduced area compared with the lowest power eDRAM previously reported. With an area-efficient single inverter sensing scheme designed for R/W speed compatibility with ultralow power...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    DAC: Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation for Wireless Relay Networks

    Cooperative relay is a communication paradigm that aims to realize the capacity of multi-antenna arrays in a distributed manner. However, the symbol-level synchronization requirement among distributed relays limits its use in practice. The authors propose to circumvent this barrier with a cross-layer protocol called Distributed Asynchronous Cooperation (DAC). With DAC,...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Minimizing Power Consumption in Sensor Networks With Quality of Service Requirement

    Minimizing energy and power consumption in wireless sensor networks is critical in extending the lifetime of the network. In this paper the authors consider efficient power/rate allocation strategies with certain quality of service constraints. The transmission rate achieved and the power used are related by a power-rate function for a...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    Do You Know Where Your Data's Been? - Tamper-Evident Database Provenance

    Database provenance chronicles the history of updates and modifications to data, and has received much attention due to its central role in scientific data management. However, the use of provenance information still requires a leap of faith. Without additional protections, provenance records are vulnerable to accidental corruption, and even malicious...

    Provided By University of Michigan

  • White Papers // Jul 2009

    SPAN: A Unified Framework and Toolkit for Querying Heterogeneous Access Policies

    Incorrect policy configurations are a major cause of security failures in large-scale systems. Policy analyzers and testing tools can help with this, but often the tools are specific to one type of policy (e.g., firewalls). In contrast, the most insidious security problems often require understanding the interactions of policies across...

    Provided By University of Michigan