University of Pittsburgh

Displaying 1-31 of 31 results

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Detecting Route Attraction Attacks in Wireless Networks

    Selecting high performance routes in wireless networks requires the exchange of link quality information among nodes. Adversaries can manipulate this functionality by advertising fake qualities for links; by doing so, they can attract routes and subsequently launch pernicious attacks. The authors' measurements suggest that malicious route attraction can fatally impact...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Coping With Packet Replay Attacks in Wireless Networks

    In this paper, the authors consider a variant of packet replay attacks wherein, an attacker simply replays overheard frames as they are, or with minor manipulations in the packet header; they refer to this as the copycat attack. When routers forward such replayed packets, the levels of congestion and interference...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    PRISM: Zooming in Persistent RAM Storage Behavior

    It has been foreseen that some of the roles assumed by conventional rotating Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) will migrate to Solid-State Drives (SSDs) and emerging persistent RAM storages. New persistent RAM storages have critical advantages over HDDs and even SSDs in terms of performance and power. Persistent RAM technologies are...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Analyzing the Impact of Useless Write-Backs on the Endurance and Energy Consumption of PCM Main Memory

    Phase Change Memory (PCM) is an emerging technology that has been recently considered as a cost-effective and energy-efficient alternative to traditional DRAM main memory. Due to the high energy consumption of writes and limited number of write cycles, reducing the number of writes to PCM can result in considerable energy...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Improving the Connectivity of Heterogeneous Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    Heterogeneous conditions can occur in multi-hop wireless networks due to a variety of factors such as variations in transmission power and signal propagation environments. Directed links can occur when the environment and/or the nodes are heterogeneous. In this paper, the authors examine the network connectivity for heterogeneous multi-hop wireless networks...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Mitigating Jamming Attacks in Multi-Radio Wireless Networks

    The wireless jamming attack aims at preventing wireless nodes from accessing the shared wireless medium or from successful reception. Jammers keep the medium busy or cause high radio interference at the receiver. Hopping between radio channels, controlled at the software-level, has been proposed to mitigate jamming in wireless sensor networks...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Network Coding for Wireless Networks

    The main idea in network coding was introduced in 2000 by Ahlswede et al. With network coding, an intermediate node can not only forward its incoming packets but also encode them. It has been shown that the use of network coding can enhance the performance of wired networks significantly. Recent...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    CloudCache: Expanding and Shrinking Private Caches

    The number of cores in a single chip multiprocessor is expected to grow in coming years. Likewise, aggregate on-chip cache capacity is increasing fast and its effective utilization is becoming ever more important. Furthermore, available cores are expected to be underutilized due to the power wall and highly heterogeneous future...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Demand Code Paging for NAND Flash in MMU-Less Embedded Systems

    NAND flash is preferred for code and data storage in embedded devices due to its high density and low cost. However, NAND flash requires code to be copied to main memory for execution. In inexpensive devices without hardware memory management, full shadowing of an application binary is commonly used to...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    On Security and Reliability Using Cooperative Transmissions in Sensor Networks

    Recent work on cooperative communications has demonstrated benefits in terms of improving the reliability of links through diversity and/or increasing the reach of a link compared to a single transmitter transmitting to a single receiver (Single-Input Single-Output or SISO). In one form of cooperative transmissions, multiple nodes can act as...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Systematic Approach for Hydrological Model Couplings

    The hydrology lab at the University of Pittsburgh is currently carrying out several research tasks involving development of software that interacts with third party software, data sharing sources, automated remote online data gathering from field, and hydrological model coupling. The authors have found that it is of great importance to...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    StealthWorks: Emulating Memory Errors

    A study of Google's data center revealed that the incidence of main memory errors is surprisingly high. These errors can lead to application and system corruption, impacting reliability. The high error rate is an indication that new resiliency techniques will be vital in future memories. To develop such approaches, a...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Secure Cloud Computing in the Chemistry Laboratory: A Budget-Friendly Approach to Computational Work

    The design and implementation of a web-based, cloud computing system at a small undergraduate college will be discussed. This cloud uses freely available and low cost software to create a robust, user-friendly environment for high-level chemical structure modeling free of licensing limitations. The web-based implementation allows users to access the...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Intelligent Adaptation in Data Intensive Sensor Networks

    Highly distributed and resource-constrained networked environments can be studied and optimized as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). CAS is formed out of many elements whose behavior is emergent. That is, the behavior of the system cannot be simply inferred from the behavior of its elements. The collective behavior of the elements...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    On the Design of Network Control and Management Plane

    The authors provide a design of a control and management plane for data networks using the abstraction of 4D architecture, utilizing and extending 4D's concept of a logically centralized Decision plane that is responsible for managing network-wide resources. In this paper, a scalable protocol and a dynamically adaptable algorithm for...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Various Solutions to Missing Values in Repeated Sequences

    Data can have a repeated sequential structure with respect to one or more variables and it may be essential to present the sequence order in a data set. For example, when plotting incident cases for a specific disease conditions by age group and calendar year of occurrence. The data set...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Content-Aware Block Placement Algorithm for Reducing PRAM Storage Bit Writes

    Phase-change Random Access Memory (PRAM) is a promising storage-class memory technology that has the potential to replace flash memory and DRAM in many applications. Because individual cells in a PRAM can be written independently, only data cells whose current values differ from the corresponding bits in a write request need...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Nonparametric Method to Assess Treatment Effects for Unbalanced Designs Using SAS/IML

    Two-way randomized block designs with non-normally distributed outcomes may be frequently encountered by researchers. The nonparametric test developed by Friedman can be used to compare more than two treatments when the blocks are completely balanced. Skillings and Mack proposed a general method for comparing treatments for incomplete blocks when the...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    How Value Chains Grow in the IT Sector - R&D, Software Development, and IT Support Services and How This Affects Work

    This contribution examines companies' and public-sector organisations' external restructuring processes, with consideration of emerging or lengthening value chains and network relationships in the service sector. Focusing on three business functions - software development in the IT industry, R&D in the IT industry and IT services for public-sector organisations - the...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Using PCM in Next-generation Embedded Space Applications

    Dynamic RAM (DRAM) has been the best technology for main memory for over thirty years. In embedded space applications, radiation hardened DRAM is needed because gamma rays cause transient errors; such rad-hard memories are extremely expensive and power hungry, leading to lower life (or increased battery weight) for satellite and...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    A Framework for Defining Graduate Telecommunications Education

    Telecommunication programs in academic institutions across the country combine a diverse set of disciplines to provide a unified learning platform for the students and professionals in the large and highly dynamic telecom industry. The inter-disciplinary nature of the field provides a lot of flexibility to the programs in the creation...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Two-Phase Trace-Driven Simulation (TPTS): A Fast Multicore Processor Architecture Simulation Approach

    Simulation is indispensable in computer architecture research. Researchers increasingly resort to detailed architecture simulators to identify performance bottlenecks, analyze interactions among different hardware and software components, and measure the impact of new design ideas on the system performance. However, the slow speed of conventional execution-driven architecture simulators is a serious...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    StimulusCache: Boosting Performance of Chip Multiprocessors With Excess Cache

    Technology advances continuously shrink on-chip devices. Consequently, the number of cores in a single Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) is expected to grow in coming years. Unfortunately, with smaller device size and greater integration, chip yield degrades signicantly. Guaranteeing that all chip components function correctly leads to an unrealistically low yield. Chip...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Middleware Support for Multicast-Based Data Transmission: A Working Reality

    Multicasting is an effective method to guarantee scalability of data transfer. Multicast applications range from the support of Content Deliver Networks to the relief of Internet hot spots. Much research has focused on isolated data management issues that arise in a multicast environment, including the own work on caching, scheduling,...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Overcoming Failures: Fault-Tolerance and Logical Centralization in Clean-Slate Network Management

    The authors investigate the design of a clean-slate control and management plane for data networks using the abstraction of 4D architecture, utilizing and extending 4D's concept of logically centralized Decision plane that is responsible for managing network-wide resources. In this paper, a dynamically adaptable algorithm for assigning Data plane devices...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Achieving Technical and Business Benefits Through Processor Virtualization: Everybody Into the Pool!

    The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), an $8 billion global health enterprise, utilizes IBM Power Systems servers and AIX to operate many of its business critical databases and applications. It has taken advantage of IBM's latest offerings in both hardware and software, and especially virtualization. This includes I/O VirtualizatIOn...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Progressive Hashing for Packet Processing Using Set Associative Memory.

    As the Internet grows, both the number of rules in packet filtering databases and the number of prefixes in IP lookup tables inside the router are growing. The packet processing engine is a critical part of the Internet router as it is used to perform Packet Forwarding (PF) and Packet...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Admission Control Mechanisms for Continuous Queries in the Cloud

    Amazon, Google, and IBM now sell cloud computing services. This paper consider the setting of a for-profit business selling data stream monitoring/management services and the authors investigate auction-based mechanisms for admission control of continuous queries. When submitting a query, each user also submits a bid of how much she is...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Dynamic Optimization of Power and Performance for Virtualized Server Clusters

    An increasing number of large-scale server clusters are being deployed in data centers for supporting many different web-based application services in a seamless fashion. In this scenario, the rising energy costs for keeping up those server clusters are becoming an important concern. In this paper, the authors present an optimization...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    PhD Forum: A Clean-Slate Framework for Enabling Centralized Control and Management in Data Networks

    The research provides a framework for the design of clean-slate network control and management plane using the abstraction of 4D architecture. The authors utilize and extend 4D's concept of a logically centralized Decision plane that is responsible for managing network-wide resources, and present mechanisms for network operators to centrally plan,...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Cyclical Behavior Of Equity Turnover

    The authors measure the extent to which the cyclical behavior of the turnover of equity shares on the NYSE can be accounted for by a single source of trade embedded in a one-sector neoclassical growth economy with dynamically complete markets. The source of trade is heterogeneity in agents' financial wealth....

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Achieving Technical and Business Benefits Through Processor Virtualization: Everybody Into the Pool!

    The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), an $8 billion global health enterprise, utilizes IBM Power Systems servers and AIX to operate many of its business critical databases and applications. It has taken advantage of IBM's latest offerings in both hardware and software, and especially virtualization. This includes I/O VirtualizatIOn...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Secure Cloud Computing in the Chemistry Laboratory: A Budget-Friendly Approach to Computational Work

    The design and implementation of a web-based, cloud computing system at a small undergraduate college will be discussed. This cloud uses freely available and low cost software to create a robust, user-friendly environment for high-level chemical structure modeling free of licensing limitations. The web-based implementation allows users to access the...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    StealthWorks: Emulating Memory Errors

    A study of Google's data center revealed that the incidence of main memory errors is surprisingly high. These errors can lead to application and system corruption, impacting reliability. The high error rate is an indication that new resiliency techniques will be vital in future memories. To develop such approaches, a...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    StimulusCache: Boosting Performance of Chip Multiprocessors With Excess Cache

    Technology advances continuously shrink on-chip devices. Consequently, the number of cores in a single Chip Multiprocessor (CMP) is expected to grow in coming years. Unfortunately, with smaller device size and greater integration, chip yield degrades signicantly. Guaranteeing that all chip components function correctly leads to an unrealistically low yield. Chip...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    How Value Chains Grow in the IT Sector - R&D, Software Development, and IT Support Services and How This Affects Work

    This contribution examines companies' and public-sector organisations' external restructuring processes, with consideration of emerging or lengthening value chains and network relationships in the service sector. Focusing on three business functions - software development in the IT industry, R&D in the IT industry and IT services for public-sector organisations - the...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    The Cyclical Behavior Of Equity Turnover

    The authors measure the extent to which the cyclical behavior of the turnover of equity shares on the NYSE can be accounted for by a single source of trade embedded in a one-sector neoclassical growth economy with dynamically complete markets. The source of trade is heterogeneity in agents' financial wealth....

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Progressive Hashing for Packet Processing Using Set Associative Memory.

    As the Internet grows, both the number of rules in packet filtering databases and the number of prefixes in IP lookup tables inside the router are growing. The packet processing engine is a critical part of the Internet router as it is used to perform Packet Forwarding (PF) and Packet...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Two-Phase Trace-Driven Simulation (TPTS): A Fast Multicore Processor Architecture Simulation Approach

    Simulation is indispensable in computer architecture research. Researchers increasingly resort to detailed architecture simulators to identify performance bottlenecks, analyze interactions among different hardware and software components, and measure the impact of new design ideas on the system performance. However, the slow speed of conventional execution-driven architecture simulators is a serious...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Content-Aware Block Placement Algorithm for Reducing PRAM Storage Bit Writes

    Phase-change Random Access Memory (PRAM) is a promising storage-class memory technology that has the potential to replace flash memory and DRAM in many applications. Because individual cells in a PRAM can be written independently, only data cells whose current values differ from the corresponding bits in a write request need...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    CloudCache: Expanding and Shrinking Private Caches

    The number of cores in a single chip multiprocessor is expected to grow in coming years. Likewise, aggregate on-chip cache capacity is increasing fast and its effective utilization is becoming ever more important. Furthermore, available cores are expected to be underutilized due to the power wall and highly heterogeneous future...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    PRISM: Zooming in Persistent RAM Storage Behavior

    It has been foreseen that some of the roles assumed by conventional rotating Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) will migrate to Solid-State Drives (SSDs) and emerging persistent RAM storages. New persistent RAM storages have critical advantages over HDDs and even SSDs in terms of performance and power. Persistent RAM technologies are...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    A Framework for Defining Graduate Telecommunications Education

    Telecommunication programs in academic institutions across the country combine a diverse set of disciplines to provide a unified learning platform for the students and professionals in the large and highly dynamic telecom industry. The inter-disciplinary nature of the field provides a lot of flexibility to the programs in the creation...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    PhD Forum: A Clean-Slate Framework for Enabling Centralized Control and Management in Data Networks

    The research provides a framework for the design of clean-slate network control and management plane using the abstraction of 4D architecture. The authors utilize and extend 4D's concept of a logically centralized Decision plane that is responsible for managing network-wide resources, and present mechanisms for network operators to centrally plan,...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Overcoming Failures: Fault-Tolerance and Logical Centralization in Clean-Slate Network Management

    The authors investigate the design of a clean-slate control and management plane for data networks using the abstraction of 4D architecture, utilizing and extending 4D's concept of logically centralized Decision plane that is responsible for managing network-wide resources. In this paper, a dynamically adaptable algorithm for assigning Data plane devices...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    On the Design of Network Control and Management Plane

    The authors provide a design of a control and management plane for data networks using the abstraction of 4D architecture, utilizing and extending 4D's concept of a logically centralized Decision plane that is responsible for managing network-wide resources. In this paper, a scalable protocol and a dynamically adaptable algorithm for...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Analyzing the Impact of Useless Write-Backs on the Endurance and Energy Consumption of PCM Main Memory

    Phase Change Memory (PCM) is an emerging technology that has been recently considered as a cost-effective and energy-efficient alternative to traditional DRAM main memory. Due to the high energy consumption of writes and limited number of write cycles, reducing the number of writes to PCM can result in considerable energy...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Demand Code Paging for NAND Flash in MMU-Less Embedded Systems

    NAND flash is preferred for code and data storage in embedded devices due to its high density and low cost. However, NAND flash requires code to be copied to main memory for execution. In inexpensive devices without hardware memory management, full shadowing of an application binary is commonly used to...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Middleware Support for Multicast-Based Data Transmission: A Working Reality

    Multicasting is an effective method to guarantee scalability of data transfer. Multicast applications range from the support of Content Deliver Networks to the relief of Internet hot spots. Much research has focused on isolated data management issues that arise in a multicast environment, including the own work on caching, scheduling,...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Using PCM in Next-generation Embedded Space Applications

    Dynamic RAM (DRAM) has been the best technology for main memory for over thirty years. In embedded space applications, radiation hardened DRAM is needed because gamma rays cause transient errors; such rad-hard memories are extremely expensive and power hungry, leading to lower life (or increased battery weight) for satellite and...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Mitigating Jamming Attacks in Multi-Radio Wireless Networks

    The wireless jamming attack aims at preventing wireless nodes from accessing the shared wireless medium or from successful reception. Jammers keep the medium busy or cause high radio interference at the receiver. Hopping between radio channels, controlled at the software-level, has been proposed to mitigate jamming in wireless sensor networks...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Feb 2011

    Improving the Connectivity of Heterogeneous Multi-Hop Wireless Networks

    Heterogeneous conditions can occur in multi-hop wireless networks due to a variety of factors such as variations in transmission power and signal propagation environments. Directed links can occur when the environment and/or the nodes are heterogeneous. In this paper, the authors examine the network connectivity for heterogeneous multi-hop wireless networks...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    A Nonparametric Method to Assess Treatment Effects for Unbalanced Designs Using SAS/IML

    Two-way randomized block designs with non-normally distributed outcomes may be frequently encountered by researchers. The nonparametric test developed by Friedman can be used to compare more than two treatments when the blocks are completely balanced. Skillings and Mack proposed a general method for comparing treatments for incomplete blocks when the...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Various Solutions to Missing Values in Repeated Sequences

    Data can have a repeated sequential structure with respect to one or more variables and it may be essential to present the sequence order in a data set. For example, when plotting incident cases for a specific disease conditions by age group and calendar year of occurrence. The data set...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Oct 2009

    Admission Control Mechanisms for Continuous Queries in the Cloud

    Amazon, Google, and IBM now sell cloud computing services. This paper consider the setting of a for-profit business selling data stream monitoring/management services and the authors investigate auction-based mechanisms for admission control of continuous queries. When submitting a query, each user also submits a bid of how much she is...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Aug 2011

    Detecting Route Attraction Attacks in Wireless Networks

    Selecting high performance routes in wireless networks requires the exchange of link quality information among nodes. Adversaries can manipulate this functionality by advertising fake qualities for links; by doing so, they can attract routes and subsequently launch pernicious attacks. The authors' measurements suggest that malicious route attraction can fatally impact...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    A Systematic Approach for Hydrological Model Couplings

    The hydrology lab at the University of Pittsburgh is currently carrying out several research tasks involving development of software that interacts with third party software, data sharing sources, automated remote online data gathering from field, and hydrological model coupling. The authors have found that it is of great importance to...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2011

    Coping With Packet Replay Attacks in Wireless Networks

    In this paper, the authors consider a variant of packet replay attacks wherein, an attacker simply replays overheard frames as they are, or with minor manipulations in the packet header; they refer to this as the copycat attack. When routers forward such replayed packets, the levels of congestion and interference...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Intelligent Adaptation in Data Intensive Sensor Networks

    Highly distributed and resource-constrained networked environments can be studied and optimized as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). CAS is formed out of many elements whose behavior is emergent. That is, the behavior of the system cannot be simply inferred from the behavior of its elements. The collective behavior of the elements...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Network Coding for Wireless Networks

    The main idea in network coding was introduced in 2000 by Ahlswede et al. With network coding, an intermediate node can not only forward its incoming packets but also encode them. It has been shown that the use of network coding can enhance the performance of wired networks significantly. Recent...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Aug 2010

    On Security and Reliability Using Cooperative Transmissions in Sensor Networks

    Recent work on cooperative communications has demonstrated benefits in terms of improving the reliability of links through diversity and/or increasing the reach of a link compared to a single transmitter transmitting to a single receiver (Single-Input Single-Output or SISO). In one form of cooperative transmissions, multiple nodes can act as...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Dynamic Optimization of Power and Performance for Virtualized Server Clusters

    An increasing number of large-scale server clusters are being deployed in data centers for supporting many different web-based application services in a seamless fashion. In this scenario, the rising energy costs for keeping up those server clusters are becoming an important concern. In this paper, the authors present an optimization...

    Provided By University of Pittsburgh