World Trade Organization

Displaying 1-23 of 23 results

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Coordination Failures In Immigration Policy

    The authors propose a theoretical framework for analyzing the problems associated to unilateral immigration policy in receiving countries and for evaluating the grounds for reform of international institutions governing immigration. The authors build a model with multiple destination countries and show that immigration policy in one country is influenced by...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    The Interface Between The Trade And Climate Change Regimes: Scoping The Issues

    As governments increasingly adopt policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, concern has grown on two fronts. First, carbon leakage can occur when mitigation policies are not the same across countries and producers seek to locate in jurisdictions where production costs are least affected by emission constraints. The risk of carbon...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Lessons From The First Two Decades Of Trade Policy Reviews In The Americas

    The Trade Policy Reviews conducted in the Western Hemisphere over 1989-2009 contain a wealth of information that puts in clear evidence the considerable improvements achieved in most American countries during the first two decades of operation of the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. Those reviews show that trade liberalization came hand-in-hand...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Timeliness And Contract Enforceability In Intermediate Goods Trade

    This paper shows that the institutional environment and the ability to export on time are sources of comparative advantage as important as factors of production. In particular, the ability to export on time is crucial to explain comparative advantage in intermediate goods. These findings underscore the importance of investing in...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Do Trade And Investment Agreements Lead To More FDI? Accounting For Key Provisions Inside The Black Box

    The previous literature provides a highly ambiguous picture on the impact of trade and investment agreements on FDI. Most empirical studies ignore the actual content of BITs and RTAs, treating them as "Black boxes", despite the diversity of investment provisions constituting the essence of these agreements. The author overcomes this...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalization And Trade Flows: What You See Is Not What You Get!

    The trade collapse that followed the recent financial crisis has led to a renewed interest on the measurement issues affecting international merchandise trade statistics in the new globalized economy. The international fragmentation of industrial production blurs the concept of country of origin and calls for the production of new statistics...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Endowments, Power, And Democracy: Political Economy Of Multilateral Commitments On Trade In Services

    In spite of their growing importance in international trade as well as in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations, services have only attracted limited attention from researchers interested in determinants of trade policies and trade cooperation. This paper seeks to account for countries' varying levels of market access commitments under the...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // May 2010

    More Stringent BITs, Less Ambiguous Effects On FDI? Not A Bit!

    The authors focus on investor-state dispute settlement provisions contained in various, though far from all, bilateral investment treaties as a possible determinant of BIT-related effects on bilateral FDI flows. This estimation results prove to be sensitive to the specification of these provisions as well as the inclusion of transition countries...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    International Regulation And Treatment Of Trade Finance: What Are The Issues?

    The paper discusses a number of issues related to the treatment of trade credit internationally, a priori (treatment by banking regulators) and a posteriori (treatment by debtors and creditors in the case of default), which are currently of interest to the trade finance community, in particular the traditional providers of...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    International Supply Chains And Trade Elasticity In Times Of Global Crisis

    The paper investigates the role of global supply chains in explaining the trade collapse of 2008-2009 and the long-term variations observed in trade elasticity. Building on the empirical results obtained from a subset of input-output matrices and the exploratory analysis of a large and diversified sample of countries, a formal...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    What Constrains Africa's Exports?

    The authors examine the effects of transit, documentation, and ports and customs delays on Africa's exports. They find that transit delays have the most economically and statically significant effect on exports. A one day reduction in inland travel times leads to a 7 percent increase in exports. Put another way,...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Trade In Mineral Resources

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. There is not a great deal written on this topic, and so this review is necessarily broad rather than deep. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    International Rules For Trade In Natural Resources

    This paper investigates the scope for international rules to address market failures in trade in natural resources and the associated international transactions of prospecting and investment in resource exploitation. The authors argue that several market failures are likely to have substantial costs. However, due to the distinctive features of natural...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Trade And Deforestation: A literature review

    Forest plays a significant role in the overall balance of carbon in the atmosphere mitigating or exacerbating the effects of global warming. Forest carbon sequestration can potentially reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The US Environmental Protection Agency reported that land-use-land-change and forest activities resulted in a...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Trade And Fisheries: Key Issues For The World Trade Organization

    Fisheries are common-pool resources, and many of world's fisheries are overexploited. At the same time, capture fisheries and aquaculture operations can impinge on public goods provided by marine ecosystems such as marine biodiversity and unique habitat. The common-pool and public goods dimensions of the marine environment justify regulation, but the...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Oil Price Volatility: Origins And Effects

    In recent years, people's understanding of the nature of energy price shocks and their effects on the economy has evolved dramatically. Only a few years ago, the prevailing view in the literature was that at least the major crude oil prices increases were exogenous with respect to the OECD economies...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Trade In Healthcare And Health Insurance Services: The GATS As A Supporting Actor (?)

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is broader in policy coverage than conventional trade agreements for goods and, at the same time, offers governments more flexibility, in various dimensions, to tailor their obligations to sector- or country-specific needs. An overview of existing commitments on healthcare and health insurance...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Restoring Trade Finance During A Period Of Financial Crisis: Stock-Taking Of Recent Initiatives

    The paper discusses the efforts deployed in 2008 and 2009 by various players, Governments, multilateral financial institutions, regional development banks, export credit agencies, to mobilize sufficient flows of trade finance to off-set some of the "Pull-back" by commercial institutions in the period of acute crisis that has characterized the financial...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Market Shares In The Post-Uruguay Round Era: A Closer Look Using Shift-Share Analysis

    Shift-Share Analysis aims to break down total change of economic indicators into various components to identify underlying sources of growth or decline. A key feature is that the unit of analysis (e.g. a city, a region or a country) exists within a broader frame of reference that strongly influences it...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Mapping The Tariff Waters

    Tariff water - the difference between bound and applied duties - provides relevant information on domestic trade policy and WTO trade negotiations. This paper examines the general and sectoral tariff structure of 120 economies, using exploratory data analysis. Governments negotiate at the WTO the bound tariffs levels, i.e. the maximum...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Value Of Domestic Subsidy Rules In Trade Agreements

    This paper investigates the efficient design of rules on domestic subsidies in a trade agreement. A clear trade-off emerges from the economic literature. Weak rules may lead Member governments to inefficiently use domestic subsidies for redistributive purposes or to lower market access granted to trading partners once tariffs are bound....

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Economics Of Trade Agreements In The Linear Cournot Delocation Model

    Existing theories of trade agreements suggest that GATT/WTO efforts to reign in export subsidies represent an inefficient victory for exporting governments that comes at the expense of importing governments. Building from the Cournot delocation model first introduced by Venables (1985), the authors demonstrate that it is possible to develop a...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Trade Skirmishes And Safeguards: A Theory Of The WTO Dispute Settlement Process

    The author proposes a framework within which to interpret and evaluate the major reforms introduced to the GATT system in its transition to the WTO. In particular, the author examines the WTO Agreement on Safeguards that has replaced the GATT escape clause (Article XIX), and the Dispute Settlement Process (DSP)...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Trade In Mineral Resources

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. There is not a great deal written on this topic, and so this review is necessarily broad rather than deep. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Restoring Trade Finance During A Period Of Financial Crisis: Stock-Taking Of Recent Initiatives

    The paper discusses the efforts deployed in 2008 and 2009 by various players, Governments, multilateral financial institutions, regional development banks, export credit agencies, to mobilize sufficient flows of trade finance to off-set some of the "Pull-back" by commercial institutions in the period of acute crisis that has characterized the financial...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Trade In Healthcare And Health Insurance Services: The GATS As A Supporting Actor (?)

    The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is broader in policy coverage than conventional trade agreements for goods and, at the same time, offers governments more flexibility, in various dimensions, to tailor their obligations to sector- or country-specific needs. An overview of existing commitments on healthcare and health insurance...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Market Shares In The Post-Uruguay Round Era: A Closer Look Using Shift-Share Analysis

    Shift-Share Analysis aims to break down total change of economic indicators into various components to identify underlying sources of growth or decline. A key feature is that the unit of analysis (e.g. a city, a region or a country) exists within a broader frame of reference that strongly influences it...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2009

    Mapping The Tariff Waters

    Tariff water - the difference between bound and applied duties - provides relevant information on domestic trade policy and WTO trade negotiations. This paper examines the general and sectoral tariff structure of 120 economies, using exploratory data analysis. Governments negotiate at the WTO the bound tariffs levels, i.e. the maximum...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Value Of Domestic Subsidy Rules In Trade Agreements

    This paper investigates the efficient design of rules on domestic subsidies in a trade agreement. A clear trade-off emerges from the economic literature. Weak rules may lead Member governments to inefficiently use domestic subsidies for redistributive purposes or to lower market access granted to trading partners once tariffs are bound....

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Nov 2009

    The Economics Of Trade Agreements In The Linear Cournot Delocation Model

    Existing theories of trade agreements suggest that GATT/WTO efforts to reign in export subsidies represent an inefficient victory for exporting governments that comes at the expense of importing governments. Building from the Cournot delocation model first introduced by Venables (1985), the authors demonstrate that it is possible to develop a...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Sep 2009

    Trade Skirmishes And Safeguards: A Theory Of The WTO Dispute Settlement Process

    The author proposes a framework within which to interpret and evaluate the major reforms introduced to the GATT system in its transition to the WTO. In particular, the author examines the WTO Agreement on Safeguards that has replaced the GATT escape clause (Article XIX), and the Dispute Settlement Process (DSP)...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    Coordination Failures In Immigration Policy

    The authors propose a theoretical framework for analyzing the problems associated to unilateral immigration policy in receiving countries and for evaluating the grounds for reform of international institutions governing immigration. The authors build a model with multiple destination countries and show that immigration policy in one country is influenced by...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2011

    The Interface Between The Trade And Climate Change Regimes: Scoping The Issues

    As governments increasingly adopt policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, concern has grown on two fronts. First, carbon leakage can occur when mitigation policies are not the same across countries and producers seek to locate in jurisdictions where production costs are least affected by emission constraints. The risk of carbon...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Dec 2010

    Lessons From The First Two Decades Of Trade Policy Reviews In The Americas

    The Trade Policy Reviews conducted in the Western Hemisphere over 1989-2009 contain a wealth of information that puts in clear evidence the considerable improvements achieved in most American countries during the first two decades of operation of the Trade Policy Review Mechanism. Those reviews show that trade liberalization came hand-in-hand...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Nov 2010

    Timeliness And Contract Enforceability In Intermediate Goods Trade

    This paper shows that the institutional environment and the ability to export on time are sources of comparative advantage as important as factors of production. In particular, the ability to export on time is crucial to explain comparative advantage in intermediate goods. These findings underscore the importance of investing in...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Sep 2010

    Do Trade And Investment Agreements Lead To More FDI? Accounting For Key Provisions Inside The Black Box

    The previous literature provides a highly ambiguous picture on the impact of trade and investment agreements on FDI. Most empirical studies ignore the actual content of BITs and RTAs, treating them as "Black boxes", despite the diversity of investment provisions constituting the essence of these agreements. The author overcomes this...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Globalization And Trade Flows: What You See Is Not What You Get!

    The trade collapse that followed the recent financial crisis has led to a renewed interest on the measurement issues affecting international merchandise trade statistics in the new globalized economy. The international fragmentation of industrial production blurs the concept of country of origin and calls for the production of new statistics...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jun 2010

    Endowments, Power, And Democracy: Political Economy Of Multilateral Commitments On Trade In Services

    In spite of their growing importance in international trade as well as in bilateral and multilateral trade negotiations, services have only attracted limited attention from researchers interested in determinants of trade policies and trade cooperation. This paper seeks to account for countries' varying levels of market access commitments under the...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // May 2010

    More Stringent BITs, Less Ambiguous Effects On FDI? Not A Bit!

    The authors focus on investor-state dispute settlement provisions contained in various, though far from all, bilateral investment treaties as a possible determinant of BIT-related effects on bilateral FDI flows. This estimation results prove to be sensitive to the specification of these provisions as well as the inclusion of transition countries...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    International Regulation And Treatment Of Trade Finance: What Are The Issues?

    The paper discusses a number of issues related to the treatment of trade credit internationally, a priori (treatment by banking regulators) and a posteriori (treatment by debtors and creditors in the case of default), which are currently of interest to the trade finance community, in particular the traditional providers of...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    International Supply Chains And Trade Elasticity In Times Of Global Crisis

    The paper investigates the role of global supply chains in explaining the trade collapse of 2008-2009 and the long-term variations observed in trade elasticity. Building on the empirical results obtained from a subset of input-output matrices and the exploratory analysis of a large and diversified sample of countries, a formal...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Feb 2010

    What Constrains Africa's Exports?

    The authors examine the effects of transit, documentation, and ports and customs delays on Africa's exports. They find that transit delays have the most economically and statically significant effect on exports. A one day reduction in inland travel times leads to a 7 percent increase in exports. Put another way,...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    International Rules For Trade In Natural Resources

    This paper investigates the scope for international rules to address market failures in trade in natural resources and the associated international transactions of prospecting and investment in resource exploitation. The authors argue that several market failures are likely to have substantial costs. However, due to the distinctive features of natural...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Trade And Deforestation: A literature review

    Forest plays a significant role in the overall balance of carbon in the atmosphere mitigating or exacerbating the effects of global warming. Forest carbon sequestration can potentially reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The US Environmental Protection Agency reported that land-use-land-change and forest activities resulted in a...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Trade And Fisheries: Key Issues For The World Trade Organization

    Fisheries are common-pool resources, and many of world's fisheries are overexploited. At the same time, capture fisheries and aquaculture operations can impinge on public goods provided by marine ecosystems such as marine biodiversity and unique habitat. The common-pool and public goods dimensions of the marine environment justify regulation, but the...

    Provided By World Trade Organization

  • White Papers // Jan 2010

    Oil Price Volatility: Origins And Effects

    In recent years, people's understanding of the nature of energy price shocks and their effects on the economy has evolved dramatically. Only a few years ago, the prevailing view in the literature was that at least the major crude oil prices increases were exogenous with respect to the OECD economies...

    Provided By World Trade Organization