130 nm CMOS Mixer and VCO for 2.4 GHz Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Networks
The increasing demand for low-power wireless transceivers operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM (Industry, Scientific, Medical) band has prompted an extensive research in this area. In such scenario CMOS technology is very appealing for low-cost, low-power solutions targeted to low-rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) such as ZigBee. Among all the reported receiver architectures, direct conversion architecture, is particularly appealing for monolithic implementation due to its simplicity. Regardless its simplicity, a direct conversion receiver requires a careful design to counterbalance the effects of DC offsets and flicker noise at low frequencies.