University of Rochester

Displaying 41-70 of 70 results

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Entomo-Model: Understanding and Avoiding Performance Anomaly Manifestations

    Subtle implementation errors or mis-configurations in complex Internet services may lead to performance degradations without causing failures. These undiscovered performance anomalies afflict many of today's systems, causing violations of Service-Level Agreements (SLAs), unnecessary resource over provisioning, or both. In this paper, the authors re-inserted realistic anomaly causes into a multi-tier...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Cache-Related Preemption and Migration Delays: Empirical Approximation and Impact on Schedulability

    A job that is impeded by a preemption or migration incurs additional cache misses when it resumes execution due to a loss of cache affinity. While often regarded negligible in scheduling-theoretic work, such cache-related delays must be accounted for when comparing scheduling algorithms in real systems. Two empirical methods to...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Mobile Process Management Through Web Services

    Now-a-days, Process-Aware Information Systems (PAISs) are widely used for the management of \"Administrative\" processes characterized by clear and well-defined structures. Besides those scenarios, PAISs can be used also in mobile and pervasive scenarios, where process participants can be only equipped with smart devices, such as PDAs. This paper illustrates ROME4EU,...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2010

    An Evaluation of Per-Chip Non-uniform Frequency Scaling on Multicores

    Concurrently running applications on multiprocessors may desire different CPU frequency/voltage settings in order to achieve performance, power, or thermal objectives. Today's multi-cores typically require that all sibling cores on a single chip run at the same frequency/voltage level while different CPU chips can have non-uniform settings. This paper targets multicore-based...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Cross-layer Optimization in Video Sensor Networks

    Video Sensor Networks (VSN) (also referred to as multimedia sensor networks or visual sensor networks) is being made possible by the integration of low-power wireless networking technologies with inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones. Video sensor networks are self-organizing, intelligent wireless systems of embedded and resource-constrained devices deployed to retrieve, distributively...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    A Realistic Evaluation of Memory Hardware Errors and Software System Susceptibility

    Memory hardware reliability is an indispensable part of whole-system dependability. This paper presents the collection of realistic memory hardware error traces (including transient and non-transient errors) from production computer systems with more than 800GB memory for around nine months. Detailed information on the error addresses allows one to identify patterns...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Discussion Of Qian, Reinhart, And Rogoff's "On Graduation From Default, Inflation And Banking Crises: Ellusive Or Illusion"

    Qian et al. (2010) (henceforth QRR) have assembled an impressively rich data set on external default, banking, and monetary crises. This paper is part of an ambitious project on placing crises in the proper historical perspective (e.g., Reinhart and Rogoff, 2009). It is an extremely valuable research agenda, as much...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    ATMA: Advertisement-Based TDMA Protocol for Bursty Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Energy conservation is one of the primary goals of the majority of MAC protocols designed for wireless sensor networks. In Sensor-MAC (S-MAC), one of the first MAC protocols designed for sensor networks, nodes sleep and wake up periodically to save energy. MAC protocols such as Timeout-MAC (T-MAC) and ADVertisement-MAC (ADV-MAC)...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Information-Sharing Protocol Architectures for Sensor Networks: The State of the Art and a New Solution

    Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are very diverse. Reflecting this diversity, no single protocol architecture for WSNs dominates: Programmers often modify the legacy-architecture to fit their set of protocols in the stack. However, there exists desirable goals for a sensor network architecture: Modularity, flexibility and universality. At the same...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Modeling and Throughput Analysis for SMAC With a Finite Queue Capacity

    SMAC is a popular duty-cycled MAC protocol, designed for wireless sensor networks to save energy and prolong the network lifetime. However, existing work evaluates the performance of SMAC solely through simulations or field measurements. To the best of the knowledge, there are no analytical models for evaluating the performance of...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Mar 2010

    Accounting Integration And Comparability: Evidence From Relative Performance Evaluation Around IFRS Adoption

    For a sample of Continental European firms, changes were studied in the sensitivity of their CEO turnover to foreign peers' accounting performance around mandatory adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). It's found that a post-adoption increase in the use of Relative Performance Evaluation (RPE) based on foreign peers' accounting...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    Maximizing the Lifetime of Clusters With Slepian-Wolf Coding

    In this paper, the authors propose an iteration-free algorithm to find the optimal configuration, including transmit power and source coding rates, to maximize the lifetime of a cluster utilizing Slepian-Wolf source coding of data sent to a fusion center. Exact closed form solutions are derived when the fusion center is...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Duty Cycle Control for Low-Power-Listening MAC Protocols

    Energy efficiency is of the utmost importance in wireless sensor networks. The family of Low-Power-Listening MAC protocols was proposed to reduce one form of energy dissipation - idle listening, a radio state for which the energy consumption cannot be neglected. Low-Power-Listening MAC protocols are characterized by a duty cycle: A...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    ADV-MAC: Advertisement-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Several Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks with the objective of minimizing energy consumption. For example, Sensor-MAC (S-MAC) was proposed to reduce energy consumption by introducing a duty cycle. Under variable traffic load, the fixed duty cycle of S-MAC results in energy loss due...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    A Performance Evaluation of Scientific I/O Workloads on Flash-Based SSDs

    Flash-based Solid State Disks (SSDs) are an alternative form of storage device that promises to deliver higher performance than the traditional mechanically rotating hard drives. While SSDs have seen utilization in embedded, consumer, and server computer systems, there has been little understanding of its performance effects with scientific I/O workloads....

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    Schedule Adaptation of Low-Power-Listening Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Applications for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are becoming increasingly complex, and they require the network to maintain a satisfactory level of operation for extended periods of time. Consequently, sensor networks have to make the best possible use of their initial energy resources, specifically by constantly adapting their protocols to the...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    A Local Information Based Protocol for Networks Data Exchange with Application to Mobile Sensor Networks

    In this paper, the authors present a new protocol for multi hop data transmission between nodes in a mobile sensor network. The only requirement for the network is to be connected. The routing is handled locally on the basis of information contained in the data transmitted. Global (time dependent) routing...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Adaptive Process Management in Highly Dynamic and Pervasive Scenarios

    Process Management Systems (PMSs) are currently more and more used as a supporting tool for cooperative processes in pervasive and highly dynamic situations, such as emergency situations, pervasive healthcare or domotics/home automation. But in all such situations, designed processes can be easily invalidated since the execution environment may change continuously...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Hardware Execution Throttling for Multi-Core Resource Management

    Modern processors provide mechanisms (such as duty-cycle modulation and cache prefetcher adjustment) to control the execution speed or resource usage efficiency of an application. Although these mechanisms were originally designed for other purposes, the authors argue in this paper that they can be an effective tool to support fair use...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Configuration-Space Performance Anomaly Depiction

    Complex distributed systems (like those based on J2EE platforms) are designed to perform well for a variety of application workloads and configuration settings. In practice, however, the system performance may not meet the expectation at all execution conditions. This short paper de-scribes their research on depicting performance anomaly manifestations over...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Brain Drain: Are Mutual Funds Losing Their Best Minds?

    The author investigates how increased competition from hedge funds has affected the mutual fund industry. The author uses the lead manager's age along with the region of the US in which the mutual fund is based to identify the effect of hedge funds. The author finds evidence of increased turnover...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Towards Practical Page Coloring-Based Multi-Core Cache Management

    Modern multi-core processors present new resource management challenges due to the subtle interactions of simultaneously executing processes sharing on-chip resources (particularly the L2 cache). Recent research demonstrates that the operating system may use the page coloring mechanism to control cache partitioning, and consequently to achieve fair and efficient cache utilization....

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Minimizing Energy Consumption in IR-UWB Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Impulse Radio Ultra-WideBand (IR-UWB) communication has proven an important technique for supporting high-rate, short-range, low-power communication. These are necessary criteria for emerging sensor networks, which oftentimes have very short distance communication requirements, necessitate low power operation and may require high data rates (e.g., for supporting the transmission of images or...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Improving QoS in Multicasting Through Adaptive Redundancy

    In Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs), Quality of Service (QoS) of a multicast protocol is one of the most important performance metrics. Channel conditions and network topology frequently change, and in order to achieve a certain QoS, complex algorithms and protocols are needed. Often channel conditions are neglected during the design...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jan 2009

    Adaptation of TDMA Parameters Based on Network Conditions

    Soft clustering of the nodes combined with Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) channel access within a cluster has been shown to provide an energy-efficient solution for Mobile Ad-Hoc NETworks (MANET). Such channel access schemes use a parameter that is critical in determining network performance: the number of frames per superframe,...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Dec 2008

    RBMulticast: Receiver Based Multicast for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Multicast routing protocols typically rely on the a-priori creation of a multicast tree (or mesh), which requires the individual nodes to maintain state information. In sensor networks where traffic is bursty, with long periods of silence between the bursts of data, this multicast state maintenance adds a large amount of...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    A Better Choice for Sensor Sleeping

    Sensor sleeping is a widely-used and cost-effective technique to save energy in wireless sensor networks. Protocols at different stack levels can, either individually or simultaneously, make the sensor sleep so as to extend the application lifetime. To determine the best choice for sensor sleeping under different network conditions and application...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Nov 2008

    Financial Regulation And Securitization: Evidence From Subprime Loans

    The authors examine the consequences of existing regulations on the quality of mortgage loans originations in the originate to distribute (OTD) market. The information asymmetries in the OTD market can lead to moral hazard problems on the part of lenders. The authors find, using a plausibly exogenous source of variation...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Privacy-Aware Secure Monitoring

    Traffic monitoring is necessary for the operation, maintenance and control of communication networks. Traffic monitoring has also important implications on the user privacy. This paper discusses a novel approach to privacy-preserving traffic monitoring and the related research challenges. This study is based on the analysis of the technical implications and...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2002

    Artificial Intelligence In Games: A Look At The Smarts Behind Lionhead Studio's "Black And White" And Where It Can And Will Go In The Future

    With its latest release "Black and White", Lionhead Studios has set the new standard for artificial intelligence in games. Creatures in this game have an incredible ability to learn that is implemented through a variety of AI algorithms and techniques. There is much that could be added to the game...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Entomo-Model: Understanding and Avoiding Performance Anomaly Manifestations

    Subtle implementation errors or mis-configurations in complex Internet services may lead to performance degradations without causing failures. These undiscovered performance anomalies afflict many of today's systems, causing violations of Service-Level Agreements (SLAs), unnecessary resource over provisioning, or both. In this paper, the authors re-inserted realistic anomaly causes into a multi-tier...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Performance Modeling and System Management for Multi-Component Online Services

    Many dynamic-content online services are comprised of multiple interacting components and data partitions distributed across server clusters. Understanding the performance of these services is crucial for efficient system management. This paper presents a profile-driven performance model for cluster-based multi-component online services. The offline constructed application profiles characterize component resource needs...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    Discussion Of Qian, Reinhart, And Rogoff's "On Graduation From Default, Inflation And Banking Crises: Ellusive Or Illusion"

    Qian et al. (2010) (henceforth QRR) have assembled an impressively rich data set on external default, banking, and monetary crises. This paper is part of an ambitious project on placing crises in the proper historical perspective (e.g., Reinhart and Rogoff, 2009). It is an extremely valuable research agenda, as much...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Brain Drain: Are Mutual Funds Losing Their Best Minds?

    The author investigates how increased competition from hedge funds has affected the mutual fund industry. The author uses the lead manager's age along with the region of the US in which the mutual fund is based to identify the effect of hedge funds. The author finds evidence of increased turnover...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jul 2011

    Sleeping Multipath Routing: A Trade-Off Between Reliability and Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks

    In wireless sensor networks, multi-path routing is used to alleviate reliability degradation due to multi-hop transmissions over error-prone wireless channels. However, multi-path routing is not energy-efficient, as it requires all the nodes in the network to always be awake. To prolong the network lifetime while maintaining a certain reliability performance,...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    FIOS: A Fair, Efficient Flash I/O Scheduler

    Flash-based Solid-State Drives (SSDs) have the potential to eliminate the I/O bottlenecks in data-intensive applications. However, the large performance discrepancy between Flash reads and writes introduces challenges for fair resource usage. Further, existing fair queueing and quanta-based I/O schedulers poorly manage the I/O anticipation for Flash I/O fairness and efficiency....

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Power and Energy Containers for Multicore Servers

    Energy efficiency and power capping remain growing concerns in server systems. Online applications continue to evolve with new features and dynamic client-directed processing, resulting in varying power profiles. New computing platforms with multicore resource sharing and heterogeneity further obfuscate the system behaviors, presenting challenges for request/client-based energy accounting, identification and...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Apr 2010

    A Realistic Evaluation of Memory Hardware Errors and Software System Susceptibility

    Memory hardware reliability is an indispensable part of whole-system dependability. This paper presents the collection of realistic memory hardware error traces (including transient and non-transient errors) from production computer systems with more than 800GB memory for around nine months. Detailed information on the error addresses allows one to identify patterns...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2010

    An Evaluation of Per-Chip Non-uniform Frequency Scaling on Multicores

    Concurrently running applications on multiprocessors may desire different CPU frequency/voltage settings in order to achieve performance, power, or thermal objectives. Today's multi-cores typically require that all sibling cores on a single chip run at the same frequency/voltage level while different CPU chips can have non-uniform settings. This paper targets multicore-based...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Aug 2009

    A Performance Evaluation of Scientific I/O Workloads on Flash-Based SSDs

    Flash-based Solid State Disks (SSDs) are an alternative form of storage device that promises to deliver higher performance than the traditional mechanically rotating hard drives. While SSDs have seen utilization in embedded, consumer, and server computer systems, there has been little understanding of its performance effects with scientific I/O workloads....

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Apr 2009

    Hardware Execution Throttling for Multi-Core Resource Management

    Modern processors provide mechanisms (such as duty-cycle modulation and cache prefetcher adjustment) to control the execution speed or resource usage efficiency of an application. Although these mechanisms were originally designed for other purposes, the authors argue in this paper that they can be an effective tool to support fair use...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Towards Practical Page Coloring-Based Multi-Core Cache Management

    Modern multi-core processors present new resource management challenges due to the subtle interactions of simultaneously executing processes sharing on-chip resources (particularly the L2 cache). Recent research demonstrates that the operating system may use the page coloring mechanism to control cache partitioning, and consequently to achieve fair and efficient cache utilization....

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Feb 2009

    Configuration-Space Performance Anomaly Depiction

    Complex distributed systems (like those based on J2EE platforms) are designed to perform well for a variety of application workloads and configuration settings. In practice, however, the system performance may not meet the expectation at all execution conditions. This short paper de-scribes their research on depicting performance anomaly manifestations over...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jan 2012

    Random Walk Based Node Sampling in Self-Organizing Networks

    Random walk is a means of network node sampling that requires little index maintenance and can function on almost all connected network topologies. With careful guidance, node samples following a desired probability distribution can be generated with the only requirement that the sampling probabilities of each visited node and its...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Nov 2011

    Algorithmic Programming Language Identification

    Motivated by the amount of code that goes unidentified on the web, the authors introduce a practical method for algorithmically identifying the programming language of source code. Their work is based on supervised learning and intelligent statistical features. They also explored, but abandoned, a grammatical approach. In testing, their implementation...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Mar 2011

    Modeling and Performance Analysis for Duty-Cycled MAC Protocols With Applications to S-MAC and X-MAC

    Wireless sensor networks are often battery-powered, and hence extending the network lifetime is one of the primary concerns in the ubiquitous deployment of wireless sensor networks. One approach to efficiently utilize the limited energy supplies of the sensors is to have the Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol duty-cycle the sensors,...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2012

    BaNa: A Hybrid Approach for Noise Resilient Pitch Detection

    Pitch is one of the essential features in many speech related applications. Although numerous pitch detection algorithms have been developed, as shown in this paper, the detection ratio in noisy environments still needs improvement. In this paper, the authors present a hybrid noise resilient pitch detection algorithm named BaNa that...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Cross-layer Optimization in Video Sensor Networks

    Video Sensor Networks (VSN) (also referred to as multimedia sensor networks or visual sensor networks) is being made possible by the integration of low-power wireless networking technologies with inexpensive CMOS cameras and microphones. Video sensor networks are self-organizing, intelligent wireless systems of embedded and resource-constrained devices deployed to retrieve, distributively...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2011

    Personal Marks and Community Certificates: Detecting Clones in Mobile Wireless Networks of Smart-Phones

    The authors consider the problem of detecting clones in wireless mobile ad hoc networks. They assume that one of the devices of the network has been cloned. Everything, including certificates and secret keys. This can happen quite easily, because of a virus that immediately after sending all the content of...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2010

    Mobile Process Management Through Web Services

    Now-a-days, Process-Aware Information Systems (PAISs) are widely used for the management of \"Administrative\" processes characterized by clear and well-defined structures. Besides those scenarios, PAISs can be used also in mobile and pervasive scenarios, where process participants can be only equipped with smart devices, such as PDAs. This paper illustrates ROME4EU,...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Jun 2009

    Adaptive Process Management in Highly Dynamic and Pervasive Scenarios

    Process Management Systems (PMSs) are currently more and more used as a supporting tool for cooperative processes in pervasive and highly dynamic situations, such as emergency situations, pervasive healthcare or domotics/home automation. But in all such situations, designed processes can be easily invalidated since the execution environment may change continuously...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Nov 2013

    Automatic Generation of Failure Scenarios for SoC

    As process technology downscales, testing difficulties and susceptibility of circuits to random hardware faults arise. This trend, combined with increasing complexity of functions to be performed by Systems-on-Chip, poses crucial concerns when system engineers have to quantify the dependability achieved by their SoC design. In this paper, the authors propose...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Nov 2013

    Mobile Offloading in the Wild: Findings and Lessons Learned Through a Real-life Experiment with a New Cloud-aware System

    Mobile-cloud offloading mechanisms delegate heavy mobile computation to the cloud. In real life use, the energy trade-off of computing the task locally or sending the input data and the code of the task to the cloud is often negative, especially with popular communication intensive jobs like social networking, gaming, and...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2012

    Traffic-aware Design of a High Speed FPGA Network Intrusion Detection System

    Security of today's networks heavily relies on Network Intrusion Detection Systems (NIDSs). The ability to promptly update the supported rule sets and detect new emerging attacks makes Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) a very appealing technology. An important issue is how to scale FPGA-based NIDS implementations to ever faster network...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Sep 2008

    Privacy-Aware Secure Monitoring

    Traffic monitoring is necessary for the operation, maintenance and control of communication networks. Traffic monitoring has also important implications on the user privacy. This paper discusses a novel approach to privacy-preserving traffic monitoring and the related research challenges. This study is based on the analysis of the technical implications and...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Dec 2013

    Revision and Enhancement of Two Three Party Key Agreement Protocols Vulnerable to KCI Attacks

    The authors have shown that the three party key agreement protocols recently published in the literature by the researchers are not resilient to KCI attacks although their authors claim the contrary. Designing secure key agreement protocols is far from being a simple task, such protocols involve so many details and...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Dec 2013

    Proofs of Space: When Space is of the Essence

    Proofs of computational effort were devised to control denial of service attacks. Dwork and naor (CRYPTO '92), for example, proposed to use such proofs to discourage spam. The idea is to couple each email message with a proof of work that demonstrates the sender performed some computational task. A proof...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Dec 2013

    On the Security Of Wang's Provably Secure Identity-Based Key Agreement Protocol

    In a 2005 IACR report, Wang published an efficient IDentity-based key Agreement Protocol (IDAK) suitable for resource constrained devices. The author shows that the IDAK key agreement protocol is secure in the Bellare-Rogaway model with random oracles and also provides separate ad-hoc security proofs claiming that the IDAK protocol is...

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // Sep 2013

    Securitizing Area Insurance: A Risk Management Approach

    In this paper, the author examines the possibility of developing a risk management instrument by designing a financial security whose value is linked to the average revenue of a given area. This type of program is sufficiently general to be considered for any group of businesses that face production uncertainty....

    Provided By University of Rochester

  • White Papers // May 2014

    Correlating Power Consumption and Network Traffic for Improving Data Centers Resiliency

    The deployment of business critical applications and information infrastructures are moving to the cloud. This means they are hosted in large scale data centers with other business applications and infrastructures with less (or none) mission critical constraints. This mixed and complex environment makes very challenging the process of monitoring critical...

    Provided By University of Rochester